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Definition of the stage of host cell genetic restriction of replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages by using twins.

ABSTRACT: Using identical (ID) twins, we have previously demonstrated that host cell genes exert a significant impact on productive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of monocytes and macrophages (J. Chang et al., J. Virol. 70:7792-7803, 1996). Therefore, the stage in the replication cycle at which these host genetic influences act was investigated in a study using 8 pairs of ID twins and 10 pairs of sex- and age-matched unrelated donors (URDs). In the first phase of the study, blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) of ID twins and URDs were infected with 15 HIV type 1 strains. Four well-characterized primary isolates and HIV-BaL were then examined in more detail. The host cell genetic effect in MDM was exerted predominantly prior to complete reverse transcription, as the HIV DNA level and p24 antigen levels were concordant (r = 0.91, P = 0.0001) and similar between the pairs of ID twin pairs (r = 0.96, P = 0.0001) but discordant between URD pairs (r = 0.11, P = 0.3) in both phases of the study. To further examine genetic influence on viral entry, we examined the proportion of CCR5 membrane expression on MDM. As expected, there was wide variability in proportion of MDM expressing CCR5 among URDs (r = 0. 58, P = 0.2); however, this variability was significantly reduced between ID twin pairs (r = 0.81, P = 0.01). Differences in viral entry did not necessarily correlate with CCR5 expression, and only very low levels of CCR5 expression restricted HIV entry and production. In summary, the host cell genetic effect on HIV replication in macrophages appears to be exerted predominantly pre-reverse transcription. Although CCR5 was necessary for infection, other unidentified host genes are likely to limit productive infection.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC112530 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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