Cloning and mutagenesis of a serotype-specific DNA region involved in encapsulation and virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a: concomitant expression of serotype 5a and 1 capsular polysaccharides in recombinant A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1.
ABSTRACT: A DNA region involved in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide (CP) biosynthesis was identified and characterized by using a probe specific for the cpxD gene involved in CP export. The adjacent serotype 5-specific CP biosynthesis region was cloned from a 5.8-kb BamHI fragment and an 8.0-kb EcoRI fragment of strain J45 genomic DNA. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that this region contained four complete open reading frames, cps5A, cps5B, cps5C, and cps5D. Cps5A, Cps5B, and Cps5C showed low homology with several bacterial glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide or CP. However, Cps5D had high homology with KdsA proteins (3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthetase) from other gram-negative bacteria. The G+C content of cps5ABC was substantially lower (28%) than that of cps5D and the rest of the A. pleuropneumoniae chromosome (42%). A 2.1-kb deletion spanning the cloned cps5ABC open reading frames was constructed and transferred into the J45 chromosome by homologous recombination with a kanamycin resistance cassette to produce mutant J45-100. Multiplex PCR confirmed the deletion in this region of J45-100 DNA. J45-100 did not produce intracellular or extracellular CP, indicating that cps5A, cps5B, and/or cps5C were involved in CP biosynthesis. However, biosynthesis of the Apx toxins, lipopolysaccharide, and membrane proteins was unaffected by the mutation. Besides lack of CP biosynthesis, and in contrast to J45, J45-100 grew faster, was sensitive to killing in precolostral calf serum, and was avirulent in pigs at an intratracheal challenge dose three times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of strain J45. At six times the J45 LD50, J45-100 caused mild to moderate lung lesions but not death. Electroporation of cps5ABC into A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain 4074 generated strain 4074(pJMLCPS5), which expressed both serotype 1 and serotype 5 CP. However, serotype 1 capsule expression was diminished in 4074(pJMLCPS5) in comparison to 4074. The recombinant strain produced significantly less total CP (serotypes 1 and 5 CP combined) in log phase (P = 0.0012) but significantly more total CP in late stationary phase than 4074 (P < 0.0001). In addition, strain 4074(pJMLCPS5) caused less mortality and bacteremia in pigs and mice following respiratory challenge than strain 4074, indicating that virulence was affected by diminished capsule production. These results emphasize the importance of CP in the serum resistance and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae.
Project description:The capsular polysaccharide (CP) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is required for virulence of the bacteria in swine. However, a molecular investigation of whether the type or quantity of CP affects A. pleuropneumoniae virulence has not been reported. To initiate this investigation, a DNA region downstream of conserved genes required for CP export in A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 was cloned and sequenced. Three open reading frames, designated cps1A, cps1B, and cps1C, were identified that had amino acid homology to bacterial carbohydrate biosynthesis genes. A kanamycin resistance cassette (Kan(r)) was inserted into a 750-bp deletion spanning cps1AB or into a 512-bp deletion in cps1B only, and the constructs were cloned in a suicide vector. The Kan(r) gene was then transferred into the chromosome of strain 4074 by homologous recombination to produce strain 4074Deltacps1N and strain 4074Deltacps1B, respectively. Strain 4074Deltacps1N produced no detectable CP, but strain 4074Deltacps1B made 15% of the serotype 1 CP made by the parent strain, 4074, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and precipitation of free CP. The cps1ABC genes of strain 4074 and the cps5ABC and cps5ABCDE genes of serotype 5a strain J45 were cloned into the shuttle vector pLS88 and electroporated into 4074Deltacps1N to produce 4074Deltacps1N(pABcps101), 4074Deltacps1N(pJMLcps53), and 4074Deltacps1N(pABcps55), respectively. Strain 4074Deltacps1N(pABcps101) produced about 33% of the serotype 1 CP produced by strain 4074. Strains 4074Deltacps1N(pJMLcps53) and 4074Deltacps1N(pABcps55) produced serotype 5a CP in similar quantity or in fourfold excess, respectively, to that produced by strain 4074. With intratracheal challenge in pigs at similar dosages, the order of virulence of strains producing serotype 1 CP (assessed by mortality, lung consolidation, hemorrhage, and fibrinous pleuritis) was the following: strain 4074 > strain 4074Deltacps1N(pABcps101) > or = strain 4074Deltacps1N > strain 4074Deltacps1B. Strain 4074Deltacps1N(pJMLcps53) was less virulent than strain 4074Deltacps1N(pABcps55). However, both strains produced serotype 5a CP in similar or greater quantities than was observed for production of serotype 1 CP by the parent strain, 4074, but were less virulent than the parent strain. Therefore, the amount of serotype 1 or 5a CP produced by isogenic strains of A. pleuropneumoniae correlated with the virulence of the bacteria in pigs. However, virulence was also influenced by the type of CP produced or by its mechanism of expression.
Project description:Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae synthesizes a serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide that acts as a protective barrier to phagocytosis and complement-mediated killing. To begin understanding the role of A. pleuropneumoniae capsule in virulence, we sought to identify the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide export and biosynthesis. A 5.3-kb XbaI fragment of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a J45 genomic DNA that hybridized with DNA probes specific for the Haemophilus influenzae type b cap export region was cloned and sequenced. This A. pleuropneumoniae DNA fragment encoded four open reading frames, designated cpxDCBA. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of cpxDCBA contained a high degree of homology to the capsule export genes of H. influenzae type b bexDCBA, Neisseria meningitidis group B ctrABCD, and, to a lesser extent, Escherichia coli K1 and K5 kpsE and kpsMT. When present in trans, the cpxDCBA gene cluster complemented kpsM::TnphoA or kpsT::TnphoA mutations, determined by enzyme immunoassay and by restored sensitivity to a K5-specific bacteriophage. A cpxCB probe hybridized to genomic DNA from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes tested, indicating that this DNA was conserved among serotypes. These data suggest that A. pleuropneumoniae produces a group II family capsule similar to those of related mucosal pathogens.
Project description:Serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is based on detection of the serotype-specific capsular antigen. However, not all isolates can be serotyped, and some may cross-react with multiple serotyping reagents. To improve sensitivity and specificity of serotyping and for early detection, a multiplex PCR assay was developed for detection of A. pleuropneumoniae and identification of serotype 5 isolates. DNA sequences specific to the conserved export and serotype-specific biosynthesis regions of the capsular polysaccharide of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were used as primers to amplify 0.7- and 1.1-kb DNA fragments, respectively. The 0.7-kb fragment was amplified from all strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested with the exception of serotype 4. The 0.7-kb fragment was not amplified from any heterologous species that are also common pathogens or commensals of swine. In contrast, the 1.1-kb fragment was amplified from all serotype 5 strains only. The assay was capable of amplifying DNA from less than 10(2) CFU. The A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular DNA products were readily amplified from lung tissues obtained from infected swine, although the 1.1-kb product was not amplified from some tissues stored frozen for 6 years. The multiplex PCR assay enabled us to detect A. pleuropneumoniae rapidly and to distinguish serotype 5 strains from other serotypes. The use of primers specific to the biosynthesis regions of other A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes would expand the diagnostic and epidemiologic capabilities of this assay.
Project description:We describe here isolation of genetically atypical serotype 6 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Japan indistinguishable by the multiplex PCR that can discriminate between immunologically cross-reactive serotypes 3, 6 and 8. Nucleotide sequence analysis of capsular export and biosynthesis genes revealed that the atypical isolates have capsular polysaccharide export and synthesis gene sequences that are distinct from those of the serotype 6 reference strain. The atypical strains contain a sequence that is identical with both serotype 3- and 6-specific primers, which causes cross-reactions in multiplex PCR.
Project description:The genetic organization of the gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 has been determined. The DNA region for the CPS biosynthesis of serotype 14 (cps14) comprised 9 open reading frames, designated as cps14AB1B2B3CDEFG genes, encoding Cps14A to Cps14G protein, respectively. Cps14A was similar to CpsA of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12; the Cps14B1 and Cps14B2 were similar to CpsB of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, suggesting that CPS structure of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 would belong to Group I including A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. Surprisingly, the overall nucleotide sequence, deduced amino acid sequence, and the genetic organization of the cps14 were nearly identical to those of Actinobacillus suis. This study will provide the molecular basic knowledge for development of diagnostics and vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14.
Project description:Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of the cps gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15 revealed the presence of three open reading frames, designated as cps15ABC genes. At the protein level, Cps15A and Cps15B showed considerably high homology to CpsA (67.0 to 68.7%) and CpsB (31.7 to 36.8%), respectively, of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, revealing the common genetic organization of the cps among serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. However, Cps15C showed no homology to any proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes, indicating that cps15C may be specific to serotype 15. This study will provide the basic molecular knowledge necessary for the development of diagnostics and a vaccine for A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 15.
Project description:The DNA sequence of the gene encoding the structural protein of hemolysin I (HlyI) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain 4074 was analyzed. The nucleotide sequence shows a 3,072-bp reading frame encoding a protein of 1,023 amino acids with a calculated molecular size of 110.1 kDa. This corresponds to the HlyI protein, which has an apparent molecular size on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels of 105 kDa. The structure of the protein derived from the DNA sequence shows three hydrophobic regions in the N-terminal part of the protein, 13 glycine-rich domains in the second half of the protein, and a hydrophilic C-terminal area, all of which are typical of the cytotoxins of the RTX (repeats in the structural toxin) toxin family. The derived amino acid sequence of HlyI shows 42% homology with the hemolysin of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5, 41% homology with the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica, and 56% homology with the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin. The 13 glycine-rich repeats and three hydrophobic areas of the HlyI sequence show more similarity to the E. coli alpha-hemolysin than to either the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 hemolysin or the leukotoxin (while the last two are more similar to each other). Two types of RTX hemolysins therefore seem to be present in A. pleuropneumoniae, one (HlyI) resembling the alpha-hemolysin and a second more closely related to the leukotoxin. Ca(2+)-binding experiments using HlyI and recombinant A. pleuropneumoniae prohemolysin (HlyIA) that was produced in E. coli shows that HlyI binds 45Ca2+, probably because of the 13 glycine-rich repeated domains. Activation of the prohemolysin is not required for Ca2+ binding.
Project description:The Gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease that leads to severe economic losses in the swine industry. For years, scientists working with it have lacked a reliable genome sequence for comparison with other Actinobacillus species. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 (strain S-8), isolated from swine lung in China in 1992.
Project description:There are 16 capsule-based serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, all of which are capable of causing disease in pigs. Here we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of the reference serotype 5b strain L20. This strain has a rough appearance and readily forms biofilms, as is typical for most field isolates.
Project description:An expression library was constructed from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 clinical isolate using a plasmid vector. The library was screened with serum raised against the culture supernatant of this strain. One Escherichia coli transformant which also reacted with convalescent serum was isolated and found to express a protein with an electrophoretic mobility of approximately 50,000. The A. pleuropneumoniae-derived DNA encoding the protein was localized and characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis and primer extension mapping. One open reading frame of 1,095 bases was detected and confirmed by TnphoA insertion mutagenesis. It encoded a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 40 kDa which was lipid modified and present in the outer membrane and in membrane blebs of A. pleuropneumoniae. This protein was designated as outer membrane lipoprotein A (OmlA), and the encoding gene as omlA. Southern blotting under low-stringency conditions revealed the presence of hybridizing sequences in all A. pleuropneumoniae type strains, and a specific serum detected a homologous protein in serotypes 2, 8, 9, 11, and 12 type strains. Pigs immunized with this recombinant protein preparation were protected from death in an aerosol challenge experiment with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 isolate.