Vaccination against canine distemper virus infection in infant ferrets with and without maternal antibody protection, using recombinant attenuated poxvirus vaccines.
ABSTRACT: Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets is clinically and immunologically similar to measles, making this a useful model for the human disease. The model was used to determine if parenteral or mucosal immunization of infant ferrets at 3 and 6 weeks of age with attenuated vaccinia virus (NYVAC) or canarypox virus (ALVAC) vaccine strains expressing the CDV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) protein genes (NYVAC-HF and ALVAC-HF) would induce serum neutralizing antibody and protect against challenge infection at 12 weeks of age. Ferrets without maternal antibody that were vaccinated parenterally with NYVAC-HF (n = 5) or ALVAC-HF (n = 4) developed significant neutralizing titers (log(10) inverse mean titer +/- standard deviation of 2.30 +/- 0.12 and 2.20 +/- 0.34, respectively) by the day of challenge, and all survived with no clinical or virologic evidence of infection. Ferrets without maternal antibody that were vaccinated intranasally (i.n.) developed lower neutralizing titers, with NYVAC-HF producing higher titers at challenge (1.11 +/- 0.57 versus 0.40 +/- 0.37, P = 0.02) and a better survival rate (6/7 versus 0/5, P = 0.008) than ALVAC-HF. Ferrets with maternal antibody that were vaccinated parenterally with NYVAC-HF (n = 7) and ALVAC-HF (n = 7) developed significantly higher antibody titers (1.64 +/- 0. 54 and 1.28 +/- 0.40, respectively) than did ferrets immunized with an attenuated CDV vaccine (0.46 +/- 0.59; n = 7) or the recombinant vectors expressing rabies glycoprotein (RG) (0.19 +/- 0.32; n = 8, P = 7 x 10(-6)). The NYVAC vaccine also protected against weight loss, and both the NYVAC and attenuated CDV vaccines protected against the development of some clinical signs of infection, although survival in each of the three vaccine groups was low (one of seven) and not significantly different from the RG controls (none of eight). Combined i.n.-parenteral immunization of ferrets with maternal antibody using NYVAC-HF (n = 9) produced higher titers (1.63 +/- 0. 25) than did i.n. immunization with NYVAC-HF (0.88 +/- 0.36; n = 9) and ALVAC-HF (0.61 +/- 0.43; n = 9, P = 3 x 10(-7)), and survival was also significantly better in the i.n.-parenteral group (3 of 9) than in the other HF-vaccinated animals (none of 18) or in controls immunized with RG (none of 5) (P = 0.0374). Multiple routes were not tested with the ALVAC vaccine. The results suggest that infant ferrets are less responsive to i.n. vaccination than are older ferrets and raises questions about the appropriateness of this route of immunization in infant ferrets or infants of other species.
Project description:Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets causes an acute systemic disease involving multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, lymphoid system, and central nervous system (CNS). We have tested candidate CDV vaccines incorporating the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins in the highly attenuated NYVAC strain of vaccinia virus and in the ALVAC strain of canarypox virus, which does not productively replicate in mammalian hosts. Juvenile ferrets were vaccinated twice with these constructs, or with an attenuated live-virus vaccine, while controls received saline or the NYVAC and ALVAC vectors expressing rabies virus glycoprotein. Control animals did not develop neutralizing antibody and succumbed to distemper after developing fever, weight loss, leukocytopenia, decreased activity, conjunctivitis, an erythematous rash typical of distemper, CNS signs, and viremia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (as measured by reverse transcription-PCR). All three CDV vaccines elicited neutralizing titers of at least 1:96. All vaccinated ferrets survived, and none developed viremia. Both recombinant vaccines also protected against the development of symptomatic distemper. However, ferrets receiving the live-virus vaccine lost weight, became lymphocytopenic, and developed the erythematous rash typical of CDV. These data show that ferrets are an excellent model for evaluating the ability of CDV vaccines to protect against symptomatic infection. Because the pathogenesis and clinical course of CDV infection of ferrets is quite similar to that of other Morbillivirus infections, including measles, this model will be useful in testing new candidate Morbillivirus vaccines.
Project description:We compare the immunogenicity of ALVAC- or NYVAC- based SIVmac251 vaccine regimens combined with gp120/alum boosts and their relative efficacy in a cohort of 65 female rhesus macaques. Both NYVAC- and ALVAC-based regimens induced equivalent titers of serum binding antibodies to gp120, whereas NYVAC elicited significantly higher envelope specific T cell responses. Surprisingly, however, only the ALVAC-based regimen was able to significantly decrease the risk of SIVmac251 acquisition following repeated low-dose intravaginal challenges. The risk of virus acquisition was associated negatively with the frequency of classical monocytes and positively with non-classical. The systems biology approach used to investigate the molecular basis of the different vaccine efficacies demonstrated specific expression profiles elicited by the ALVAC-based regimen that correlate with efficacy. Overall design: A total of 65 female rhesus macaques were randomized into five groups: ALVAC-SIV/gp120 (20 animals), NYVAC-SIV/gp120 (20 animals), ALVAC-control (10 animals), NYVAC-control (10 animals), and naïve (5 animals). The animals in the ALVAC-SIV/gp120 and NYVAC-SIV/gp120 groups were immunized at weeks 0, 4, 12, and 24 with ALVAC-SIV (vCP180) or NYVAC-SIV (VP1071) carrying the identical Env-Gag-Pol genes, respectively. At weeks 12 and 24, the animals from these groups received an alum-formulated gp120 protein boost. The animals in the ALVAC-control and NYVAC-control groups were immunized at weeks 0, 4, 12, and 24 with empty ALVAC-SIV (vCP180) or NYVAC-SIV (VP1071) vectors, respectively. At weeks 12 and 24, the animals from these groups received alum. technical replicate: P168_A06015_w0.6h, P168_A06015_w0.6h_rep1 technical replicate: P168_A06028_w0.6h_rep1, P168_A06028_w0.6h_rep2 technical replicate: P168_A06082_w0.0h, P168_A06082_w0.0h_rep1 technical replicate: P168_A06083_w0.24h, P168_A06083_w0.24h_rep1
Project description:As part of the continuing effort to develop an effective HIV vaccine, we generated a poxviral vaccine vector (previously described) designed to improve on the results of the RV144 phase III clinical trial. The construct, NYVAC-KC, is a replication-competent, attenuated recombinant of the vaccinia virus strain NYVAC. NYVAC is a vector that has been used in many previous clinical studies but is replication deficient. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison of replication-restricted NYVAC and replication-competent NYVAC-KC in a nonhuman primate study, which utilized a prime-boost regimen similar to that of RV144. NYVAC-C and NYVAC-C-KC express the HIV-1 antigens gp140, and Gag/Gag-Pol-Nef-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) from clade C and were used as the prime, with recombinant virus plus envelope protein used as the boost. In nearly every T and B cell immune assay against HIV-1, including neutralization and antibody binding, NYVAC-C-KC induced a greater immune response than NYVAC-C, indicating that replication competence in a poxvirus may improve upon the modestly successful regimen used in the RV144 clinical trial.IMPORTANCE Though the RV144 phase III clinical trial showed promise that an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is possible, a successful vaccine will require improvement over the vaccine candidate (ALVAC) used in the RV144 study. With that goal in mind, we have tested in nonhuman primates an attenuated but replication-competent vector, NYVAC-KC, in direct comparison to its parental vector, NYVAC, which is replication restricted in human cells, similar to the ALVAC vector used in RV144. We have utilized a prime-boost regimen for administration of the vaccine candidate that is similar to the one used in the RV144 study. The results of this study indicate that a replication-competent poxvirus vector may improve upon the effectiveness of the RV144 clinical trial vaccine candidate.
Project description:Because of the pathogenicity and low incidence of avian influenza virus infections in humans, the immune correlates of protection for avian influenza vaccines cannot be determined from clinical studies. Here, we used the ferret model to address this for an avian influenza H5N1 vaccine. Using oil-in-water adjuvants, we generated groups of ferrets with undetectable (geometric mean titer [GMT]?<?10), low (GMT?=?28.3), or high (GMT?>?761.1) hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titers to the A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus. Ferrets were then challenged with the wild-type virus and disease severity and immunologic parameters were studied. The severity of infection and symptom profile were inversely associated with pre-challenge HAI titers in a dose-dependent manner. A vaccinated ferret with no detectable HAI-antibodies but high flu-specific IgG-antibody titers mounted rapid functional antibodies after infection and experienced milder disease compared to other ferrets in the group. Compared to naïve ferrets, all vaccinated ferrets showed improved cellular immunity in the lungs and peripheral blood. High number of IFN?+ CD8- T cells in the airways was associated with early viral clearance. Thus, while neutralizing antibodies are the best correlate of protection, non-neutralizing antibodies can also be protective. This should be taken into consideration in future avian influenza vaccine trials.
Project description:The lack of a vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a challenging and serious gap in preventive medicine. Herein, we characterize the immunogenicity of an adenovirus serotype 5-based RSV vaccine encoding the fusion (F) protein (Ad5.RSV-F) and the protection provided following immunization with Ad5.RSV-F and assess its potential for producing enhanced disease in a cotton rat (CR) model. Animals were immunized intranasally (i.n.) and/or intramuscularly (i.m.) and subsequently challenged with RSV/A/Tracy (i.n.) to assess protection. Robust immune responses were seen in CRs vaccinated with Ad5.RSV-F given i.m. or i.n., and these responses correlated with reduced replication of the virus in noses and lungs after challenge. Neutralizing antibody responses following immunization with a single dose of Ad5.RSV-F at 1 × 10(11) viral particles (v.p.) elicited antibody titers 64- to 256-fold greater than those seen after natural infection. CRs boosted with Ad5.RSV-F i.n. 28 days after an i.m. dose also had significant increases in neutralizing antibody titers. Antibody affinity for different F-protein antigenic sites revealed substantial differences between antibodies elicited by Ad5.RSV-F and those seen after RSV infection; differences in antibody profiles were also seen between CRs given Ad5.RSV-F i.m. and CRs given Ad5.RSV-F i.n. Ad5.RSV-F priming did not result in enhanced disease following live-virus challenge, in contrast to the histopathology seen in CRs given the formalin-inactivated RSV/A/Burnett vaccine.Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children and a serious health threat in the immunocompromised and the elderly. Infection severity increased in children in an immunization trial, hampering the over 4-decade-long quest for a successful RSV vaccine. In this study, we show that a genetically engineered RSV-F-encoding adenoviral vector provides protective immunity against RSV challenge without enhanced lung disease in cotton rats (CRs). CRs were vaccinated under a number of different regimens, and the immunity induced by the recombinant adenoviral RSV vaccine administered by use of an intramuscular prime-intranasal boost regimen may provide the best protection for young infants and children at risk of RSV infection, since this population is naive to adenoviral preformed immunity. Overall, this report describes a potential RSV vaccine candidate that merits further evaluation in a phase I clinical study in humans.
Project description:The H7N9 influenza virus caused significant mortality and morbidity in infected humans during an outbreak in China in 2013 stimulating vaccine development efforts. As previous H7-based vaccines have been poorly immunogenic in humans we sought to determine the immunogenic and protective properties of an inactivated whole virus vaccine derived from a 2013 H7N9 virus in ferrets. As whole virus vaccine preparations have been shown to be more immunogenic in humans, but less likely to be used, than split or surface antigen formulations, we vaccinated ferrets with a single dose of 15, 30, or 50 ?g of the vaccine and subsequently challenged with wild-type A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) either by direct instillation or by contact with infected animals. Although ferrets vaccinated with higher doses of vaccine had higher serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) titers, the titers were still low. During subsequent instillation challenge, however, ferrets vaccinated with 50 ?g of vaccine showed no illness and shed significantly less virus than mock vaccinated controls. All vaccinated ferrets had lower virus loads in their lungs as compared to controls. In a separate study where unvaccinated-infected ferrets were placed in the same cage with vaccinated-uninfected ferrets, vaccination did not prevent infection in the contact ferrets, although they showed a trend of lower viral load. Overall, we conclude that inactivated whole-virus H7N9 vaccine was able to reduce the severity of infection and viral load, despite the lack of hemagglutinin-inhibiting antibodies.
Project description:The recombinant Canarypox ALVAC-HIV/gp120/alum vaccine regimen was the first to significantly decrease the risk of HIV acquisition in humans, with equal effectiveness in both males and females. Similarly, an equivalent SIV-based ALVAC vaccine regimen decreased the risk of virus acquisition in Indian rhesus macaques of both sexes following intrarectal exposure to low doses of SIVmac251. Here, we demonstrate that the ALVAC-SIV/gp120/alum vaccine is also efficacious in female Chinese rhesus macaques following intravaginal exposure to low doses of SIVmac251 and we confirm that CD14+ classical monocytes are a strong correlate of decreased risk of virus acquisition. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frequency of CD14+ cells and/or their gene expression correlates with blood Type 1 CD4+ T helper cells, ?4?7+ plasmablasts, and vaginal cytocidal NKG2A+ cells. To better understand the correlate of protection, we contrasted the ALVAC-SIV vaccine with a NYVAC-based SIV/gp120 regimen that used the identical immunogen. We found that NYVAC-SIV induced higher immune activation via CD4+Ki67+CD38+ and CD4+Ki67+?4?7+ T cells, higher SIV envelope-specific IFN-? producing cells, equivalent ADCC, and did not decrease the risk of SIVmac251 acquisition. Using the systems biology approach, we demonstrate that specific expression profiles of plasmablasts, NKG2A+ cells, and monocytes elicited by the ALVAC-based regimen correlated with decreased risk of virus acquisition.
Project description:Current influenza vaccines do not provide effective protection against heterologous influenza viruses. The ability of the novel M2SR influenza vaccine to protect against drifted influenza viruses was evaluated in naïve ferrets and in ferrets with pre-existing immunity to influenza. In naïve ferrets, M2SR provided similar protection against drifted challenge viruses as the comparator vaccine, FluMist®. However, in ferrets with pre-existing immunity, M2SR provided superior protection than FluMist in two model systems. In the first model, ferrets were infected with influenza A H1N1pdm and influenza B viruses to mimic the diverse influenza exposure in humans. The pre-infected ferrets, seropositive to H1N1pdm and influenza B but seronegative to H3N2, were then vaccinated with H3N2 M2SR or monovalent H3N2 FluMist virus (A/Brisbane/10/2007, clade 1) and challenged 6?weeks later with a drifted H3N2 virus (clade 3C.2a). Antibody titers to Brisbane/10/2007 were higher in M2SR vaccinated ferrets than in FluMist vaccinated ferrets in the pre-infected ferrets whereas the opposite was observed in naïve ferrets. After challenge with drifted H3N2 virus, M2SR provided superior protection than FluMist monovalent vaccine. In the second model, the impact of homologous pre-existing immunity upon vaccine-induced protection was evaluated. Ferrets, pre-infected with H1N1pdm virus, were vaccinated 90?days later with H1N1pdm M2SR or FluMist monovalent vaccine and challenged 6?weeks later with a pre-pandemic seasonal H1N1 virus, A/Brisbane/59/2007 (Bris59). While cross-reactive serum IgG antibodies against the Bris59 HA were detected after vaccination, anti-Bris59 hemagglutination inhibition antibodies were only detected post-challenge. M2SR provided better protection against Bris59 challenge than FluMist suggesting that homologous pre-existing immunity affected FluMist virus to a greater degree than M2SR. These results suggest that the single replication intranasal M2SR vaccine provides effective protection against drifted influenza A viruses not only in naïve ferrets but also in those with pre-existing immunity in contrast to FluMist viruses.
Project description:During spring-summer 2009, several observational studies from Canada showed increased risk of medically-attended, laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 illness among prior recipients of 2008-09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Explanatory hypotheses included direct and indirect vaccine effects. In a randomized placebo-controlled ferret study, we tested whether prior receipt of 2008-09 TIV may have directly influenced A(H1N1)pdm09 illness. Thirty-two ferrets (16/group) received 0.5 mL intra-muscular injections of the Canadian-manufactured, commercially-available, non-adjuvanted, split 2008-09 Fluviral or PBS placebo on days 0 and 28. On day 49 all animals were challenged (Ch0) with A(H1N1)pdm09. Four ferrets per group were randomly selected for sacrifice at day 5 post-challenge (Ch+5) and the rest followed until Ch+14. Sera were tested for antibody to vaccine antigens and A(H1N1)pdm09 by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), microneutralization (MN), nucleoprotein-based ELISA and HA1-based microarray assays. Clinical characteristics and nasal virus titers were recorded pre-challenge then post-challenge until sacrifice when lung virus titers, cytokines and inflammatory scores were determined. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups of influenza-naïve animals. Antibody rise to vaccine antigens was evident by ELISA and HA1-based microarray but not by HI or MN assays; virus challenge raised antibody to A(H1N1)pdm09 by all assays in both groups. Beginning at Ch+2, vaccinated animals experienced greater loss of appetite and weight than placebo animals, reaching the greatest between-group difference in weight loss relative to baseline at Ch+5 (7.4% vs. 5.2%; p?=?0.01). At Ch+5 vaccinated animals had higher lung virus titers (log-mean 4.96 vs. 4.23pfu/mL, respectively; p?=?0.01), lung inflammatory scores (5.8 vs. 2.1, respectively; p?=?0.051) and cytokine levels (p>0.05). At Ch+14, both groups had recovered. Findings in influenza-naïve, systematically-infected ferrets may not replicate the human experience. While they cannot be considered conclusive to explain human observations, these ferret findings are consistent with direct, adverse effect of prior 2008-09 TIV receipt on A(H1N1)pdm09 illness. As such, they warrant further in-depth investigation and search for possible mechanistic explanations.
Project description:The stem of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) is highly conserved and represents an attractive target for a universal influenza vaccine. The 18?HA subtypes of influenza A are phylogenetically divided into two groups, and while protection with group 1?HA stem vaccines has been demonstrated in animal models, studies on group 2 stem vaccines are limited. Thus, we engineered group 2?HA stem-immunogen (SI) vaccines targeting the epitope for the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody CR9114 and evaluated vaccine efficacy in mice and ferrets. Immunization induced antibodies that bound to recombinant HA protein and viral particles, and competed with CR9114 for binding to the HA stem. Mice vaccinated with H3 and H7-SI were protected from lethal homologous challenge with X-79 (H3N2) or A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9), and displayed moderate heterologous protection. In ferrets, H7-SI vaccination did not significantly reduce weight loss or nasal wash titers after robust 107 TCID50 H7N9 virus challenge. Epitope mapping revealed ferrets developed lower titers of antibodies that bound a narrow range of HA stem epitopes compared to mice, and this likely explains the lower efficacy in ferrets. Collectively, these findings indicate that while group 2 SI vaccines show promise, their immunogenicity and efficacy are reduced in larger outbred species, and will have to be enhanced for successful translation to a universal vaccine.