Cellular and species resistance to murine amphotropic, gibbon ape, and feline subgroup C leukemia viruses is strongly influenced by receptor expression levels and by receptor masking mechanisms.
ABSTRACT: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are resistant to infections by gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV) unless they are pretreated with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation. These viruses use the related sodium-phosphate symporters Pit1 and Pit2, respectively, as receptors in nonhamster cells, and evidence has suggested that the corresponding transporters of CHO cells may be masked by tunicamycin-sensitive secreted inhibitors. Although the E36 line of Chinese hamster cells was reported to secrete the putative Pit2 inhibitor and to be sensitive to the inhibitory CHO factors, E36 cells are highly susceptible to both GALV and A-MLV in the absence of tunicamycin. Moreover, expression of E36 Pit2 in CHO cells conferred tunicamycin-independent susceptibilities to both viruses. Based on the latter results, it was suggested that E36 Pit2 must functionally differ from the endogenous Pit2 of CHO cells. To test these ideas, we analyzed the receptor properties of CHO Pit1 and Pit2 in CHO cells. Surprisingly, and counterintuitively, transfection of a CHO Pit2 expression vector into CHO cells conferred strong susceptibility to both GALV and A-MLV, and similar overexpression of CHO Pit1 conferred susceptibility to GALV. Thus, CHO Pit2 is a promiscuous functional receptor for both viruses, and CHO Pit1 is a functional receptor for GALV. Similarly, we found that the natural resistance of Mus dunni tail fibroblasts to subgroup C feline leukemia viruses (FeLV-C) was eliminated simply by overexpression of the endogenous FeLV-C receptor homologue. These results demonstrate a novel and simple method to unmask latent retroviral receptor activities that occur in some cells. Specifically, resistances to retroviruses that are caused by subthreshold levels of receptor expression or by stoichiometrically limited masking or interference mechanisms can be efficiently overcome simply by overexpressing the endogenous receptors in the same cells.
Project description:Subgroup B feline leukemia viruses (FeLV-Bs) evolve from subgroup A FeLV (FeLV-A) by recombining with portions of endogenous FeLV envelope sequences in the cat genome. The replication properties of FeLV-B are distinct from those of FeLV-A; FeLV-B infects many nonfeline cell lines and recognizes the human Pit1 (HuPit1) receptor, whereas FeLV-A infects primarily feline cells, using a distinct but as yet undefined receptor. Here, we demonstrate that some FeLV-Bs can also use human Pit2 (HuPit2) and hamster Pit2 (HaPit2) for entry. By making viruses that contain chimeric surface (SU) envelope proteins from FeLV-A and FeLV-B, and testing their infectivity, we have defined genetic determinants that confer host range and specific receptor recognition. HuPit1 receptor recognition determinants localize to the N-terminal region of the FeLV-B SU, amino acids 83 to 116, encompassing the N-terminal portion of variable region A (VRA). While this 34-amino-acid domain of the FeLV-B VRA is sufficient for infection of some cells (feline, canine, and human), amino acids 146 to 249 of FeLV-B, which include variable region B (VRB), were required for efficient infection in other cell types (hamster, bovine, and rat). Chimeras encoding FeLV-B VRA and VRB also infected cells expressing HaPit2 and HuPit2 receptors more efficiently than chimeras encoding only the VRA of FeLV-B, suggesting that VRB provides a secondary determinant that is both cell and receptor specific. However, viruses containing additional FeLV-B sequences in the C terminus of SU could not recognize HuPit2, implying that there is a determinant beyond VRB that negatively affects HuPit2 interactions. Thus, Pit2 recognition may drive selection for the generation of specific FeLV-B recombinants, offering an explanation for the two major classes of FeLV-B that have been observed in vivo. Furthermore, the finding that some FeLV-Bs can use both Pit1 and Pit2 may explain previous observations that FeLV-B and GALV, which primarily uses Pit1, display nonreciprocal interference on many cell types.
Project description:Different subgroups of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) use different host cell receptors for entry. Subgroup A FeLV (FeLV-A) is the virus that is transmitted from cat to cat, suggesting that cells expressing the FeLV-A receptor are important targets at the earliest stages of infection. FeLV-B evolves from FeLV-A in the infected cat through acquisition of cellular sequences that are related to the FeLV envelope gene. FeLV-Bs have been shown to infect cells using the Pit1 receptor, and some variants can infect cells at a lower efficiency using Pit2. Because these observations were made using receptor proteins of human or rodent origin, the role that Pit1 and Pit2 may play in FeLV-B replication in the cat is unclear. In this study, the feline Pit receptors were cloned and tested for their ability to act as receptors for different FeLV-Bs. Some FeLV-Bs infected cells expressing feline Pit2 and feline Pit1 with equal high efficiency. Variable region A (VRA) in the putative receptor-binding domain (RBD) was a critical determinant for both feline Pit1 and feline Pit2 binding, although other domains in the RBD appear to influence how efficiently the FeLV-B surface unit can bind to feline Pit2 and promote entry via this receptor. An arginine residue at position 73 in VRA was found to be important for envelope binding to feline Pit2 but not feline Pit1. Interestingly, this arginine is not found in endogenous FeLV sequences or in recombinant viruses recovered from feline cells infected with FeLV-A. Thus, while FeLV-Bs that are able to use feline Pit2 can evolve by recombination with endogenous sequences, a subsequent point mutation during reverse transcription may be needed to generate a virus that can efficiently enter the cells using the feline Pit2 as its receptor. These studies suggest that cells expressing the feline Pit2 protein are likely to be targets for FeLV-B infection in the cat.
Project description:The Chinese hamster cell lines E36 and CHOK1 dramatically differ in susceptibility to amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) and gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV); E36 cells are highly susceptible to both viruses, CHOK1 cells are not. We have previously shown that GALV can infect E36 cells by using both its own receptor, HaPit1, and the A-MuLV receptor, HaPit2. Given that the two cell lines are from the same species, the loss of function of both of these receptors in CHOK1 cells is surprising. Other studies have shown that CHOK1 cells secrete proteins that block A-MuLV entry into CHOK1 as well as E36, suggesting the two A-MuLV receptors are functionally identical. However, CHOK1 conditioned medium does not block GALV entry into E36, indicating the secreted inhibitors do not block HaPit1. HaPit1 and ChoPit1 therefore differ as receptors for GALV; ChoPit1 is either inactivated by secreted factors or intrinsically nonfunctional. To determine why GALV cannot infect CHOK1, we cloned and sequenced ChoPit1 and ChoPit2. ChoPit2 is almost identical to HaPit2, which explains why CHOK1 conditioned medium blocks A-MuLV entry via both receptors. Although ChoPit1 and HaPit1 are 91% identical, a notable difference is at position 550 in the fourth extracellular region, shown by several studies to be crucial for GALV infection. Pit1 and HaPit1 have aspartate at 550, whereas ChoPit1 has threonine at this position. We assessed the significance of this difference for GALV infection by replacing the aspartate 550 in Pit1 with threonine. This single substitution rendered Pit1 nonfunctional for GALV and suggests that threonine at 550 inactivates ChoPit1 as a GALV receptor. Whether native ChoPit1 functions for GALV was determined by interference assays using Lec8, a glycosylation-deficient derivative of CHOK1 that is susceptible to both viruses and that has the same receptors as CHOK1. Unlike with E36, GALV and A-MuLV exhibited reciprocal interference when infecting Lec8, suggesting that they use the same receptor. We conclude both viruses can use ChoPit2 in the absence of the inhibitors secreted by CHOK1 and ChoPit1 is nonfunctional.
Project description:Glvr1 encodes the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related gene Glvr2 encodes the human receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (A-MLVs). The two proteins are 62% identical in their amino acid sequences and are predicted to have 10 transmembrane domains and five extracellular loops. A stretch of nine amino acids (region A) in the predicted fourth extracellular loop was previously shown to be critical for the function of Glvr1 as receptor for GALV and FeLV-B. Glvr1 and -2 show clusters of amino acid differences in several of their predicted extracellular loops, with the highest degree of divergence in region A. Chimeras were made between the two genes to further investigate the role of Glvr1 region A in defining receptor specificity for GALV and FeLV-B and to map which regions of Glvr2 control receptor specificity for A-MLVs. Region A from Glvr1 was sufficient to confer receptor specificity for GALV upon Glvr2, with the same chimera failing to act as a receptor for FeLV-B. However, introduction of additional N- or C-terminal Glvr1-encoding sequences in addition to Glvr1 region A-encoding sequences resulted in functional FeLV-B receptors. Therefore, FeLV-B is dependent on Glvr1 sequences outside region A for infectivity. The receptor specificity of Glvr2 for A-MLV could not be mapped to a single critical region; rather, N-terminal as well as C-terminal Glvr2-encoding sequences could confer specificity for A-MLV infection upon Glvr1. Surprisingly, though GALV/FeLV-B and A-MLV belong to different interference groups, some chimeras functioned as receptors for all three viruses.
Project description:The mammalian gammaretroviruses gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) can use the same receptor, Pit1, to infect human cells. A highly polymorphic nine-residue sequence within Pit1, designated region A, has been proposed as the virus binding site, because mutations in this region abolish Pit1-mediated cellular infection by GALV and FeLV-B. However, a direct correlation between region A mutations deleterious for infection and loss of virus binding has not been established. We report that cells expressing a Pit1 protein harboring mutations in region A that abolish receptor function retain the ability to bind virus, indicating that Pit1 region A is not the virus binding site. Furthermore, we have now identified a second region in Pit1, comprising residues 232 to 260 (region B), that is required for both viral entry and virus binding. Epitope-tagged Pit1 proteins were used to demonstrate that mutations in region B result in improper orientation of Pit1 in the cell membrane. Compensatory mutations in region A can restore proper orientation and full receptor function to these region B mutants. Based on these results, we propose that region A of Pit1 confers competence for viral entry by influencing the topology of the authentic binding site in the membrane and hence its accessibility to a viral envelope protein. Based on glycosylation studies and results obtained by using N- and C-terminal epitope-tagged Pit1, region A and region B mutants, and the transmembrane helices predicted with the PHD PredictProtein algorithm, we propose a new Pit1 topology model.
Project description:We have sequenced the envelope genes from each of the five members of the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) family of type C retroviruses. Four of the GALVs, including GALV strain SEATO (GALV-S), were originally isolated from gibbon apes, whereas the fifth member of this family, simian sarcoma-associated virus (SSAV), was isolated from a woolly monkey and shares 78% amino acid identity with GALV-S. To determine whether these viruses have identical host ranges, we evaluated the susceptibility of several cell lines to either GALV-S or SSAV infection. GALV-S and SSAV have the same host range with the exception of Chinese hamster lung E36 cells, which are susceptible to GALV-S but not SSAV. We used retroviral vectors that differ only in their envelope composition (e.g., they contain either SSAV or GALV-S envelope protein) to show that the envelope of SSAV restricts entry into E36 cells. Although unable to infect E36 cells, SSAV infects GALV-resistant murine cells expressing the E36-derived viral receptor, HaPit2. These results suggest that the receptors present on E36 cells function for SSAV. We have constructed several vectors containing GALV-S/SSAV chimeric envelope proteins to map the region of the SSAV envelope that blocks infection of E36 cells. Vectors bearing chimeric envelopes comprised of the N-terminal region of the GALV-S SU protein and the C-terminal region of SSAV infect E36 cells, whereas vectors containing the N-terminal portion of the SSAV SU protein and C-terminal portion of GALV-S fail to infect E36 cells. This finding indicates that the region of the SSAV envelope protein responsible for restricting SSAV infection of E36 cells lies within its amino-terminal region.
Project description:Extracellular phosphate (Pi) can act as a signaling molecule that directly alters gene expression and cellular physiology. The ability of cells or organisms to detect changes in extracellular Pi levels implies the existence of a Pi-sensing mechanism that signals to the body or individual cell. However, unlike in prokaryotes, yeasts, and plants, the molecular players involved in Pi sensing in mammals remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the high-affinity, sodium-dependent Pi transporters PiT1 and PiT2 in mediating Pi signaling in skeletal cells. We found that deletion of PiT1 or PiT2 blunted the Pi-dependent ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation and subsequent gene up-regulation of the mineralization inhibitors matrix Gla protein and osteopontin. This result suggested that both PiTs are necessary for Pi signaling. Moreover, the ERK1/2 phosphorylation could be rescued by overexpressing Pi transport-deficient PiT mutants. Using cross-linking and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer approaches, we found that PiT1 and PiT2 form high-abundance homodimers and Pi-regulated low-abundance heterodimers. Interestingly, in the absence of sodium-dependent Pi transport activity, the PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization was still regulated by extracellular Pi levels. Of note, when two putative Pi-binding residues, Ser-128 (in PiT1) and Ser-113 (in PiT2), were substituted with alanine, the PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization was no longer regulated by extracellular Pi These observations suggested that Pi binding rather than Pi uptake may be the key factor in mediating Pi signaling through the PiT proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Pi-regulated PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization mediates Pi sensing independently of Pi uptake.
Project description:Gene therapy for hematopoietic diseases has been hampered by the low frequency of transduction of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with retroviral vectors pseudotyped with amphotropic envelopes. We hypothesized that transduction could be increased by the use of retroviral vectors pseudotyped with envelopes that recognize more abundant cellular receptors. The levels of mRNA encoding the receptors of the feline retroviruses, RD114 and feline leukemia virus type C (FeLV-C), were significantly higher than the level of gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) receptor mRNA in cells enriched for human HSCs (Lin- CD34+ CD38-). We cotransduced human peripheral blood CD34+ cells with equivalent numbers of FeLV-C and GALV or RD114 and GALV-pseudotyped retroviruses for injection into fetal sheep. Analysis of DNA from peripheral blood and bone marrow from recipient sheep demonstrated that FeLV-C- or RD114-pseudotyped vectors were present at significantly higher levels than GALV-pseudotyped vectors. Analysis of individual myeloid colonies demonstrated that retrovirus vectors with FeLV-C and RD114 pseudotypes were present at 1.5 to 1.6 copies per cell and were preferentially integrated near known genes We conclude that the more efficient transduction of human HSCs with either FeLV-C- or RD114-pseudotyped retroviral particles may improve gene transfer in human clinical trials.
Project description:Thymocyte differentiation is dependent on the availability and transport of metabolites in the thymus niche. As expression of metabolite transporters is a rate-limiting step in nutrient utilization, cell surface transporter levels generally reflect the cell's metabolic state. The GLUT1 glucose transporter is upregulated on actively dividing thymocytes, identifying thymocytes with an increased metabolism. However, it is not clear whether transporters of essential elements such as phosphate are modulated during thymocyte differentiation. While PiT1 and PiT2 are both phosphate transporters in the SLC20 family, we show here that they exhibit distinct expression profiles on both murine and human thymocytes. PiT2 expression distinguishes thymocytes with high metabolic activity, identifying immature murine double negative (CD4-CD8-) DN3b and DN4 thymocyte blasts as well as immature single positive (ISP) CD8 thymocytes. Notably, the absence of PiT2 expression on RAG2-deficient thymocytes, blocked at the DN3a stage, strongly suggests that high PiT2 expression is restricted to thymocytes having undergone a productive TCR? rearrangement at the DN3a/DN3b transition. Similarly, in the human thymus, PiT2 was upregulated on early post-? selection CD4+ISP and TCR??-CD4hiDP thymocytes co-expressing the CD71 transferrin receptor, a marker of metabolic activity. In marked contrast, expression of the PiT1 phosphate importer was detected on mature CD3+ murine and human thymocytes. Notably, PiT1 expression on CD3+DN thymocytes was identified as a biomarker of an aging thymus, increasing from 8.4 ± 1.5% to 42.4 ± 9.4% by 1 year of age (p < 0.0001). We identified these cells as TCR?? and, most significantly, NKT, representing 77 ± 9% of PiT1+DN thymocytes by 1 year of age (p < 0.001). Thus, metabolic activity and thymic aging are associated with distinct expression profiles of the PiT1 and PiT2 phosphate transporters.
Project description:Infection of T lymphocytes by the cytopathic retrovirus feline leukemia virus subgroup T (FeLV-T) requires FeLIX, a cellular coreceptor that is encoded by an endogenous provirus and closely resembles the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B). We determined the structure of FeLV-B RBD, which has FeLIX activity, to a 2.5-A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the receptor-specific subdomain of this glycoprotein differs dramatically from that of Friend murine leukemia virus (Fr-MLV), which binds a different cell surface receptor. Remarkably, we find that Fr-MLV RBD also activates FeLV-T infection of cells expressing the Fr-MLV receptor and that FeLV-B RBD is a competitive inhibitor of infection under these conditions. These studies suggest that FeLV-T infection relies on the following property of mammalian leukemia virus RBDs: the ability to couple interaction with one of a variety of receptors to the activation of a conserved membrane fusion mechanism. A comparison of the FeLV-B and Fr-MLV RBD structures illustrates how receptor-specific regions are linked to conserved elements critical for postbinding events in virus entry.