Nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach to determine the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in complex microbial communities.
ABSTRACT: Here, we describe a three-step nested-PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) strategy to detect sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in complex microbial communities from industrial bioreactors. In the first step, the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene was amplified using bacterial primers. Subsequently, this product was used as a template in a second PCR with group-specific SRB primers. A third round of amplification was conducted to obtain fragments suitable for DGGE. The largest number of bands was observed in DGGE patterns of products obtained with primers specific for the Desulfovibrio-Desulfomicrobium group, indicating a large diversity of these SRBs. In addition, members of other phylogenetic SRB groups, i.e., Desulfotomaculum, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfococcus-Desulfonema-Desulfosarcina, were detected. Bands corresponding to Desulfobacterium and Desulfobacter were not detected in the bioreactor samples. Comparative sequence analysis of excised DGGE bands revealed the identity of the community members. The developed three-step PCR-DGGE strategy is a welcome tool for studying the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Project description:Seven strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were tested for the accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). During growth with benzoate Desulfonema magnum accumulated large amounts of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [poly(3HB)]. Desulfosarcina variabilis (during growth with benzoate), Desulfobotulus sapovorans (during growth with caproate), and Desulfobacterium autotrophicum (during growth with caproate) accumulated poly(3HB) that accounted for 20 to 43% of cell dry matter. Desulfobotulus sapovorans and Desulfobacterium autotrophicum also synthesized copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate when valerate was used as the growth substrate. Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfotalea psychrophila were the only SRB tested in which PHAs were not detected. When total DNA isolated from Desulfococcus multivorans and specific primers deduced from highly conserved regions of known PHA synthases (PhaC) were used, a PCR product homologous to the central region of class III PHA synthases was obtained. The complete pha locus of Desulfococcus multivorans was subsequently obtained by inverse PCR, and it contained adjacent phaE(Dm) and phaC(Dm) genes. PhaC(Dm) and PhaE(Dm) were composed of 371 and 306 amino acid residues and showed up to 49 or 23% amino acid identity to the corresponding subunits of other class III PHA synthases. Constructs of phaC(Dm) alone (pBBRMCS-2::phaC(Dm)) and of phaE(Dm)C(Dm) (pBBRMCS-2::phaE(Dm)C(Dm)) in various vectors were obtained and transferred to several strains of Escherichia coli, as well as to the PHA-negative mutants PHB(-)4 and GPp104 of Ralstonia eutropha and Pseudomonas putida, respectively. In cells of the recombinant strains harboring phaE(Dm)C(Dm) small but significant amounts (up to 1.7% of cell dry matter) of poly(3HB) and of PHA synthase activity (up to 1.5 U/mg protein) were detected. This indicated that the cloned genes encode functionally active proteins. Hybrid synthases consisting of PhaC(Dm) and PhaE of Thiococcus pfennigii or Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308 were also constructed and were shown to be functionally active.
Project description:The sulfate-reducing bacterial populations of a stratified marine water column, Mariager Fjord, Denmark, were investigated by molecular and culture-dependent approaches in parallel. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and DNA encoding rRNA (rDNA) isolated from the water column indicated specific bacterial populations in different water column layers and revealed a highly differentiated pattern of rRNA- and rDNA-derived PCR amplificates, probably reflecting active and resting bacterial populations. Hybridization of DGGE patterns with rRNA probes indicated the increased presence and activity (by at least 1 order of magnitude) of sulfate-reducing bacteria within and below the chemocline. Parallel to this molecular approach, an approach involving most-probable-number (MPN) counts was used, and it found a similar distribution of cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria in the water column of Mariager Fjord, Approximately 25 cells and 250 cells per ml above and below the chemocline, respectively, were found. Desulfovibrio- and Desulfobulbus-related strains occurred in the oxic zone. DGGE bands from MPN cultures were sequenced and compared with those obtained from nucleic acids extracted from water column samples. The MPN isolates were phylogenetically affiliated with sulfate-reducing delta subdivision proteobacteria (members of the genera Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfobacter), whereas the molecular isolates constituted an independent lineage of the delta subdivision proteobacteria. DGGE of PCR-amplified nucleic acids with general eubacterial PCR primers conceptually revealed the general bacterial population, whereas the use of culture media allowed cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria to be selected. A parallel study of Mariager Fjord biogeochemistry, bacterial activity, and bacterial counts complementing this investigation has been presented elsewhere (N.B. Ramsing, H. Fossing, T. G. Ferdelman, F. Andersen, and B. Thamdrup, Appl. Environ.
Project description:Here we describe the diversity and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sulfidogenic bioreactors by using the simultaneous analysis of PCR products obtained from DNA and RNA of the 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. We subsequently analyzed the amplified gene fragments by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). We observed fewer bands in the RNA-based DGGE profiles than in the DNA-based profiles, indicating marked differences in the populations present and in those that were metabolically active at the time of sampling. Comparative sequence analyses of the bands obtained from rRNA and dsrB DGGE profiles were congruent, revealing the same SRB populations. Bioreactors that received either ethanol or isopropanol as an energy source showed the presence of SRB affiliated with Desulfobulbus rhabdoformis and/or Desulfovibrio sulfodismutans, as well as SRB related to the acetate-oxidizing Desulfobacca acetoxidans. The reactor that received wastewater containing a diverse mixture of organic compounds showed the presence of nutritionally versatile SRB affiliated with Desulfosarcina variabilis and another acetate-oxidizing SRB, affiliated with Desulfoarculus baarsii. In addition to DGGE analysis, we performed whole-cell hybridization with fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes to estimate the relative abundances of the dominant sulfate-reducing bacterial populations. Desulfobacca acetoxidans-like populations were most dominant (50 to 60%) relative to the total SRB communities, followed by Desulfovibrio-like populations (30 to 40%), and Desulfobulbus-like populations (15 to 20%). This study is the first to identify metabolically active SRB in sulfidogenic bioreactors by using the functional gene dsrAB as a molecular marker. The same approach can also be used to infer the ecological role of coexisting SRB in other habitats.
Project description:Marine infaunal burrows and tubes greatly enhance solute transport between sediments and the overlying water column and are sites of elevated microbial activity. Biotic and abiotic controls of the compositions and activities of burrow and tube microbial communities are poorly understood. The microbial communities in tubes of the marine infaunal polychaete Diopatria cuprea collected from two different sediment habitats were examined. The bacterial communities in the tubes from a sandy sediment differed from those in the tubes from a muddy sediment. The difference in community structure also extended to the sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) assemblage, although it was not as pronounced for this functional group of species. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from Diopatra tube SRB by clonal library construction and screening were all related to the family Desulfobacteriaceae. This finding was supported by phospholipid fatty acid analysis and by hybridization of 16S rRNA probes specific for members of the genera Desulfosarcina, Desulfobacter, Desulfobacterium, Desulfobotulus, Desulfococcus, and Desulfovibrio and some members of the genera Desulfomonas, Desulfuromonas, and Desulfomicrobium with 16S rRNA gene sequences resolved by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Two of six SRB clones from the clone library were not detected in tubes from the sandy sediment. The habitat in which the D. cuprea tubes were constructed had a strong influence on the tube bacterial community as a whole, as well as on the SRB assemblage.
Project description:Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 10(1) to 6 × 10(5) dsrB gene copies ml(-1). DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples.
Project description:The initial step in the anaerobic degradation of the algal osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in anoxic marine sediments involves either a cleavage to dimethylsulfide and acrylate or a demethylation to 3-S-methylmercaptopropionate. Thus far, only one anaerobic bacterial strain has been shown to carry out the demethylation, namely, Desulfobacterium sp. strain PM4. The aims of the present work were to study how common this property is among certain groups of anaerobic bacteria and to obtain information on the affinities for DMSP of DMSP-demethylating strains. Screening of several pure cultures of sulfate-reducing and acetogenic bacteria showed that Desulfobacterium vacuolatum DSM 3385 and Desulfobacterium niacini DSM 2059 are also able to demethylate DMSP; a very slow demethylation of DMSP was observed with a salt-tolerant strain of Eubacterium limosum. From a 10(5) dilution of intertidal sediment a new marine DMSP-demethylating sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain WN) was isolated. Strain WN was a short, gram-negative, nonmotile rod that grew on betaine, sarcosine, palmitate, H2 plus CO2, and several alcohols, organic acids, and amino acids. Extracts of betaine-grown cells had hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, and CO dehydrogenase activities but no alpha-ketoglutarate oxidoreductase activity, indicating the presence of the acetyl coenzyme A-CO dehydrogenase pathway. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain WN revealed a close relationship with Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, Desulfobacter latus, and Desulfobacula toluolica. Strain PM4 was shown to group with Desulfobacterium niacini. The K(m) of strain WN for DMSP, as derived from substrate progress curves in cell suspensions, was approximately 10 microM. A similar value was found for D. niacini PM4.
Project description:The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) is a hydrothermal vent site where thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter forms petroliferous material which supports diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria. We explored the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the sulfate-reducing bacteria by characterizing PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) and 16S rRNA genes from the upper 4 cm of the Guaymas sediment. The dsrAB sequences revealed that there was a major clade closely related to the acetate-oxidizing delta-proteobacterial genus Desulfobacter and a clade of novel, deeply branching dsr sequences related to environmental dsr sequences from marine sediments in Aarhus Bay and Kysing Fjord (Denmark). Other dsr clones were affiliated with gram-positive thermophilic sulfate reducers (genus Desulfotomaculum) and the delta-proteobacterial species Desulforhabdus amnigena and Thermodesulforhabdus norvegica. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNAs from the same environmental samples resulted in identification of four clones affiliated with Desulfobacterium niacini, a member of the acetate-oxidizing, nutritionally versatile genus Desulfobacterium, and one clone related to Desulfobacula toluolica and Desulfotignum balticum. Other bacterial 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes were represented by non-sulfate reducers and uncultured lineages with unknown physiology, like OP9, OP8, as well as a group with no clear affiliation. In summary, analyses of both 16S rRNA and dsrAB clone libraries resulted in identification of members of the Desulfobacteriales in the Guaymas sediments. In addition, the dsrAB sequencing approach revealed a novel group of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes that could not be identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.
Project description:In this study, we describe a nested PCR-DGGE strategy to detect Legionella communities from river water samples. The nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene was amplified using bacterial primer in the first step. After, the amplicons were employed as DNA templates in the second PCR using Legionella specific primer. The third round of gene amplification was conducted to gain PCR fragments apposite for DGGE analysis. Then the total numbers of amplified genes were observed in DGGE bands of products gained with primers specific for the diversity of Legionella species. The DGGE patterns are thus potential for a high-throughput preliminary determination of aquatic environmental Legionella species before sequencing. Comparative DNA sequence analysis of excised DGGE unique band patterns showed the identity of the Legionella community members, including a reference profile with two pathogenic species of Legionella strains. In addition, only members of Legionella pneumophila and uncultured Legionella sp. were detected. Development of three step nested PCR-DGGE tactic is seen as a useful method for studying the diversity of Legionella community. The method is rapid and provided sequence information for phylogenetic analysis.
Project description:A unique community of bacteria colonizes the dorsal integument of the polychaete annelid Alvinella pompejana, which inhabits the high-temperature environments of active deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise. The composition of this bacterial community was characterized in previous studies by using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes. In the present study, a pair of PCR primers (P94-F and P93-R) were used to amplify a segment of the dissimilatory bisulfite reductase gene from DNA isolated from the community of bacteria associated with A. pompejana. The goal was to assess the presence and diversity of bacteria with the capacity to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. A clone library of bisulfite reductase gene PCR products was constructed and characterized by restriction fragment and sequence analysis. Eleven clone families were identified. Two of the 11 clone families, SR1 and SR6, contained 82% of the clones. DNA sequence analysis of a clone from each family indicated that they are dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes most similar to the dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Desulfovibrio gigas, Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, and Desulfobacter latus. Similarities to the dissimilatory bisulfite reductases of Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, the sulfide oxidizer Chromatium vinosum, the sulfur reducer Pyrobaculum islandicum, and the archaeal sulfate reducer Archaeoglobus fulgidus were lower. Phylogenetic analysis separated the clone families into groups that probably represent two genera of previously uncharacterized sulfate-reducing bacteria. The presence of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes is consistent with recent temperature and chemical measurements that documented a lack of dissolved oxygen in dwelling tubes of the worm. The diversity of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes in the bacterial community on the back of the worm suggests a prominent role for anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the ecology of A. pompejana.
Project description:The genotypic diversity of insoluble macromolecules degraded myxobacteria, provided an opportunity to discover new bacterial resources and find new ecological functions. In this study, we developed a semi-nested-PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) strategy to determine the presence and genotypic diversity of myxobacteria in soil. After two rounds of PCR with myxobacteria-specific primers, an 194 bp fragment of mglA, a key gene involved in gliding motility, suitable for DGGE was obtained. A large number of bands were observed in DGGE patterns, indicating diverse myxobacteria inhabiting in soils. Furthermore, sequencing and BLAST revealed that most of the bands belonged to the myxobacteria-group, and only three of the twenty-eight bands belonged to other group, i.e., Deinococcus maricopensis. The results verified that myxobacterial strains with discrepant sequence compositions of gene mglA could be discriminated by DGGE with myxobacteria-specific primers. Collectively, the developed semi-nested-PCR-DGGE strategy is a useful tool for studying the diversity of myxobacteria.