ABSTRACT: Chimeras were previously generated between the ecotropic (Moloney-MuLV) and amphotropic (4070A) SU and TM proteins of murine leukemia virus (MuLV). After passage in D17 cells, three chimeras with junctions in the C terminus of SU (AE5, AE6, and AE7), showed improved kinetics of viral spreading, suggesting that they had adapted. Sequencing of the viruses derived from the D17 cell lines revealed second-site changes within the env gene. Changes were detected in the receptor binding domain, the proline-rich region, the C terminus of SU, and the ectodomain of TM. Second-site changes were subcloned into the parental DNA, singly and in combination, and tested for viability. All viruses had maintained their original cloned mutations and junctions. Reconstruction and passage of AE7 or AE6 virus with single point mutations recovered the additional second-site changes identified in the parental population. The AE5 isolate required changes in the VRA, the VRC, the VRB-hinge region, and the C terminus of SU for efficient infection. Passage of virus, including the parental 4070A, in D17 cells resulted in a predominant G100R mutation within the receptor binding domain. Viruses were subjected to titer determination in three cell types, NIH 3T3, canine D17, and 293T. AE6 viruses with changes in the proline-rich region initially adapted for growth on D17 cells could infect all cell types tested. AE6-based chimeras with additional mutations in the C terminus of SU could infect D17 and 293T cells. Infection of NIH 3T3 cells was dependent on the proline-rich mutation. AE7-based chimeras encoding L538Q and G100R were impaired in infecting NIH 3T3 and 293T cells.
Project description:Passage of 4070A murine leukemia virus (MuLV) in D17 cells resulted in a G-to-R change at position 100 within the VRA of the envelope protein (Env). Compared with 4070A MuLV, virus with the G100R Env displayed enhanced binding on target cells, internalized the virus more rapidly, and increased the overall viral titer in multiple cell types. This provides a direct correlation between binding strength and efficiency of viral entry. Deletion of a His residue at the SU N terminus eliminated the transduction efficiency by the G100R virus, suggesting that the G100R virus maintains the regulatory characteristics of 4070A viral entry. The improved transduction efficiency of G100R Env would be an asset for gene delivery systems.
Project description:Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a transmissible lung cancer of sheep known as ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recently, we have found that the expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) is sufficient to transform mouse NIH 3T3 cells in classical transformation assays. To further investigate the mechanisms of JSRV oncogenesis, we generated a series of envelope chimeras between JSRV and the JSRV-related endogenous retroviruses of sheep (enJSRVs) and assessed them in transformation assays. Chimeras containing the exogenous JSRV SU region and the enJSRV TM region were unable to transform NIH 3T3 cells. Additional chimeras containing only the carboxy-terminal portion of TM (a region that we previously identified as VR3) of the endogenous envelope with SU and the remaining portion of TM from the exogenous JSRV were also unable to transform NIH 3T3 cells. The VR3 region includes the putative membrane-spanning region and cytoplasmic tail of the JSRV TM glycoprotein; this suggested that the cytoplasmic tail of the JSRV Env mediates transformation, possibly via a cell signaling mechanism. Mutations Y590 and M593 in the cytoplasmic tail of the JSRV envelope were sufficient to inhibit the transforming abilities of these constructs. Y590 and M593 are part of a Y-X-X-M motif that is recognized by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K). PI-3K initiates a cell signaling pathway that inhibits apoptosis and is required for a number of mitogens during the G(1)-to-S-phase transition of the cell cycle. PI-3K activates Akt by phosphorylation of threonine 308 and serine 473. We detected by Western blot analysis phosphorylated Akt in serum-starved MP1 cells (NIH 3T3 cells transformed by JSRV) but not in the parental NIH 3T3 cells. These data indicate that the cytoplasmic tail of the JSRV TM is necessary for cell transformation and suggest a new mechanism of retroviral transformation. In addition, the ability to dissociate the function of the JSRV envelope to mediate viral entry from its transforming capacity has direct relevance for the design of JSRV-based vectors that target the differentiated epithelial cells of the lungs.
Project description:Murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) induce leukemias and lymphomas in mice. We have used fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis to determine the hematopoietic phenotypes of tumor cells induced by a number of MuLVs. Tumor cells induced by ecotropic Moloney, amphotropic 4070A, and 10A1 MuLVs and by two chimeric MuLVs, Mo(4070A) and Mo(10A1), were examined with antibodies to 13 lineage-specific cell surface markers found on myeloid cell, T-cell, and B-cell lineages. The chimeric Mo(4070A) and Mo(10A1) MuLVs, consisting of Moloney MuLV with the carboxy half of the Pol region and nearly all of the Env region of 4070A and 10A1, respectively, were constructed to examine the possible influence of these sequences on Moloney MuLV-induced tumor cell phenotypes. In some instances, these phenotypic analyses were supplemented by Southern blot analysis for lymphoid cell-specific genomic DNA rearrangements at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain, the T-cell receptor gamma, and the T-cell receptor beta loci. The results of our analysis showed that Moloney MuLV, 4070A, Mo(4070A), and Mo(10A1) induced mostly T-cell tumors. Moloney MuLV and Mo(4070A) induced a wide variety of T-cell phenotypes, ranging from immature to mature phenotypes, while 4070A induced mostly prothymocyte and double-negative (CD4- CD8-) T-cell tumors. The tumor phenotypes obtained with 10A1 and Mo(10A1) were each less variable than those obtained with the other MuLVs tested. 10A1 uniformly induced a tumor consisting of lineage marker-negative cells that lack lymphoid cell-specific DNA rearrangements and histologically appear to be early undifferentiated erythroid cell-like precursors. The Mo(10A1) chimera consistently induced an intermediate T-cell tumor. The chimeric constructions demonstrated that while 4070A 3' pol and env sequences apparently did not influence the observed tumor cell phenotypes, the 10A1 half of pol and env had a strong effect on the phenotypes induced by Mo(10A1) that resulted in a phenotypic consistency not seen with other viruses. This result implicates 10A1 env in an active role in the tumorigenic process.
Project description:CasBrE is a neurovirulent murine leukemia virus (MLV) capable of inducing paralytic disease with associated spongiform neurodegeneration. The neurovirulence of this virus has been genetically mapped to the surface expressed subunit (SU) of the env gene. However, CasBrE SU synthesized in the absence of the transmembrane subunit (TM) does not retain ecotropic receptor binding activity, indicating that folding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) requires this domain. Using a neural stem cell (NSC) based viral trans complementation approach to examine whether misfolded CasBrE SU retained neurovirulence, we observed CasBrE SU interaction with the "non-neurovirulent" amphotropic helper virus, 4070A which restored functional activity of CasBrE SU.Herein, we show that infection of NSCs expressing CasBrE SU with 4070A (CasES+4070A-NSCs) resulted in the redistribution of CasBrE SU from a strictly secreted product to include retention on the plasma membrane. Cell surface cross-linking analysis suggested that CasBrE SU membrane localization was due to interactions with 4070A Env. Viral particles produced from CasES+4070A-NSCS contained both CasBrE and 4070A gp70 Env proteins. These particles displayed ecotropic receptor-mediated infection, but were still 100-fold less efficient than CasE+4070A-NSC virus. Infectious center analysis showed CasBrE SU ecotropic transduction efficiencies approaching those of NSCs expressing full length CasBrE Env (CasE; SU+TM). In addition, CasBrE SU-4070A Env interactions resulted in robust ecotropic superinfection interference indicating near native intracellular SU interaction with its receptor, mCAT-1.In this report we provided evidence that 4070A Env and CasBrE SU physically interact within NSCs leading to CasBrE SU retention on the plasma membrane, incorporation into viral particles, restoration of mCAT-1 binding, and capacity for initiation of TM-mediated fusion events. Thus, heterotropic Env-SU interactions facilitates CasBrE SU folding events that restore Env activity. These findings are consistent with the idea that one protein conformation acts as a folding scaffold or nucleus for a second protein of similar primary structure, a process reminiscent of prion formation. The implication is that template-based protein folding may represent an inherent feature of neuropathogenic proteins that extends to retroviral Envs.
Project description:Murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) initiate infection of NIH 3T3 cells by binding of the viral envelope (Env) protein to a cell surface receptor. Interference assays have shown that MuLVs can be divided into four groups, each using a distinct receptor: ecotropic, polytropic, amphotropic, and 10A1. In this study, we have attempted to map the determinants within viral Env proteins by constructing chimeric env genes. Chimeras were made in all six pairwise combinations between Moloney MCF (a polytropic MuLV), amphotropic MuLV, and 10A1, using a conserved EcoRI site in the middle of the Env coding region. The receptor specificity of each chimera was determined by using an interference assay. We found that amphotropic receptor specificity of each chimera was determined by using an interference assay. We found that amphotropic receptor specificity seems to map to the N-terminal portion of surface glycoprotein gp70SU. The difference between amphotropic and 10A1 receptor specificity can be attributed to one or more of only six amino acid differences in this region. Nearly all other cases showed evidence of interaction between Env domains in the generation of receptor specificity. Thus, a chimera composed exclusively of MCF and amphotropic sequences was found to exhibit 10A1 receptor specificity. None of the chimeras were able to infect cells by using the MCF receptor; however, two chimeras containing the C-terminal portion of MCF gp70SU could bind to this receptor, while they were able to infect cells via the amphotropic receptor. This result raises the possibility that receptor binding maps to the C-terminal portion of MCF gp70SU but requires MCF N-terminal sequences for a functional interaction with the MCF receptor.
Project description:Retroviruses can be used to accelerate hematopoietic cancers predisposed to neoplastic disease by prior genetic manipulations such as in transgenic or knockout mice. The virus imparts a second neoplastic "hit," providing evidence that the initial hit is transforming. In the present study, a unique retrovirus was developed that can induce a high incidence of myeloid disease and has a broad host range. This agent is a Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV)-based virus that has most of the U3 region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) replaced with that of retrovirus 4070A. Like Mo-MuLV, this virus, called MOL4070LTR, is NB-tropic and not restricted by Fv1 allelles. MOL4070LTR causes myeloid leukemias in ca. 50% of mice, a finding in contrast to Mo-MuLV, which induces almost exclusively lymphoid disease. The data suggest that the LTR of the 4070A virus expands the tissue tropism of the disease to the myeloid lineage. Interesting, MCF recombinant envelope was expressed in the lymphoid but not the myeloid neoplasms of BALB/c mice. This retrovirus has the potential for accelerating myeloid disease in genetically engineered mice.
Project description:An immunosuppressive variant of Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV), FIS-2, induces suppression of the primary antibody response against sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) in adult NMRI mice more efficiently than the prototype F-MuLV clone 57 (cl.57). It is, however, less potent than F-MuLV cl.57 in inducing erythroleukemia upon inoculation into newborn NMRI mice. Nucleotide sequence analysis shows a high degree of homology between the two viruses. Single point mutations are scattered over both the gag and the env encoding regions. The most notable mutations are the deletion of one direct repeat and a few single point mutations occurring in the binding sites for cellular transcriptional factors in the FIS-2 long terminal repeat region (LTR). To define the genetic determinants responsible for the pathogenic properties of FIS-2, we constructed six chimeras between FIS-2 and F-MuLV cl.57. Adult mice were infected with the chimeras, and their primary antibody responses against SRBC were investigated. The results showed that the fragment encompassing the FIS-2 env encoding region SU is responsible for the increased immunosuppressive activity in adult mice. A leukemogenicity assay was also performed by infecting newborn mice with the chimeras. Consistent with the previous studies, it showed that the deletion of one direct repeat in the FIS-2 LTR is responsible for the long latent period of erythroleukemia induced by FIS-2 in newborn-inoculated mice. However, studies of cell type-specific transcriptional activities of FIS-2 and F-MuLV cl.57 LTRs using LTR-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs showed that the deletion of one direct repeat does not reduce the transcriptional activity of the FIS-2 LTR. The activity is either comparable to or higher than the transcriptional activity of the F-MuLV cl.57 LTR in the different cell lines that we used, even in an erythroleukemia cell line. It seems that the high transcriptional strength of the FIS-2 LTR is not sufficient to give FIS-2 a high leukemogenic effect. This suggestion is inconsistent with the previous suggestion that the transcriptional strength of an LTR in a given cell type is correlated with the leukemogenic potential in the corresponding tissue. In other words, these data indicate that the direct repeats in the F-MuLV LTR may play other roles besides transcriptional enhancer in the leukemogenesis of F-MuLV.
Project description:RCASBP-M2C is a retroviral vector derived from an avian sarcoma/leukosis virus which has been modified so that it uses the envelope gene from an amphotropic murine leukemia virus (E. V. Barsov and S. H. Hughes, J. Virol. 70:3922-3929, 1996). The vector replicates efficiently in avian cells and infects, but does not replicate in, mammalian cells. This makes the vector useful for gene delivery, mutagenesis, and other applications in mammalian systems. Here we describe the development of a derivative of RCASBP-M2C, pGT-GFP, that can be used in gene trap experiments in mammalian cells. The gene trap vector pGT-GFP contains a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene. Appropriate insertion of the vector into genes causes GFP expression; this facilitates the rapid enrichment and cloning of the trapped cells and provides an opportunity to select subpopulations of trapped cells based on the subcellular localization of GFP. With this vector, we have generated about 90 gene-trapped lines using D17 and NIH 3T3 cells. Five trapped NIH 3T3 lines were selected based on the distribution of GFP in cells. The cellular genes disrupted by viral integration have been identified in four of these lines by using a 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends protocol.
Project description:Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultivation is a powerful technique for monitoring and understanding diverse cellular mechanisms in developmental cancer and neuronal biology, tissue engineering, and drug development. 3D systems could relate better to in vivo models than two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Several factors, such as cell type, survival rate, proliferation rate, and gene and protein expression patterns, determine whether a particular cell line can be adapted to a 3D system. The 3D system may overcome some of the limitations of 2D cultures in terms of cell-cell communication and cell networks, which are essential for understanding differentiation, structural organization, shape, and extended connections with other cells or organs. Here, the effect of the anticancer drug cisplatin, also known as cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP, on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation was investigated using 3D spheroid-forming cells and real-time monitoring for 7 days. First, 12 cell lines were screened for their ability to form 3D spheroids: prostate (DU145), testis (F9), embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3), muscle (C2C12), embryonic kidney (293T), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cell (A549), cervical cancer (HeLa), HeLa contaminant (HEp2), pituitary epithelial-like cell (GH3), embryonic cell (PA317), and osteosarcoma (U-2OS) cells. Of these, eight cell lines were selected: NIH-3T3, C2C12, 293T, SH-SY5Y, A549, HeLa, PA317, and U-2OS; and five underwent real-time monitoring of CDDP cytotoxicity: HeLa, A549, 293T, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS. ATP generation was blocked 1 day after addition of 50 ?M CDDP, but cytotoxicity in HeLa, A549, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS cells could be visualized only 4 days after treatment. In 293T cells, CDDP failed to kill entirely the culture and ATP generation was only partially blocked after 1 day. This suggests potential CDDP resistance of 293T cells or metabolic clearance of the drug. Real-time monitoring and ATP measurements directly confirmed the cytotoxicity of CDDP, indicating that CDDP may interfere with mitochondrial activity.
Project description:Certain murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) can induce progressive noninflammatory spongiform neurodegeneration similar to that caused by prions. The primary MLV determinants responsible have been mapped to within the env gene; however, it has remained unclear how env mediates disease, whether non-Env viral components are required, and what central nervous system (CNS) cells constitute the critical CNS targets. To address these questions, we examined the effect of transplanting engraftable C17.2 neural stem cells engineered to pseudotype, disseminate, and trans-complement neurovirulent (CasBrE, CasE, and CasES) or non-neurovirulent (Friend and SFF-FE) env sequences (SU or SU/TM) within the CNS using either the "non-neurovirulent" amphotropic helper virus, 4070A, or pgag-polgpt (a nonpackaged vector encoding Gag-Pol). These studies revealed that acute MLV-induced spongiosis results from two separable activities of Env. First, Env causes neuropathology through unique viral targeting within the CNS, which was efficiently mediated by ecotropic Envs (CasBrE and Friend), but not 4070A amphotropic Env. Second, Env induces spongiosis through a toxin activity that is MLV-receptor independent and does not require the coexpression of other viral structural proteins. CasBrE and 4070A Envs possess the toxin activity, whereas Friend Env does not. Although the identity of the critical viral target cell(s) remains unresolved, our results appear to exclude microglia and oligodendrocyte lineage cells, while implicating viral entry into susceptible neurons. Thus, MLV-induced disease parallels prionopathies in that a single protein, Env, mediates both the CNS targeting and the toxicity of the infectious agent that manifests itself as progressive vacuolar neurodegeneration.