Fusarium verticillioides abscess of the nasal septum in an immunosuppressed child: case report and identification of the morphologically atypical fungal strain.
ABSTRACT: Morphologically atypical Fusarium verticillioides causing a nasal abscess in a severely immunosuppressed child was successfully treated with repeated surgical intervention and liposomal amphotericin B, despite amphotericin B resistance in vitro. Definitive identification was achieved by sequencing the translation elongation factor alpha gene after ribosomal sequencing proved inadequate.
Project description:Fusarium species are saprophytic molds which cause disseminated or localized infections in humans. Disseminated Fusarium infection can cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of disseminated fusariosis caused by Fusarium verticillioides in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and successfully treated using both liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole.
Project description:Irpex lacteus, a wood-decaying basidiomycete, was isolated from a pulmonary abscess of an immunosuppressed child. This medical strain was compared morphologically and by sequencing of the ribosomal intergenic spacers with specimens from both culture collections and herbarium desiccated material. The patient was treated successfully with amphotericin B.
Project description:A 70-year-old Japanese man undergoing remission induction therapy for acute monocytic leukemia (AML-M5b) developed fever and headache, and was started on antibiotics and liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB). There was no improvement, and computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute rhinosinusitis and brain abscess. Successful endoscopic endonasal surgery was performed at this point, providing drainage for the rhinosinusitis and abscess. Histopathological findings showed the mucormycosis.
Project description:Mycoplasma hominis most frequently causes diseases of the genitourinary tract. Extragenital infections are uncommon, with almost all occurring in immunosuppressed persons or those predisposed due to trauma or surgery. We present the case of a previously well man who developed an M. hominis-associated parapharyngeal abscess following acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Project description:Among the 194 Fusarium verticillioides isolates screened from 127 cereal samples, 176 were fumonisin producers and others were non-producers. Representative nine Fusarium verticillioides strains along with one reference standard strain MTCC156 were selected to study their morphological, pathological and mycotoxicological variations by conventional and molecular approaches. Fusarium verticillioides strains FVM86, FVM146, FV200 and FVS3 showed significant pathogenicity and also in pigmentation production but varied in fumonisin production. Fusarium verticillioides strain FVP19 recorded variations in all the assays. Fusarium verticillioides strain FVM42 showed drastic phenotypic variation and it also produced fumonisin. Genetic variation among the strains was independent of geographic area of origin but depended on their ability to produce fumonisin. The strains were independent in their cultural characteristics, pigmentation production, pathogenicity assays, fumonisin production and in their genetic variability without having any correlation.
Project description:Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins that contaminate maize and cause leukoencephalomalacia in equine, pulmonary edema in swine, and promote cancer in mice. Fumonisin biosynthesis in Fusarium verticillioides is repressed by nitrogen and alkaline pH. We cloned a PACC-like gene (PAC1) from F. verticillioides. PACC genes encode the major transcriptional regulators of several pH-responsive pathways in other filamentous fungi. In Northern blot analyses, a PAC1 probe hybridized to a 2.2-kb transcript present in F. verticillioides grown at alkaline pH. A mutant of F. verticillioides with a disrupted PAC1 gene had severely impaired growth at alkaline pH. The mutant produced more fumonisin than the wild type when grown on maize kernels and in a synthetic medium buffered at an acidic pH, 4.5. The mutant, but not the wild type, also produced fumonisin B(1) when mycelia were resuspended in medium buffered at an alkaline pH, 8.4. Transcription of FUM1, a gene involved in fumonisin biosynthesis, was correlated with fumonisin production. We conclude that PAC1 is required for growth at alkaline pH and that Pac1 may have a role as a repressor of fumonisin biosynthesis under alkaline conditions.
Project description:Velvet-domain-containing proteins are broadly distributed within the fungal kingdom. In the corn pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, previous studies showed that the velvet protein F. verticillioides VE1 (FvVE1) is critical for morphological development, colony hydrophobicity, toxin production, and pathogenicity. In this study, tandem affinity purification of FvVE1 revealed that FvVE1 can form a complex with the velvet proteins F. verticillioides VelB (FvVelB) and FvVelC. Phenotypic characterization of gene knockout mutants showed that, as in the case of FvVE1, FvVelB regulated conidial size, hyphal hydrophobicity, fumonisin production, and oxidant resistance, while FvVelC was dispensable for these biological processes. Comparative transcriptional analysis of eight genes involved in the ROS (reactive oxygen species) removal system revealed that both FvVE1 and FvVelB positively regulated the transcription of a catalase-encoding gene, F. verticillioides CAT2 (FvCAT2). Deletion of FvCAT2 resulted in reduced oxidant resistance, providing further explanation of the regulation of oxidant resistance by velvet proteins in the fungal kingdom.
Project description:Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs) has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.). F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l-1 resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides.
Project description:Maize (Zea mays L.) is a staple crop providing food security to millions of people in sub Saharan Africa. Fusarium verticillioides, an important fungal pathogen, infects maize causing 'Fusarium Ear Rot' disease, which decreases maize kernel yield and the quality of the crop harvested. Currently, no African maize line is completely resistant to infection by F. verticillioides. This study investigated an African maize line, Zea mays CML144, infected with F. verticillioides. Analysis of morphological characteristics showed significant differences between mock-infected and infected plants. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was conducted on plants 14 days post-inoculation to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in F. verticillioides infection. Analysis of RNA-seq data revealed DEGs that were both significantly up- and down-regulated in the infected samples compared to the mock-infected control. The maize TPS1 and cytochrome P450 genes were up-regulated, suggesting that kauralexins were involved in the CML144 defense response. This was substantiated by kauralexin analyses, which showed that kauralexins, belonging to class A and B, accumulated in infected maize tissue. Gene ontology terms relating to response to stimulus, chemical stimulus and carbohydrate metabolic processes were enriched, and the genes belonging to these GO-terms were down-regulated. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on selected DEGs and measurement of phytoalexin accumulation validated the RNA-seq data and GO-analysis results. A comparison of DEGs from this study to DEGs found in F. verticillioides (ITEM 1744) infected susceptible (CO354) and resistant (CO441) maize genotypes in a previous study, matched 18 DEGs with 17 up-regulated and one down-regulated, respectively. This is the first transcriptomic study on the African maize line, CML144, in response to F. verticillioides infection.
Project description:F. verticillioides cultured on dissected maize tissues. Keywords: Differential gene expression Overall design: Wild type F. verticillioides strain 7600 cultured for four days on different maize tissues.