Characterization and epitope mapping of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies produced by immunization with oligomeric simian immunodeficiency virus envelope protein.
ABSTRACT: In an attempt to generate broadly cross-reactive, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), we compared two immunization protocols using different preparations of oligomeric SIV envelope (Env) glycoproteins. In the first protocol, mice were immunized with soluble gp140 (sgp140) from CP-MAC, a laboratory-adapted variant of SIVmacBK28. Hybridomas were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a panel of 65 MAbs that recognized epitopes throughout the Env protein was generated. In general, these MAbs detected Env by Western blotting, were at least weakly positive in fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of Env-expressing cells, and preferentially recognized monomeric Env protein. A subset of these antibodies directed toward the V1/V2 loop, the V3 loop, or nonlinear epitopes were capable of neutralizing CP-MAC, a closely related isolate (SIVmac1A11), and/or two more divergent strains (SIVsmDeltaB670 CL3 and SIVsm543-3E). In the second protocol, mice were immunized with unfixed CP-MAC-infected cells and MAbs were screened for the ability to inhibit cell-cell fusion. In contrast to MAbs generated against sgp140, the seven MAbs produced using this protocol did not react with Env by Western blotting and were strongly positive by FACS analysis, and several reacted preferentially with oligomeric Env. All seven MAbs potently neutralized SIVmac1A11, and several neutralized SIVsmDeltaB670 CL3 and/or SIVsm543-3E. MAbs that inhibited gp120 binding to CD4, CCR5, or both were identified in both groups. MAbs to the V3 loop and one MAb reactive with the V1/V2 loop interfered with CCR5 binding, indicating that these regions of Env play similar roles for SIV and human immunodeficiency virus. Remarkably, several of the MAbs generated against infected cells blocked CCR5 binding in a V3-independent manner, suggesting that they may recognize a region analogous to the conserved coreceptor binding site in gp120. Finally, all neutralizing MAbs blocked infection through the alternate coreceptor STRL33 much more efficiently than infection through CCR5, a finding that has important implications for SIV neutralization assays using CCR5-negative human T-cell lines.
Project description:BACKGROUND: HIV-1 is decorated with trimeric glycoprotein spikes that enable infection by engaging CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. The variable loop 3 (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) is the main determinant for coreceptor usage. The predominant CCR5 using (R5) HIV-1 Env has been intensively studied in function and structure, whereas the trimeric architecture of the less frequent, but more cytopathic CXCR4 using (X4) HIV-1 Env is largely unknown, as are the consequences of sequence changes in and near V3 on antigenicity and trimeric Env structure. RESULTS: Soluble trimeric gp140 Env constructs were used as immunogenic mimics of the native spikes to analyze their antigenic properties in the context of their overall 3D structure. We generated soluble, uncleaved, gp140 trimers from a prototypic T-cell line-adapted (TCLA) X4 HIV-1 strain (NL4-3) and a hybrid (NL4-3/ADA), in which the V3 spanning region was substituted with that from the primary R5 isolate ADA. Compared to an ADA (R5) gp140, the NL4-3 (X4) construct revealed an overall higher antibody accessibility, which was most pronounced for the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), but also observed for mAbs against CD4 induced (CD4i) epitopes and gp41 mAbs. V3 mAbs showed significant binding differences to the three constructs, which were refined by SPR analysis. Of interest, the NL4-3/ADA construct with the hybrid NL4-3/ADA CD4bs showed impaired CD4 and CD4bs mAb reactivity despite the presence of the essential elements of the CD4bs epitope. We obtained 3D reconstructions of the NL4-3 and the NL4-3/ADA gp140 trimers via electron microscopy and single particle analysis, which indicates that both constructs inherit a propeller-like architecture. The first 3D reconstruction of an Env construct from an X4 TCLA HIV-1 strain reveals an open conformation, in contrast to recently published more closed structures from R5 Env. Exchanging the X4 V3 spanning region for that of R5 ADA did not alter the open Env architecture as deduced from its very similar 3D reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: 3D EM analysis showed an apparent open trimer configuration of X4 NL4-3 gp140 that is not modified by exchanging the V3 spanning region for R5 ADA.
Project description:The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge model of lentiviral infection is often used as a model to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) for studying vaccine mediated and immune correlates of protection. However, knowledge of the structure of the SIV envelope (Env) glycoprotein is limited, as is knowledge of binding specificity, function and potential efficacy of SIV antibody responses. In this study we describe the use of a competitive probe binding sort strategy as well as scaffolded probes for targeted isolation of SIV Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We isolated nearly 70 SIV-specific mAbs directed against major sites of SIV Env vulnerability analogous to broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) targets of HIV-1, namely, the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), CD4-induced (CD4i)-site, peptide epitopes in variable loops 1, 2 and 3 (V1, V2, V3) and potentially glycan targets of SIV Env. The range of SIV mAbs isolated includes those exhibiting varying degrees of neutralization breadth and potency as well as others that demonstrated binding but not neutralization. Several SIV mAbs displayed broad and potent neutralization of a diverse panel of 20 SIV viral isolates with some also neutralizing HIV-2(7312A). This extensive panel of SIV mAbs will facilitate more effective use of the SIV non-human primate (NHP) model for understanding the variables in development of a HIV vaccine or immunotherapy.
Project description:Like human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains use CCR5 to establish infection. However, while HIV-1 can acquire the ability to use CXCR4, SIVs that utilize CXCR4 have rarely been reported. To explore possible barriers against SIV coreceptor switching, we derived an R5X4 variant, termed 239-ST1, from the R5 clone SIVmac239 by serially passaging virus in CD4(+) CXCR4(+) CCR5(-) SupT1 cells. A 239-ST1 env clone, designated 239-ST1.2-32, used CXCR4 and CCR5 in cell-cell fusion and reporter virus infection assays and conferred the ability for rapid, cytopathic infection of SupT1 cells to SIVmac239. Viral replication was inhibitable by the CXCR4-specific antagonist AMD3100, and replication was abrogated in a novel CXCR4(-) SupT1 line. Surprisingly, parental SIVmac239 exhibited low-level replication in SupT1 cells that was not observed in CXCR4(-) SupT1 cells. Only two mutations in the 239-ST1.2-32 Env, K47E in the C1 domain and L328W in the V3 loop, were required for CXCR4 use in cell-cell fusion assays, although two other V3 changes, N316K and I324M, improved CXCR4 use in infection assays. An Env cytoplasmic tail truncation, acquired during propagation of 239-ST1 in SupT1 cells, was not required. Compared with SIVmac239, 239-ST1.2-32 was more sensitive to neutralization by five of seven serum and plasma samples from SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques and was approximately 50-fold more sensitive to soluble CD4. Thus, SIVmac239 can acquire the ability to use CXCR4 with high efficiency, but the changes required for this phenotype may be distinct from those for HIV-1 CXCR4 use. This finding, along with the increased neutralization sensitivity of this CXCR4-using SIV, suggests a mechanism that could select strongly against this phenotype in vivo.
Project description:The V1/V2 region and the V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) envelope (Env) protein are targets for neutralizing antibodies and also play an important functional role, with the V3 loop largely determining whether a virus uses CCR5 (R5), CXCR4 (X4), or either coreceptor (R5X4) to infect cells. While the sequence of V3 is variable, its length is highly conserved. Structural studies indicate that V3 length may be important for interactions with the extracellular loops of the coreceptor. Consistent with this view, genetic truncation of the V3 loop is typically associated with loss of Env function. We removed approximately one-half of the V3 loop from three different HIV-1 strains, and found that only the Env protein from the R5X4 strain R3A retained some fusion activity. Loss of V1/V2 (DeltaV1/V2) was well tolerated by this virus. Passaging of virus with the truncated V3 loop resulted in the derivation of a virus strain that replicated with wild-type kinetics. This virus, termed TA1, retained the V3 loop truncation and acquired several adaptive changes in gp120 and gp41. TA1 could use CCR5 but not CXCR4 to infect cells, and was extremely sensitive to neutralization by HIV-1 positive human sera, and by antibodies to the CD4 binding site and to CD4-induced epitopes in the bridging sheet region of gp120. In addition, TA1 was completely resistant to CCR5 inhibitors, and was more dependent upon the N-terminal domain of CCR5, a region of the receptor that is thought to contact the bridging sheet of gp120 and the base of the V3 loop, and whose conformation may not be greatly affected by CCR5 inhibitors. These studies suggest that the V3 loop protects HIV from neutralization by antibodies prevalent in infected humans, that CCR5 inhibitors likely act by disrupting interactions between the V3 loop and the coreceptor, and that altered use of CCR5 by HIV-1 associated with increased sensitivity to changes in the N-terminal domain can be linked to high levels of resistance to these antiviral compounds.
Project description:The trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes displayed on the surfaces of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions are composed of three heterodimers of the viral glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Although binding of gp120 to cell surface CD4 and a chemokine receptor is known to elicit conformational changes in gp120 and gp41, changes in quaternary structure of the trimer have only recently been elucidated. For the HIV-1 BaL isolate, CD4 attachment results in a striking rearrangement of the trimer from a "closed" to an "open" conformation. The effect of CD4 on SIV trimers, however, has not been described. Using cryo-electron tomography, we have now determined molecular architectures of the soluble CD4 (sCD4)-bound states of SIV Env trimers for three different strains (SIVmneE11S, SIVmac239, and SIV CP-MAC). In marked contrast to HIV-1 BaL, SIVmneE11S and SIVmac239 Env showed only minor conformational changes following sCD4 binding. In SIV CP-MAC, where trimeric Env displays a constitutively "open" conformation similar to that seen for HIV-1 BaL Env in the sCD4-complexed state, we show that there are no significant further changes in conformation upon the binding of either sCD4 or 7D3 antibody. The density maps also show that 7D3 and 17b antibodies target epitopes on gp120 that are on opposites sides of the coreceptor binding site. These results provide new insights into the structural diversity of SIV Env and show that there are strain-dependent variations in the orientation of sCD4 bound to trimeric SIV Env.
Project description:The V3 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 Env protein is a key domain in Env due to its role in interacting with the coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4. We examined potential subtype-specific V3 region differences by comparing patterns of amino acid variability and probing for subtype-specific structures using 11 anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies (V3 MAbs). Differences between the subtypes in patterns of variability were most evident in the stem and turn regions of V3 (positions 9 to 24), with the two subtypes being very similar in the base region. The characteristics of the binding of V3 MAbs to Env proteins of the subtype B virus JR-FL and the subtype C virus BR025 suggested three patterns, as each group of MAbs recognized a specific conformation- or sequence-based epitope. Viruses pseudotyped with Env from JR-FL and BR025 were resistant to neutralization by the V3 MAbs, although the replacement of the Env V3 region of the SF162 virus with the JR-FL V3 created a pseudotyped virus that was hypersensitive to neutralization. A single mutation in V3 (H13R) made this chimeric Env selectively resistant to one group of V3 MAbs, consistent with the mAb binding properties. We hypothesize that there are intrinsic differences in V3 conformation between subtype B and subtype C that are localized to the stem and turn regions and that these differences have two important biological consequences: first, subtype B and subtype C V3 regions can have subtype-specific epitopes that will inherently limit antibody cross-reactivity, and second, V3 conformational differences may potentiate the frequent evolution of R5- into X4-tropic variants of subtype B but limit subtype C virus from using the same mechanism to evolve X4-tropic variants as efficiently.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the HIV-1 envelope (Env) are key components for protection against HIV-1. However, many cross-reactive epitopes are often occluded. This study investigates the mechanisms contributing to the masking of V2i (variable loop V2 integrin) epitopes compared to the accessibility of V3 epitopes. V2i are conformation-dependent epitopes encompassing the integrin ?4?7-binding motif on the V1V2 loop of HIV-1 Env gp120. The V2i monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) display extensive cross-reactivity with gp120 monomers from many subtypes but neutralize only few viruses, indicating V2i's cryptic nature. First, we asked whether CD4-induced Env conformational changes affect V2i epitopes similarly to V3. CD4 treatment of BaL and JRFL pseudoviruses increased their neutralization sensitivity to V3 MAbs but not to the V2i MAbs. Second, the contribution of N-glycans in masking V2i versus V3 epitopes was evaluated by testing the neutralization of pseudoviruses produced in the presence of a glycosidase inhibitor, kifunensine. Viruses grown in kifunensine were more sensitive to neutralization by V3 but not V2i MAbs. Finally, we evaluated the time-dependent dynamics of the V2i and V3 epitopes. Extending the time of virus-MAb interaction to 18 h before adding target cells increased virus neutralization by some V2i MAbs and all V3 MAbs tested. Consistent with this, V2i MAb binding to Env on the surface of transfected cells also increased in a time-dependent manner. Hence, V2i and V3 epitopes are highly dynamic, but distinct factors modulate the antibody accessibility of these epitopes. The study reveals the importance of the structural dynamics of V2i and V3 epitopes in determining HIV-1 neutralization by antibodies targeting these sites.Conserved neutralizing epitopes are present in the V1V2 and V3 regions of HIV-1 Env, but these epitopes are often occluded from Abs. This study reveals that distinct mechanisms contribute to the masking of V3 epitopes and V2i epitopes in the V1V2 domain. Importantly, V3 MAbs and some V2i MAbs display greater neutralization against relatively resistant HIV-1 isolates when the MAbs interact with the virus for a prolonged period of time. Given their highly immunogenic nature, V3 and V2i epitopes are valuable targets that would augment the efficacy of HIV vaccines.
Project description:Studies using transformed human cell lines suggest that most SIV strains use CCR5 as co-receptor. Our analysis of primary rhesus macaque CD4(+) T-cell clones revealed marked differences in susceptibility to SIV(mac)239 infection. We investigated whether different levels of CCR5 expression account for clonal differences in SIV(mac)239 susceptibility. Macaque CD4(+) T-cells showed significant CCR5 downregulation 1-2days following CD3 mAb stimulation, which gradually recovered at resting state, 7-10days after activation. Exposure of clones to SIV(mac)239 during their CCR5(low) or CCR5(high) expression states revealed differences in SIV susceptibility independent of surface CCR5 levels. Furthermore, a CCR5 antagonist similarly reduced SIV(mac)239 infection of clones during their CCR5(low) or CCR5(high) expression states. Our data suggest a model where i) very low levels of CCR5 are sufficient for efficient SIV infection, ii) CCR5 levels above this threshold do not enhance infection, and iii) low level infection can occur in the absence of CCR5.
Project description:The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope spike (Env) mediates viral entry into host cells. The V3 loop of the gp120 component of the Env trimer contributes to the coreceptor binding site and is a target for neutralizing antibodies. We used cryo-electron tomography to visualize the binding of CD4 and the V3 loop monoclonal antibody (MAb) 36D5 to gp120 of the SIV Env trimer. Our results show that 36D5 binds gp120 at the base of the V3 loop and suggest that the antibody exerts its neutralization effect by blocking the coreceptor binding site. The antibody does this without altering the dynamics of the spike motion between closed and open states when CD4 is bound. The interaction between 36D5 and SIV gp120 is similar to the interaction between some broadly neutralizing anti-V3 loop antibodies and HIV-1 gp120. Two conformations of gp120 bound with CD4 are revealed, suggesting an intrinsic dynamic nature of the liganded Env trimer. CD4 binding substantially increases the binding of 36D5 to gp120 in the intact Env trimer, consistent with CD4-induced changes in the conformation of gp120 and the antibody binding site. Binding by MAb 36D5 does not substantially alter the proportions of the two CD4-bound conformations. The position of MAb 36D5 at the V3 base changes little between conformations, indicating that the V3 base serves as a pivot point during the transition between these two states.IMPORTANCE Glycoprotein spikes on the surfaces of SIV and HIV are the sole targets available to the immune system for antibody neutralization. Spikes evade the immune system by a combination of a thick layer of polysaccharide on the surface (the glycan shield) and movement between spike domains that masks the epitope conformation. Using SIV virions whose spikes were "decorated" with the primary cellular receptor (CD4) and an antibody (36D5) at part of the coreceptor binding site, we visualized multiple conformations trapped by the rapid freezing step, which were separated using statistical analysis. Our results show that the CD4-induced conformational dynamics of the spike enhances binding of the antibody.
Project description:The production of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been improved recently using the single B cell and PCR technology. A number of new anti-HIV-1 mAbs directed to various epitopes were produced by selecting single B cells from HIV positive individuals using the HIV-1 envelope (Env) proteins, and we tested whether the peptide can select B cells specific to a particular Env epitope. Using the fluorescently-labeled peptide tetramer representative of the V3 loop of HIV-1 Env gp120 for staining the B cells derived from one HIV-1 infected donor, four clonal human mAbs were produced with specificity to the V3 region. The clonality of the four V3 mAbs was based on the usage of the same immunoglobulin genes and almost identical sequence of CDRs. The amino acid changes were present only in the framework and, possibly, they could be related to the differences observed in the relative affinity binding of these four mAbs to V3 antigen. One representative V3 mAb displayed very potent neutralizing activity to one of two viruses tested. This study shows the feasibility of utilizing a peptide tetramer to select epitope-specific B cells and produce mAbs.