Tumor promoter arsenite activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase through a signaling pathway mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor and Shc.
ABSTRACT: Although arsenite is an established carcinogen, the mechanisms underlying its tumor-promoting properties are poorly understood. Previously, we reported that arsenite treatment leads to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in rat PC12 cells through a Ras-dependent pathway. To identify potential mediators of the upstream signaling cascade, we examined the tyrosine phosphorylation profile in cells exposed to arsenite. Arsenite treatment rapidly stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in a Ras-independent manner, with a pattern similar to that seen in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment. Among these phosphorylated proteins were three isoforms of the proto-oncoprotein Shc as well as the EGF receptor (EGFR). Tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc allowed for enhanced interactions between Shc and Grb2 as identified by coimmunoprecipitation experiments. The arsenite-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, enhancement of Shc and Grb2 interactions, and activation of ERK were all drastically reduced by treatment of cells with either the general growth factor receptor poison suramin or the EGFR-selective inhibitor tyrphostin AG1478. Down-regulation of EGFR expression through pretreatment of cells with EGF also attenuated ERK activation and Shc tyrosine phosphorylation in response to arsenite treatment. These results demonstrate that the EGFR and Shc are critical mediators in the activation of the Ras/ERK signaling cascade by arsenite and suggest that arsenite acts as a tumor promoter largely by usurping this growth factor signaling pathway.
Project description:We compared the role of tyrosine kinases in alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptor (AR) and growth factor receptor stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in PC12 cells. Norepinephrine (NE) (noradrenaline), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) caused different patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in PC12 cells stably expressing alpha(1A)-ARs. NE increased tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion-related kinase Pyk2 and a 70 kDa protein, probably paxillin, whereas EGF strongly stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF receptor and cytokine-activated kinase Jak2. The EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 inhibited activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) by EGF but not by NE. EGF and NGF strongly activated tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and caused association of Src-homology collagen (Shc) with growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2); however, neither NE nor UTP caused substantial activation of the Shc/Grb2 pathway. NE, UTP, EGF and NGF all increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Src, and this was inhibited by the Src inhibitor PP2. However, PP2 inhibited ERK activation in response to NE and UTP, but not in response to EGF or NGF. PP2 also completely blocked NE-induced PC12 cell differentiation, but had no measurable effect on NGF-induced differentiation. These studies show that activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by G-protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinase receptors proceed through distinct molecular pathways in PC12 cells, and support an obligatory role for Src activation in mitogenic responses to alpha(1A)-ARs in these cells.
Project description:Although many proteins have been shown to participate in ligand-stimulated endocytosis of EGF receptor (EGFR), the adaptor protein responsible for interaction of activated EGFR with endocytic machinery remains elusive. We show here that EGF stimulates transient tyrosine phosphorylation of Tom1L1 by the Src family kinases, resulting in transient interaction of Tom1L1 with the activated EGFR bridged by Grb2 and Shc. Cytosolic Tom1L1 is recruited onto the plasma membrane and subsequently redistributes into the early endosome. Mutant forms of Tom1L1 defective in Tyr-phosphorylation or interaction with Grb2 are incapable of interaction with EGFR. These mutants behave as dominant-negative mutants to inhibit endocytosis of EGFR. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Tom1L1 inhibits endocytosis of EGFR. The C-terminal tail of Tom1L1 contains a novel clathrin-interacting motif responsible for interaction with the C-terminal region of clathrin heavy chain, which is important for exogenous Tom1L1 to rescue endocytosis of EGFR in Tom1L1 knocked-down cells. These results suggest that EGF triggers a transient Grb2/Shc-mediated association of EGFR with Tyr-phosphorylated Tom1L1 to engage the endocytic machinery for endocytosis of the ligand-receptor complex.
Project description:The Src homology 2 (SH2) and collagen domain protein Shc plays a pivotal role in signaling via tyrosine kinase receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Shc binding to phospho-tyrosine residues on activated receptors is mediated by the SH2 and phospho-tyrosine binding (PTB) domains. Subsequent phosphorylation on Tyr-317 within the Shc linker region induces Shc interactions with Grb2-Son of Sevenless that initiate Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. We use molecular dynamics simulations of full-length Shc to examine how Tyr-317 phosphorylation controls Shc conformation and interactions with EGFR. Our simulations reveal that Shc tyrosine phosphorylation results in a significant rearrangement of the relative position of its domains, suggesting a key conformational change. Importantly, computational estimations of binding affinities show that EGFR-derived phosphotyrosyl peptides bind with significantly more strength to unphosphorylated than to phosphorylated Shc. Our results unveil what we believe is a novel structural phenomenon, i.e., tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc within its linker region regulates the binding affinity of SH2 and PTB domains for phosphorylated Shc partners, with important implications for signaling dynamics.
Project description:EGF (epidermal growth factor) binding to its receptor (EGFR) induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of the receptor at multiple tyrosine residues, which serve as docking sites for recruitment of proteins with SH2 (Src homology 2) domains that activate multiple downstream signalling pathways. The adaptor protein Grb2 (growth factor receptor-binding protein 2) binds to EGFR, which leads to activation of Ras-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade. The latent transcription factors, STAT (signal transduction and activator of transcription), can also be activated by EGF in certain cell types. Since Ras-MAPK and STAT pathways are simultaneously stimulated by EGF, and Tyr-1086 and Tyr-1068 of EGFR are reported to be the binding sites for both Grb2 and Stat3, we investigated the possible regulatory role of Grb2 in STAT activation. In the present study, we report that transient expression of Grb2 specifically down-regulates EGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3, which leads to a repression of Stat3 transcriptional activity. In contrast, depletion of Grb2 by RNA interference substantially increases Stat3 tyrosine phosphorylation induced by EGF. The inhibition is neither mediated by a direct interaction between Grb2 and Stat3 nor via activation of tyrosine phosphatases. However, the repression was abolished by a mutation in the SH2 domain, but not the SH3 domains of Grb2, suggesting that inhibition involves binding of the receptor. Indeed, Grb2 inhibits the interaction between Stat3 and EGFR by competitive binding to the EGFR. On the other hand, Grb2 does not interact with the same sites as Stat3 on the interleukin-6 receptor and, therefore, has no effect on interleukin-6-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in EGF signalling, Grb2 regulates Stat3 activation negatively at the receptor level.
Project description:Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers multiple signaling pathways and rapid endocytosis of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor complexes. To directly visualize the compartmentalization of molecules involved in the major signaling cascade, activation of Ras GTPase, we constructed fusions of Grb2, Shc, H-Ras, and K-Ras with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) or yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), and used live-cell fluorescence imaging microscopy combined with the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. Stimulation of cells by EGF resulted in the accumulation of large pools of Grb2-CFP and YFP-Shc in endosomes, where these two adaptor proteins formed a complex with EGFR. H-Ras and K-Ras fusion proteins were found at the plasma membrane, particularly in ruffles and lamellipodia, and also in endosomes independently of GTP/GDP loading and EGF stimulation. The relative amount of endosomal H-Ras was higher than that of K-Ras, whereas K-Ras predominated at the plasma membrane. On application of EGF, Grb2, and Ras converge in the same endosomes through the fusion of endosomes containing either Grb2 or Ras or through the joint internalization of two proteins from the plasma membrane. To examine the localization of the GTP-bound form of Ras, we used a FRET assay that exploits the specific interaction of GTP-bound CFP-Ras with the YFP-fused Ras binding domain of c-Raf. FRET microscopy revealed that GTP-bound Ras is located at the plasma membrane, mainly in ruffles and at the cell edges, as well as in endosomes containing EGFR. These data point to the potential for endosomes to serve as sites of generation for persistent signaling through Ras.
Project description:Deregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) contributes to the initiation and progression of intestinal-derived epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the roles of the proximal signaling molecules engaged by RTKs in different oncogenic functions of CRC remain unclear.Herein, the functional impact of expressing variant forms of the oncogenic Met receptor (Tpr-Met) that selectively recruit the adaptor proteins Grb2 or Shc was investigated in a model derived from normal intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). An RNA interference (RNAi) approach was used to define the requirement of Grb2 or Shc in Tpr-Met-transformed IEC-6 cells. Since Grb2 and Shc couple RTKs to the activation of the Ras/MEK/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways, Erk and Akt phosphorylation/activation states were monitored in transformed IEC-6 cells, and a pharmacological approach was employed to provide insights into the roles of these pathways in oncogenic processes evoked by activated Met, and downstream of Grb2 and Shc.We show, for the first time, that constitutive activation of either Grb2 or Shc signals in IEC-6 cells, promotes morphological transformation associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin, as well as increased cell growth, loss of growth contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to serum deprivation and anoikis. Oncogenic activation of Met was revealed to induce morphological transformation, E-cadherin down-regulation, and protection against anoikis by mechanisms dependent on Grb2, while Shc was shown to be partly required for enhanced cell growth. The coupling of activated Met to the Ras/MEK/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways, and the sustained engagement of Grb2 or Shc in IECs, was shown to trigger negative feedback, limiting the extent of activation of these pathways. Nonetheless, morphological alterations and E-cadherin down-regulation induced by the oncogenic Tpr-Met, and by Grb2 or Shc signals, were blocked by MEK, but not PI3K, inhibitors while the enhanced growth and resistance to anoikis induced by Tpr-Met were nearly abolished by co-treatment with both inhibitors.Overall, these results identify Grb2 and Shc as central signaling effectors of Met-driven progression of intestinal epithelial-derived cancers. Notably, they suggest that Grb2 may represent a promising target for the design of novel CRC therapies.
Project description:Ligation of membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) receptor in the Ramos B-cell line induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including the adaptor protein. Shc. Phosphorylated Shc could be seen to associate with Grb2 in a complex which included hSOS. Inasmuch as hSOS is involved in p21ras activation, we also demonstrated that mIgM ligation activated a Ras-dependent kinase cascade in which sequential activation of Raf-1 and MEK-1 culminates in the activation of p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (ERK-2). The tumour promoter and protein kinase C agonist, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), also activated Raf-1, MEK-1, and MAP kinase in Ramos cells, but did not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc or Shc/Grb2 association. Okadaic acid, another tumour promoter and serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, activated p42 MAP kinase without activating Raf-1 or MEK-1, suggesting the existence of a serine/threonine phosphatase which directly regulates MAP kinase activity.
Project description:Ras is a major mediator of PE (phorbol ester) effects in mammalian cells. Various mechanisms for PE activation of Ras have been reported [Downward, Graves, Warne, Rayter and Cantrell (1990) Nature (London) 346, 719-723; Shu, Wu, Mosteller and Broek (2002) Mol. Cell. Biol. 22, 7758-7768; Roose, Mollenauer, Gupta, Stone and Weiss (2005) Mol. Cell. Biol. 25, 4426-4441; Grosse, Roelle, Herrlich, Höhn and Gudermann (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 12251-12260], including pathways that target GAPs (GTPase-activating proteins) for inactivation and those that result in activation of GEFs (guanine nucleotide-exchange factors) Sos (son of sevenless homologue) or RasGRP (RAS guanyl releasing protein). However, a biochemical link between PE and GAP inactivation is missing and GEF stimulation is hard to reconcile with the observation that dominant-negative S17N-Ras does not compromise Ras-dependent ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) activation by PE. We have addressed this controversy and carried out an in-depth biochemical study of PE-induced Ras activation in COS-7 cells. Using a cell-permeabilization approach to monitor nucleotide exchange on Ras, we demonstrate that PE-induced Ras-GTP accumulation results from GEF stimulation. Nucleotide exchange stimulation by PE is prevented by PKC (protein kinase C) inhibition but not by EGFR [EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor] blockade, despite the fact that EGFR inhibition aborts basal and PE-induced Shc (Src homology and collagen homology) phosphorylation and Shc-Grb2 (growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2) association. In fact, EGFR inhibition ablates basal nucleotide exchange on Ras in growth-arrested COS-7 cells. These data disclose the existence of two separate GEF systems that operate independently from each other to accomplish PE-dependent formation of Ras-GTP and to maintain resting Ras-GTP levels respectively. We document that COS-7 cells do not express RasGRP and present evidence that the PE-responsive GEF system may involve PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Sos. More fundamentally, these observations shed new light on enigmatic issues such as the inefficacy of S17N-Ras in blocking PE action or the role of the EGFR in heterologous agonist activation of the Ras/ERK pathway.
Project description:Targeted disruption of both alleles of mouse sos1, which encodes a Ras-specific exchange factor, conferred mid-gestational embryonic lethality that was secondary to impaired placental development and was associated with very low placental ERK activity. The trophoblastic layers of sos1(-/-) embryos were poorly developed, correlating with high sos1 expression in wild-type trophoblasts. A sos1(-/-) cell line, which expressed readily detectable levels of the closely related Sos2 protein, formed complexes between Sos2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Shc efficiently, gave normal Ras.GTP and ERK responses when treated with EGF for < or =10 min and was transformed readily by activated Ras. However, the sos1(-/-) cells were resistant to transformation by v-Src or by overexpressed EGFR and continuous EGF treatment, unlike sos1(+/-) or wild-type cells. This correlated with Sos2 binding less efficiently than Sos1 to EGFR and Shc in cells treated with EGF for > or =90 min or to v-Src and Shc in v-Src-expressing cells, and with less ERK activity. We conclude that Sos1 participates in both short- and long-term signaling, while Sos2-dependent signals are predominantly short-term.
Project description:Signalling by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) has been studied intensively, but for most cell types the analysis is complicated by the fact that EGFR not only homodimerizes but can also form heterodimers with other EGFR family members. Heterodimerization is a particular problem in the study of EGFR mutants, where the true phenotype of the mutants is confounded by the contribution of the heterodimer partner to signal transduction. We have made use of the murine hemopoietic cell line BaF/3, which does not express EGFR family members, to express wild-type (WT) EGFR, three kinase-defective EGFR mutants (V741G, Y740F, and K721R), or a C-terminally truncated EGFR (CT957) and have measured their responses to EGF. We found that under the appropriate conditions EGF can stimulate cell proliferation of BaF/3 cells expressing WT or CT957 EGFRs but not that of cells expressing the kinase-defective mutants. However, EGF promotes the survival of BaF/3 cells expressing either of the kinase-defective receptors (V741G and Y740F), indicating that these receptors can still transmit a survival signal. Analysis of the early signalling events by the WT, V741G, and Y740F mutant EGF receptors indicated that EGF stimulates comparable levels of Shc phosphorylation, Shc-GRB-2 association, and activation of Ras, B-Raf, and Erk-1. Blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway with the specific inhibitor PD98059 abrogates completely the EGF-dependent survival of cells expressing the kinase-defective EGFR mutants but has no effect on the EGF-dependent proliferation mediated by WT and CT957 EGFRs. Similarly, the Src family kinase inhibitor PP1 abrogates EGF-dependent survival without affecting proliferation. However blocking phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase or JAK-2 kinase with specific inhibitors does arrest growth factor-dependent cell proliferation. Thus, EGFR-mediated mitogenic signalling in BaF/3 cells requires an intact EGFR tyrosine kinase activity and appears to depend on the activation of both the JAK-2 and PI-3 kinase pathways. Activation of the Src family of kinases or of the Ras/MAPK pathway can, however, be initiated by a kinase-impaired EGFR and is linked to survival.