Impact of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc on glucose catabolism in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: Even though transcriptional regulation plays a key role in establishing the metabolic network, the extent to which it actually controls the in vivo distribution of metabolic fluxes through different pathways is essentially unknown. Based on metabolism-wide quantification of intracellular fluxes, we systematically elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc for aerobic glucose catabolism in batch cultures of Escherichia coli. Knockouts of ArcB, Cra, Fnr, and Mlc were phenotypically silent, while deletion of the catabolite repression regulators Crp and Cya resulted in a pronounced slow-growth phenotype but had only a nonspecific effect on the actual flux distribution. Knockout of ArcA-dependent redox regulation, however, increased the aerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity by over 60%. Like aerobic conditions, anaerobic derepression of TCA cycle enzymes in an ArcA mutant significantly increased the in vivo TCA flux when nitrate was present as an electron acceptor. The in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that ArcA-dependent transcriptional regulation directly or indirectly controls TCA cycle flux in both aerobic and anaerobic glucose batch cultures of E. coli. This control goes well beyond the previously known ArcA-dependent regulation of the TCA cycle during microaerobiosis.
Project description:Although a whole arsenal of mechanisms are potentially involved in metabolic regulation, it is largely uncertain when, under which conditions, and to which extent a particular mechanism actually controls network fluxes and thus cellular physiology. Based on (13)C flux analysis of Escherichia coli mutants, we elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, CreB, CreC, Crp, Cya, Fnr, Hns, Mlc, OmpR, and UspA on aerobic glucose catabolism in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a growth rate of 0.1 h(-1). The by far most relevant control mechanism was cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent catabolite repression as the inducer of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-glyoxylate cycle and thus low tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes. While all other mutants and the reference E. coli strain exhibited high glyoxylate shunt and PEP carboxykinase fluxes, and thus high PEP-glyoxylate cycle flux, this cycle was essentially abolished in both the Crp and Cya mutants, which lack the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein complex. Most other mutations were phenotypically silent, and only the Cra and Hns mutants exhibited slightly altered flux distributions through PEP carboxykinase and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. The Cra effect on PEP carboxykinase was probably the consequence of a specific control mechanism, while the Hns effect appears to be unspecific. For central metabolism, the available data thus suggest that a single transcriptional regulation process exerts the dominant control under a given condition and this control is highly specific for a single pathway or cycle within the network.
Project description:The constitutive activation of the anoxic redox control transcriptional regulator (ArcA) in Escherichia coli during aerobic growth, with the consequent production of a strain that exhibits anaerobic physiology even in the presence of air, is reported in this work. Removal of three terminal cytochrome oxidase genes (cydAB, cyoABCD, and cbdAB) and a quinol monooxygenase gene (ygiN) from the E. coli K-12 MG1655 genome resulted in the activation of ArcA aerobically. These mutations resulted in reduction of the oxygen uptake rate by nearly 98% and production of d-lactate as a sole by-product under oxic and anoxic conditions. The knockout strain exhibited nearly identical physiological behaviors under both conditions, suggesting that the mutations resulted in significant metabolic and regulatory perturbations. In order to fully understand the physiology of this mutant and to identify underlying metabolic and regulatory reasons that prevent the transition from an aerobic to an anaerobic phenotype, we utilized whole-genome transcriptome analysis, (13)C tracing experiments, and physiological characterization. Our analysis showed that the deletions resulted in the activation of anaerobic respiration under oxic conditions and a consequential shift in the content of the quinone pool from ubiquinones to menaquinones. An increase in menaquinone concentration resulted in the activation of ArcA. The activation of the ArcB/ArcA regulatory system led to a major shift in the metabolic flux distribution through the central metabolism of the mutant strain. Flux analysis indicated that the mutant strain had undetectable fluxes around the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and elevated flux through glycolysis and anaplerotic input to oxaloacetate. Flux and transcriptomics data were highly correlated and showed similar patterns.
Project description:Microbial arsenate respiration can enhance arsenic release from arsenic-bearing minerals--a process that can cause arsenic contamination of water. In Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, the arsenate respiration genes (arrAB) are induced under anaerobic conditions with arsenate and arsenite. Here we report how genes that encode anaerobic regulator (arcA and etrA [fnr homolog]) and carbon catabolite repression (crp and cya) proteins affect arsenate respiration in ANA-3. Transcription of arcA, etrA, and crp in ANA-3 was similar in cells grown on arsenate and cells grown under aerobic conditions. ANA-3 strains lacking arcA and etrA showed minor to moderate growth defects, respectively, with arsenate. However, crp was essential for growth on arsenate. In contrast to the wild-type strain, arrA was not induced in the crp mutant in cultures shifted from aerobic to anaerobic conditions containing arsenate. This indicated that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cyclic AMP receptor (CRP) activates arr operon transcription. Computation analysis for genome-wide CRP binding motifs identified a putative binding motif within the arr promoter region. This was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with cAMP-CRP and several DNA probes. Lastly, four putative adenylate cyclase (cya) genes were identified in the genome. One particular cya-like gene was differentially expressed under aerobic versus arsenate respiration conditions. Moreover, a double mutant lacking two of the cya-like genes could not grow with arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor; exogenous cAMP could complement growth of the double cya mutant. It is concluded that the components of the carbon catabolite repression system are essential to regulating arsenate respiratory reduction in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3.
Project description:BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the cellular responses emanating from environmental perturbations to redesign the networks for practical applications. In particular, the carbon (C) metabolism, nitrogen (N) assimilation, and energy generation are by far important, where those are interconnected and integrated to maintain cellular integrity. In our previous study, we investigated the effect of C/N ratio on the metabolic regulation of gdhA, glnL, glt B,D mutants as well as wild type Escherichia coli (Kumar and Shimizu, MCF, 1-17, 9:8,2010), where it was shown that the transcript levels of cyoA and cydB which encode the terminal oxidases, fnr and fur which encode global regulators were significantly up-regulated under N-limited condition as compared to C-limited condition. In the present study, therefore, the effects of such single-gene knockout on the metabolic regulation were investigated to clarify the roles of those genes in the aerobic continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h(-1). RESULTS: The specific glucose consumption rates and the specific CO2 production rates of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur mutants were all increased as compared to the wild type under both C-limited and N-limited conditions. The former phenomenon was consistent with the up-regulations of the transcript levels of ptsG and ptsH, which are consistent with down-regulations of crp and mlc genes. Moreover, the increase in the specific glucose consumption rate was also caused by up-regulations of the transcript levels of pfkA, pykF and possibly zwf, where those are consistent with the down regulations of cra, crp and mlc genes. Moreover, the transcript levels of rpoN together with glnK, glnB, glnE were up-regulated, and thus the transcript levels of glnA,L,G, and gltB,D as well as nac were up-regulated, while gdhA was down-regulated. This implies the interconnection between cAMP-Crp and PII-Ntr systems. Moreover, cyoA, cydB, fnr and fur gene deletions up-regulated the transcript levels of respiration (nuoA, ndh, cyoA, cydB, and atpA) and the oxidative stress related genes such as soxR, S and sodA, where this was further enhanced under N-limitation. In the cases of cyoA and cydB mutants, arcA, fnr, fur, cydB (for cyoA mutant), and cyoA (for cydB mutant) genes were up-regulated, which may be due to incomplete oxidation of quinol. It was also shown that fur gene transcript level was up-regulated in accordance with the activation of respiratory chain genes. It was shown that the deletion of fur gene activated the enterobactin pathway. CONCLUSION: The present result demonstrated how the fermentation characteristics could be explained by the transcript levels of metabolic pathway genes as well as global regulators in relation to the knockout of such single genes as cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur, and clarified the complex gene network regulation in relation to glycolysis, TCA cycle, respiration, and N-regulated pathways. The present result is quite important in understanding the metabolic regulation for metabolic engineering. Moreover, the present result may be useful in improving the specific glucose consumption rate and activation of the TCA cycle by modulating the respiratory chain genes and the related global regulators. The result obtained under N-limited condition may be useful for the heterologous protein production under N-limitation.
Project description:The alternative sigma factor RpoS responds to multiple stresses and activates a large number of genes that allow bacteria to adapt to changing environments. The accumulation of RpoS is regulated at multiple levels, including the regulation of its translation by small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). A library of plasmids expressing each of 26 Escherichia coli sRNAs that bind Hfq was created to globally and rapidly analyse regulation of an rpoS-lacZ translational fusion. The approach can be easily applied to any gene of interest. When overexpressed, four sRNAs, including OxyS, previously shown to repress rpoS, were observed to repress the expression of the rpoS-lacZ fusion. Along with DsrA and RprA, two previously defined activators of rpoS translation, a third new sRNA activator, ArcZ, was identified. The expression of arcZ is repressed by the aerobic/anaerobic-sensing ArcA-ArcB two-component system under anaerobic conditions and adds translational regulation to the ArcA-ArcB regulon. ArcZ directly represses, and is repressed by, arcB transcription, providing a negative feedback loop that may affect functioning of the ArcA-ArcB regulon.
Project description:ArcBA is a two-component regulatory system of Escherichia coli involved in sensing oxygen availability and the concomitant transcriptional regulation of oxidative and fermentative catabolism. Based on in vitro data, it has been postulated that the redox state of the ubiquinone pool is the determinant for ArcB kinase activity. Here we report on the in vivo regulation of ArcB activation, as determined using a lacZ reporter specifically responsive to phosphorylated ArcA. Our results indicate that upon deletion of a ubiquinone biosynthetic enzyme, regulation of ArcB in the anaerobic-aerobic transition is not affected. In contrast, interference with menaquinone biosynthesis leads to inactivation of ArcB during anaerobic growth; this phenotype is fully rescued by addition of a menaquinone precursor. This clearly demonstrates that the menaquinones play a major role in ArcB activation. ArcB shows a complex pattern of regulation when E. coli is titrated through the entire aerobiosis range; ArcB is activated under anaerobic and subaerobic conditions and is much less active under fully aerobic and microaerobic conditions. Furthermore, there is no correlation between ArcB activation and the redox state of the ubiquinone pool, but there is a restricted correlation between the total cellular ubiquinone content and ArcB activity due to the considerable increase in the size of the ubiquinone pool with increasing degrees of aerobiosis. These results lead to the working hypothesis that the in vivo activity of ArcB in E. coli is modulated by the redox state of the menaquinone pool and that the ubiquinone/ubiquinol ratio in vivo surely is not the only determinant of ArcB activity.
Project description:Transcription of the sodA gene of Escherichia coli, which encodes manganese superoxide dismutase, is governed by six global regulators: the product of the soxRS locus (superoxide response) and mutated alleles of the soxQ locus (such as cfxB) act as activators; the products of the fur (ferric uptake regulation), arcA (aerobic regulation control), and fnr (fumarate nitrate reductase) genes and the integration host factor (IHF) negatively regulate sodA. The action of these effectors on the sodA promoter was investigated by using chromosomal sodA-lacZ operon fusions with intact or deleted promoters, different environmental conditions, and strains carrying different combinations of null mutations in the effector genes. The data allow us to assign target regions in the sodA promoter for activation by SoxRS and CfxB and for repression by Fur and ArcA. In aerobiosis, activation of sodA transcription by SoxRS was compatible with CfxB activation or Fur repression, whereas cfxB and fur controls were mutually exclusive. Repression by Fnr appeared, at least in part, to be ArcA dependent. IHF enhanced aerobic Fur repression, and in the absence of Fur, it enhanced anaerobic repression by ArcA. The DNA targets for Fur (encompassing the -35 region) and ArcA (from and downstream of the -35 region) appear to overlap, suggesting that Fur and ArcA repressions are mutually exclusive. Fur (in response to the iron pool) or ArcA, acting with Fnr and IHF (in response to the redox state of the cells), can block anaerobic sodA-lacZ expression with about equivalent efficiencies. The possible biological significance of this result is discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli induces heat shock genes to the temperature up-shift, and changes the metabolism by complicated mechanism. The heat shock response is of practical importance for the variety of applications such as temperature-induced heterologous protein production, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) etc. However, the effect of heat shock on the metabolic regulation is not well investigated. It is strongly desired to understand the metabolic changes and its mechanism upon heat shock in practice for the efficient metabolite production by temperature up-shift. In the present research, therefore, we investigated the effect of temperature up-shift from 37 degrees C to 42 degrees C on the metabolism in view of gene expressions. RESULTS: The results of aerobic batch and continuous cultivations of E. coli BW25113 indicate that more acetate was accumulated with lower biomass yield and less glucose consumption rate at 42 degrees C as compared to the case at 37 degrees C. The down- regulation of the glucose uptake rate corresponds to the down-regulation of ptsG gene expression caused by the up-regulation of mlc gene expression. In accordance with up-regulation of arcA, which may be caused by the lower oxygen solubility at 42 degrees C, the expressions of the TCA cycle-related genes and the respiratory chain gene cyoA were down-regulated. The decreased activity of TCA cycle caused more acetate formation at higher temperature, which is not preferred in heterologous protein production etc. This can be overcome by the arcA gene knockout to some extent. The time courses of gene expressions revealed that the heat shock genes such as groEL, dnaK, htpG and ibpB as well as mlc were expressed in much the same way as that of rpoH during the first 10-20 minutes after temperature up-shift. Under microaerobic condition, the fermentation changed in such a way that formate and lactate were more produced due to up-regulation of pflA and ldhA genes while ethanol was less produced due to down-regulation of adhE gene at higher temperature as compared to the case at 37 degrees C. CONCLUSION: The present result clarified the mechanism of metabolic changes upon heat shock from 37 degrees C to 42 degrees C based on gene expressions of heat shock genes, global regulators, and the metabolic pathway genes. It is recommended to use arcA gene knockout mutant to prevent higher acetate production upon heat shock, where it must be noted that the cell yield may be decreased due to TCA cycle activation by arcA gene knockout.
Project description:Shewanella oneidensis is a metal reducer that uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP, to regulate anaerobic respiration. In addition, ArcA(So) is required for anaerobic growth with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and plays a role in aerobic respiration. The sensor kinase that activates ArcA(So) in S. oneidensis is not known. ArcB1(So), a homolog of the Escherichia coli sensor kinase ArcB(Ec), was identified and found to be required for DMSO reductase gene expression. In combination with HptA, ArcB1(So) complemented an E. coli arcB(Ec) mutant. ArcA(So), ArcB1(So), and HptA appear to constitute a two-component signal transduction system that regulates DMSO reduction in S. oneidensis.
Project description:The Arc two-component system, comprising the ArcB sensor kinase and the ArcA response regulator, modulates the expression of numerous genes in response to respiratory growth conditions. Under aerobic growth conditions, the ubiquinone electron carriers were proposed to silence the kinase activity of ArcB by oxidizing two cytosol-located redox-active cysteine residues that participate in intermolecular disulfide bond formation. Here, we confirm the role of the ubiquinone electron carriers as the silencing signal of ArcB in vivo, we show that the redox potential of ArcB is about -41 mV, and we demonstrate that the menaquinols are required for proper ArcB activation upon a shift from aerobic to anaerobic growth conditions. Thus, an essential link in the Arc signal transduction pathway connecting the redox state of the quinone pool to the transcriptional apparatus is elucidated.