Simian sarcoma-associated virus fails to infect Chinese hamster cells despite the presence of functional gibbon ape leukemia virus receptors.
ABSTRACT: We have sequenced the envelope genes from each of the five members of the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) family of type C retroviruses. Four of the GALVs, including GALV strain SEATO (GALV-S), were originally isolated from gibbon apes, whereas the fifth member of this family, simian sarcoma-associated virus (SSAV), was isolated from a woolly monkey and shares 78% amino acid identity with GALV-S. To determine whether these viruses have identical host ranges, we evaluated the susceptibility of several cell lines to either GALV-S or SSAV infection. GALV-S and SSAV have the same host range with the exception of Chinese hamster lung E36 cells, which are susceptible to GALV-S but not SSAV. We used retroviral vectors that differ only in their envelope composition (e.g., they contain either SSAV or GALV-S envelope protein) to show that the envelope of SSAV restricts entry into E36 cells. Although unable to infect E36 cells, SSAV infects GALV-resistant murine cells expressing the E36-derived viral receptor, HaPit2. These results suggest that the receptors present on E36 cells function for SSAV. We have constructed several vectors containing GALV-S/SSAV chimeric envelope proteins to map the region of the SSAV envelope that blocks infection of E36 cells. Vectors bearing chimeric envelopes comprised of the N-terminal region of the GALV-S SU protein and the C-terminal region of SSAV infect E36 cells, whereas vectors containing the N-terminal portion of the SSAV SU protein and C-terminal portion of GALV-S fail to infect E36 cells. This finding indicates that the region of the SSAV envelope protein responsible for restricting SSAV infection of E36 cells lies within its amino-terminal region.
Project description:The Chinese hamster cell lines E36 and CHOK1 dramatically differ in susceptibility to amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) and gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV); E36 cells are highly susceptible to both viruses, CHOK1 cells are not. We have previously shown that GALV can infect E36 cells by using both its own receptor, HaPit1, and the A-MuLV receptor, HaPit2. Given that the two cell lines are from the same species, the loss of function of both of these receptors in CHOK1 cells is surprising. Other studies have shown that CHOK1 cells secrete proteins that block A-MuLV entry into CHOK1 as well as E36, suggesting the two A-MuLV receptors are functionally identical. However, CHOK1 conditioned medium does not block GALV entry into E36, indicating the secreted inhibitors do not block HaPit1. HaPit1 and ChoPit1 therefore differ as receptors for GALV; ChoPit1 is either inactivated by secreted factors or intrinsically nonfunctional. To determine why GALV cannot infect CHOK1, we cloned and sequenced ChoPit1 and ChoPit2. ChoPit2 is almost identical to HaPit2, which explains why CHOK1 conditioned medium blocks A-MuLV entry via both receptors. Although ChoPit1 and HaPit1 are 91% identical, a notable difference is at position 550 in the fourth extracellular region, shown by several studies to be crucial for GALV infection. Pit1 and HaPit1 have aspartate at 550, whereas ChoPit1 has threonine at this position. We assessed the significance of this difference for GALV infection by replacing the aspartate 550 in Pit1 with threonine. This single substitution rendered Pit1 nonfunctional for GALV and suggests that threonine at 550 inactivates ChoPit1 as a GALV receptor. Whether native ChoPit1 functions for GALV was determined by interference assays using Lec8, a glycosylation-deficient derivative of CHOK1 that is susceptible to both viruses and that has the same receptors as CHOK1. Unlike with E36, GALV and A-MuLV exhibited reciprocal interference when infecting Lec8, suggesting that they use the same receptor. We conclude both viruses can use ChoPit2 in the absence of the inhibitors secreted by CHOK1 and ChoPit1 is nonfunctional.
Project description:Identification and cloning of the receptors for amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) and gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) have both enabled the determination of the normal function of these virus receptors in cells and initiated experimental examination of how these receptors interact with their respective viruses. GaLV and A-MuLV have distinct host ranges and use different receptors to infect human cells. It was therefore surprising to find that the human GaLV and A-MuLV receptors were not only structurally similar but performed similar cellular functions (B. O'Hara, S. V. Johann, H. P. Klinger, D. G. Blair, H. Rubinson, K. J. Dunn, P. Sass, S. M. Vitek, and T. Robbins, Cell Growth Differ. 1:119-127, 1990; M. van Zeijl, S. V. Johann, E. Closs, J. Cunningham, R. Eddy, T. B. Shows, and B. O'Hara, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1168-1172, 1994; M. P. Kavanaugh, D. G. Miller, W. Zhang, W. Law, S. L. Kozak, D. Kabat, and A. D. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:7071-7075, 1994; and Z. Olah, C. Lehel, W. B. Anderson, M. V. Eiden, and C. A. Wilson, J. Biol. Chem., in press). We have now determined that the murine retrovirus 10A1 can use both the human GaLV receptor and the human A-MuLV receptor to infect cells. Furthermore, we have cloned and functionally characterized a unique form of the amphotropic receptor homolog expressed in E36 hamster cells. This receptor (EAR) can serve as both a GaLV receptor and an A-MuLV receptor, and it therefore differs from the receptors expressed in human cells, which function exclusively as either GaLV or A-MuLV receptors.
Project description:Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are resistant to infections by gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV) unless they are pretreated with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation. These viruses use the related sodium-phosphate symporters Pit1 and Pit2, respectively, as receptors in nonhamster cells, and evidence has suggested that the corresponding transporters of CHO cells may be masked by tunicamycin-sensitive secreted inhibitors. Although the E36 line of Chinese hamster cells was reported to secrete the putative Pit2 inhibitor and to be sensitive to the inhibitory CHO factors, E36 cells are highly susceptible to both GALV and A-MLV in the absence of tunicamycin. Moreover, expression of E36 Pit2 in CHO cells conferred tunicamycin-independent susceptibilities to both viruses. Based on the latter results, it was suggested that E36 Pit2 must functionally differ from the endogenous Pit2 of CHO cells. To test these ideas, we analyzed the receptor properties of CHO Pit1 and Pit2 in CHO cells. Surprisingly, and counterintuitively, transfection of a CHO Pit2 expression vector into CHO cells conferred strong susceptibility to both GALV and A-MLV, and similar overexpression of CHO Pit1 conferred susceptibility to GALV. Thus, CHO Pit2 is a promiscuous functional receptor for both viruses, and CHO Pit1 is a functional receptor for GALV. Similarly, we found that the natural resistance of Mus dunni tail fibroblasts to subgroup C feline leukemia viruses (FeLV-C) was eliminated simply by overexpression of the endogenous FeLV-C receptor homologue. These results demonstrate a novel and simple method to unmask latent retroviral receptor activities that occur in some cells. Specifically, resistances to retroviruses that are caused by subthreshold levels of receptor expression or by stoichiometrically limited masking or interference mechanisms can be efficiently overcome simply by overexpressing the endogenous receptors in the same cells.
Project description:A PHQ motif near the amino termini of gammaretroviral envelope glycoprotein surface (SU) subunits is important for infectivity but not for incorporation into virions or binding to cognate receptors. The H residue of this motif is most critical, with all substitutions we tested being inactive. Interestingly, porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) of all three host-range groups, A, B, and C, lack full PHQ motifs, but most members have an H residue at position 10. H10A PERV mutants are noninfectious but were efficiently transactivated by adding to the assays a PHQ-containing SU or receptor-binding subdomain (RBD) derived from a gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV). A requirement of this transactivation was a functional GALV receptor on the cells. In contrast to this heterologous transactivation, PERV RBDs and SUs were inactive in all tested cells, including porcine ST-IOWA cells. Surprisingly, transactivation by GALV RBD enabled wild-type or H10A mutant PERVs of all three host-range groups to efficiently infect cells from humans and rodents that lack functional PERV receptors and it substantially enhanced infectivities of wild-type PERVs, even for cells with PERV receptors. Thus, PERVs can suboptimally infect cells that contain cognate receptors or they can employ a transactivation pathway to more efficiently infect all cells. This ability to infect cells lacking cognate receptors was previously demonstrated only for nontransmissible variant gammaretroviruses with recombinant and mutant envelope glycoproteins. We conclude that some endogenously inherited mammalian retroviruses also have a receptor-independent means for overcoming host-range and interference barriers, implying a need for caution in xenotransplantation, especially of porcine tissues.
Project description:The mammalian gammaretroviruses gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) can use the same receptor, Pit1, to infect human cells. A highly polymorphic nine-residue sequence within Pit1, designated region A, has been proposed as the virus binding site, because mutations in this region abolish Pit1-mediated cellular infection by GALV and FeLV-B. However, a direct correlation between region A mutations deleterious for infection and loss of virus binding has not been established. We report that cells expressing a Pit1 protein harboring mutations in region A that abolish receptor function retain the ability to bind virus, indicating that Pit1 region A is not the virus binding site. Furthermore, we have now identified a second region in Pit1, comprising residues 232 to 260 (region B), that is required for both viral entry and virus binding. Epitope-tagged Pit1 proteins were used to demonstrate that mutations in region B result in improper orientation of Pit1 in the cell membrane. Compensatory mutations in region A can restore proper orientation and full receptor function to these region B mutants. Based on these results, we propose that region A of Pit1 confers competence for viral entry by influencing the topology of the authentic binding site in the membrane and hence its accessibility to a viral envelope protein. Based on glycosylation studies and results obtained by using N- and C-terminal epitope-tagged Pit1, region A and region B mutants, and the transmembrane helices predicted with the PHD PredictProtein algorithm, we propose a new Pit1 topology model.
Project description:Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the remnants of ancient retroviral infections of germ cells and have been maintained in whole or part as heritable genomic elements. The last known endogenization events occurred several million years ago, and therefore stepwise analysis of retroviral endogenization has not been possible. A unique opportunity to study this process became available when a full-length ERV isolated from koalas (KoRV) was shown to have integrated into their germ line within the past 100 years. Even though KoRV shares 78% nucleotide identity with the exogenous and highly infectious gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), the infectivity of KoRV, like that of other ERVs, is substantially lower than that of GALV. Differences in the protein coding regions of KoRV that distinguish it from GALV were introduced into the GALV genome, and their functional consequences were assessed. We identified a KoRV gagpol L domain mutation as well as five residues present in the KoRV envelope (env) that, when substituted for the corresponding residues of GALV, resulted in vectors exhibiting substantially reduced titers similar to those observed with KoRV vectors. In addition, KoRV env protein lacks an intact CETTG motif that we have identified as invariant among highly infectious gammaretroviruses. Disruption of this motif in GALV results in vectors with reduced syncytia forming capabilities. Functional assessment of specific sequences that contribute to KoRV's attenuation from a highly infectious GALV-like progenitor virus has allowed the identification of specific modifications in the KoRV genome that correlate with its endogenization.
Project description:Recently, a new endogenous koala gammaretrovirus, designated KoRV, was isolated from koalas. The KoRV genome shares 78% nucleotide identity with another gammaretrovirus, gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV). KoRV is endogenous in koalas, while GALV is exogenous, suggesting that KoRV predates GALV and that gibbons and koalas acquired the virus at different times from a common source. We have determined that subtle adaptive differences between the KoRV and GALV envelope genes account for differences in their receptor utilization properties. KoRV represents a unique example of a gammaretrovirus whose envelope has evolved to allow for its expanded host range and zoonotic potential.
Project description:Retroviruses are well known for their ability to incorporate envelope (Env) proteins from other retroviral strains and genera, and even from other virus families. This characteristic has been widely exploited for the generation of replication-defective retroviral vectors, including those derived from murine leukemia virus (MLV), bearing heterologous Env proteins. We investigated the possibility of "genetically pseudotyping" replication-competent MLV by replacing the native env gene in a full-length viral genome with that of another gammaretrovirus. Earlier, we developed replication-competent versions of MLV that stably transmit and express transgenes inserted into the 3' untranslated region of the viral genome. In one such tagged MLV expressing green fluorescent protein, we replaced the native env sequence with that of gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV). Although the GALV Env protein is commonly used to make high-titer pseudotypes of MLV vectors, we found that the env replacement greatly attenuated viral replication. However, extended cultivation of cells exposed to the chimeric virus resulted in selection of mutants exhibiting rapid replication kinetics and different variants arose in different infections. Two of these variants had acquired mutations at or adjacent to the splice acceptor site, and three others had acquired dual mutations within the long terminal repeat. Analysis of the levels of unspliced and spliced viral RNA produced by the parental and adapted viruses showed that the mutations gained by each of these variants functioned to reverse an imbalance in splicing caused by the env gene substitution. Our results reveal the presence of previously unknown cis-acting sequences in MLV that modulate splicing of the viral transcript and demonstrate that tagging of the retroviral genome with an easily assayed transgene can be combined with in vitro evolution as an approach to efficiently generating and screening for replicating mutants of replication-impaired recombinant viruses.
Project description:Gene therapy for hematopoietic diseases has been hampered by the low frequency of transduction of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with retroviral vectors pseudotyped with amphotropic envelopes. We hypothesized that transduction could be increased by the use of retroviral vectors pseudotyped with envelopes that recognize more abundant cellular receptors. The levels of mRNA encoding the receptors of the feline retroviruses, RD114 and feline leukemia virus type C (FeLV-C), were significantly higher than the level of gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) receptor mRNA in cells enriched for human HSCs (Lin- CD34+ CD38-). We cotransduced human peripheral blood CD34+ cells with equivalent numbers of FeLV-C and GALV or RD114 and GALV-pseudotyped retroviruses for injection into fetal sheep. Analysis of DNA from peripheral blood and bone marrow from recipient sheep demonstrated that FeLV-C- or RD114-pseudotyped vectors were present at significantly higher levels than GALV-pseudotyped vectors. Analysis of individual myeloid colonies demonstrated that retrovirus vectors with FeLV-C and RD114 pseudotypes were present at 1.5 to 1.6 copies per cell and were preferentially integrated near known genes We conclude that the more efficient transduction of human HSCs with either FeLV-C- or RD114-pseudotyped retroviral particles may improve gene transfer in human clinical trials.
Project description:Both cell-free and cell-associated infection routes are important for retroviral dissemination. Regardless of the mechanism, the driving force of retroviral entry is the interaction between the viral envelope and its receptor. To date it remains unclear how decreased affinity of viruses for their receptors affects viral cell-free infection, cell-cell transmission, and spreading kinetics. We have previously characterized a mutant form of the amphotropic murine retrovirus receptor human phosphate transporter 2 (PiT2) wherein the single substitution of a glutamic acid for the lysine residue at position 522 of this receptor is sufficient to render it to function as a gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) receptor.In this study we analyzed the binding affinity of the mutant receptor PiT2K522E and determined that it has a 1000 fold decreased GALV envelope binding affinity compared to the GALV wild type receptor. The decreased affinity does not restrict the initiation of cell-free GALV infection. The diminished binding affinity does, however, correlate with a decrease in the ability of GALV to spread in cells expressing this mutant receptor.The reduced ability of GALV to subsequently spread among cells expressing PiT2K522E is likely resulted from reduced cell-cell transmission, the decreased ability of PiT2K522E-expressing cells to establish superinfection interference, and attendant cytopathic affects.