Chemical modification of serine at the active site of penicillin acylase from Kluyvera citrophila.
ABSTRACT: The site of reaction of penicillin acylase from Kluyvera citrophila with the potent inhibitor phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride was investigated by incubating the inactivated enzyme with thioacetic acid to convert the side chain of the putative active-site serine residue to that of cysteine. The protein product contained one thiol group, which was reactive towards 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide and iodoacetic acid. Carboxymethylcysteine was identified as the N-terminal residue of the beta-subunit of the carboxy[3H]methylthiol-protein. No significant changes in tertiary structure were detected in the modified penicillin acylase using near-u.v. c.d. spectroscopy. However, the catalytic activity (kcat) with either an anilide or an ester substrate was decreased in the thiol-protein by a factor of more than 10(4). A comparison of sequences of apparently related acylases shows no other extensive regions of conserved sequence containing an invariant serine residue. The side chain of this residue is proposed as a candidate nucleophile in the formation of an acyl-enzyme during catalysis.
Project description:Kluyvera citrophila penicillin G acylase (KcPGA) has recently attracted increased attention relative to the well studied and commonly used Escherichia coli PGA (EcPGA) because KcPGA is more resilient to harsh conditions and is easier to immobilize for the industrial hydrolysis of natural penicillins to generate the 6-aminopenicillin (6-APA) nucleus, which is the starting material for semi-synthetic antibiotic production. Like other penicillin acylases, KcPGA is synthesized as a single-chain inactive pro-PGA, which upon autocatalytic processing becomes an active heterodimer of α and β chains. Here, the cloning of the pac gene encoding KcPGA and the preparation of a slow-processing mutant precursor are reported. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of this precursor protein are described. The protein crystallized in two different space groups, P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.0, b = 124.6, c = 135.1 Å, α = 104.1, β = 101.4, γ = 96.5°, and C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 265.1, b = 54.0, c = 249.2 Å, β = 104.4°, using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected at 100 K and the phases were determined using the molecular-replacement method. The initial maps revealed electron density for the spacer peptide.
Project description:Escherichia coli (muT, mutD, Leu-) cells transformed with plasmid pYKD59 harbouring the pac gene encoding penicillin acylase (PA) from Kluyvera citrophila ATCC 21285 were exposed to environmental conditions that made expression of this enzyme essential for growth. Under these conditions, spontaneous mutants were isolated that used adipyl-L-leucine as the sole source of L-leucine. DNA sequencing of the mutant pac genes identified a transversion mutation of thymine to guanine at position 1163. This mutation was located in the beta-subunit of the enzyme and resulted in conversion of Phe-360 to valine. The assignment of this mutation to the shift in substrate specificity was further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Secondary-structure prediction of the region surrounding Phe-360 suggests that this mutation should not produce any significant structural change. The purified mutant acylase was able to hydrolyse adipyl-, glutaryl-, valeryl-, caproyl-, heptanoyl- and phenoxyacetyl-L-leucine at pH 5 with greater efficiency than the wild-type enzyme. However, the mutant enzyme was not able to hydrolyse glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid and had lost 90% and 50% of activity on penicillin G and phenylacetyl-L-leucine respectively. Nevertheless, mutant PA retained its original activity on 6-nitro-3-phenylacetamidobenzoate and p-nitrophenylphenylacetate, suggesting that the binding specificity of PA by the acyl and amine moieties of the substrate are not independent phenomena. The small differences observed between the c.d. spectra of the mutant enzyme recorded at pH 5 and 8 suggest the existence of different conformational states at the two pH values, but these differences were indistinguishable from those observed in the native enzyme and cannot be correlated with the shift in substrate specificity. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to change the specificity of PA by laboratory evolution and use it to identify the amino acids involved in substrate recognition. However, the synchronous participation of the alpha- and beta-subunits in the complex induced-fit-like mechanism of acylases suggests that, to obtain new enzymes for industrial application, the selection pressure should be specifically designed for the compound of interest.
Project description:Penicillin acylases are industrially important enzymes for the production of 6-APA, which is used extensively in the synthesis of secondary antibiotics. The enzyme translates into an inactive single chain precursor that subsequently gets processed by the removal of a spacer peptide connecting the chains of the mature active heterodimer. We have cloned the penicillin G acylase from Kluyvera citrophila (KcPGA) and prepared two mutants by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of N-terminal serine of the ?-subunit with cysteine (Ser?1Cys) resulted in a fully processed but inactive enzyme. The second mutant in which this serine is replaced by glycine (Ser?1Gly) remained in the unprocessed and inactive form. The crystals of both mutants belonged to space group P1 with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were refined at resolutions 2.8 and 2.5 Å, respectively. Comparison of these structures with similar structures of Escherichia coli PGA (EcPGA) revealed various conformational changes that lead to autocatalytic processing and consequent removal of the spacer peptide. The large displacements of residues such as Arg168 and Arg477 toward the N-terminal cleavage site of the spacer peptide or the conformational changes of Arg145 and Phe146 near the active site in these structures suggested probable steps in the processing dynamics. A comparison between the structures of the processed Ser?1Cys mutant and that of the processed form of EcPGA showed conformational differences in residues Arg?145, Phe?146, and Phe?24 at the substrate binding pocket. Three conformational transitions of Arg?145 and Phe?146 residues were seen when processed and unprocessed forms of KcPGA were compared with the substrate bound structure of EcPGA. Structure mediation in activity difference between KcPGA and EcPGA toward acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) is elucidated.
Project description:The kinetics of release of 4-nitrophenol were followed by stopped-flow spectrophotometry with two 4-nitrophenyl ester substrates of penicillin G acylase from Kluyvera citrophila. With the ester of acetic acid, but not of propionic acid, there was a pre-steady-state exponential phase, the kinetics of which were inhibited by phenylacetic acid (a product of hydrolysis of specific substrates) to the extent predicted from Ki values. This was interpreted as deriving from rapid formation (73 mM-1.s-1) and slow hydrolysis (0.76 s-1) of an acetyl derivative of the side chain of the catalytic-centre residue Ser-290. With the mutant F360V, which differs from the wild-type enzyme in its ability to hydrolyse adipyl-L-leucine and has a kcat for 4-nitrophenyl acetate one-twentieth that of the wild-type enzyme, the corresponding values for the rates of formation and hydrolysis of the acetyl-enzyme were 11.1 mM-1.s-1 and 0.051 s-1 respectively. The ratio of these rate constants was three times that for the wild-type enzyme, suggesting that the mutant is less impaired in the rate of formation of an acetyl-enzyme than in its subsequent hydrolysis.
Project description:Penicillin acylase (PA) from Kluyvera citrophila was inhibited by N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ), a specific carboxy-group-reactive reagent. Enzyme activity progressively decreased to a residual value depending on EEDQ concentration. Neither enzymic nor non-enzymic decomposition of EEDQ is concomitant with PA inactivation. Moreover, enzyme re-activation is achieved by chromatographic removal of EEDQ, pH increase or displacement of the reagent with penicillin G. It was then concluded that PA inactivation is due to an equilibrium reaction. The kinetics of enzyme inactivation was analysed by fitting data to theoretical equations derived in accordance with this mechanism. Corrections for re-activation during the enzyme assay were a necessary introduction. The pH-dependence of the rate constant for EEDQ hydrolysis either alone or in the presence of enzyme was studied by u.v. spectroscopy. It turned out to be coincident with the pH-dependence of the forward and reverse rate constants for the inactivation process. It is suggested that previous protonation of the EEDQ molecule is required for these reactions to occur. The thermodynamic values associated with the overall reaction showed little change. Finally it is proposed that the inactivation of PA by EEDQ proceeds through a two-step reaction. The initial and rapid reversible binding is followed by a slow, time-dependent, non-covalent, reversible inactivating step. The expected behaviour in the case of enzyme modification by covalent activation of carboxy residues is also reviewed.
Project description:The enzyme penicillin G acylase (EC 22.214.171.124) catalyzes amide-bond cleavage in benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) to yield 6-aminopenicillanic acid, an intermediate chemical used in the production of semisynthetic penicillins. A thermostable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (AfPGA) has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in two different space groups: C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 72.9, b = 86.0, c = 260.2 , and P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.6, c = 298.8 . Data were collected at 293 and the structure was determined using the molecular-replacement method. Like other penicillin acylases, AfPGA belongs to the N-terminal nucleophilic hydrolase superfamily, has undergone post-translational processing and has a serine as the N-terminal residue of the ?-chain. A disulfide bridge has been identified in the structure that was not found in the other two known penicillin G cylase structures. The presence of the disulfide bridge is perceived to be one factor that confers higher stability to this enzyme.
Project description:The alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans ATCC 9325 is capable of hydrolyzing and synthesizing beta-lactam antibiotics, such as cephalexin and ampicillin. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase allowed cloning and genetic characterization of the corresponding gene from an A. turbidans genomic library. The gene, designated aehA, encodes a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 72,000. Comparison of the determined N-terminal sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated the presence of an N-terminal leader sequence of 40 amino acids. The aehA gene was subcloned in the pET9 expression plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and found to be dimeric with subunits of 70 kDa. A sequence similarity search revealed 26% identity with a glutaryl 7-ACA acylase precursor from Bacillus laterosporus, but no homology was found with other known penicillin or cephalosporin acylases. There was some similarity to serine proteases, including the conservation of the active site motif, GXSYXG. Together with database searches, this suggested that the alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase is a beta-lactam antibiotic acylase that belongs to a class of hydrolases that is different from the Ntn hydrolase superfamily to which the well-characterized penicillin acylase from E. coli belongs. The alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase of A. turbidans represents a subclass of this new class of beta-lactam antibiotic acylases.
Project description:Residue phenylalanine 71 of the ?-chain of penicillin acylase from E. coli is involved in substrate binding and chiral discrimination of its enantiomers. Different amino acid residues have been introduced at position ?F71, and the mutants were studied with respect to their enantioselectivity and substrate specificity. Some mutants demonstrated remarkably improved catalytic activity. Moreover, mutation of ?F71 residue allowed to enhance penicillin acylase enantioselectivity. The catalytic activity to the specific substrates was improved up to 36 times, most notably for K, R, and L mutants. Increased activity to a D-phenylglycine derivative - a valuable specificity improvement for biocatalytic synthesis of new penicillins and cephalosporins - was shown for ?F71R and ?F71L mutants. The synthetic capacity of penicillin acylase with 6-aminopenicillanic acid as an external nucleophile was especially sensitive to mutation of the ?71 residue in contrast to the synthesis with 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid.
Project description:A homologue of the Escherichia coli penicillin acylase is encoded in the genomes of several thermophiles, including in different Thermus thermophilus strains. Although the natural substrate of this enzyme is not known, this acylase shows a marked preference for penicillin K over penicillin G. Three-dimensional models were created in which the catalytic residues and the substrate binding pocket were identified. Through rational redesign, residues were replaced to mimic the aromatic binding site of the E. coli penicillin G acylase. A set of enzyme variants containing between one and four amino acid replacements was generated, with altered catalytic properties in the hydrolyses of penicillins K and G. The introduction of a single phenylalanine residue in position ?188, ?189, or ?24 improved the K(m) for penicillin G between 9- and 12-fold, and the catalytic efficiency of these variants for penicillin G was improved up to 6.6-fold. Structural models, as well as docking analyses, can predict the positioning of penicillins G and K for catalysis and can demonstrate how binding in a productive pose is compromised when more than one bulky phenylalanine residue is introduced into the active site.
Project description:Penicillin G acylase is an important enzyme in the commercial production of semisynthetic penicillins used to combat bacterial infections. Mutant strains of Providencia rettgeri were generated from wild-type cultures subjected to nutritional selective pressure. One such mutant, Bro1, was able to use 6-bromohexanamide as its sole nitrogen source. Penicillin acylase from the Bro1 strain exhibited an altered substrate specificity consistent with the ability of the mutant to process 6-bromohexanamide. The X-ray structure determination of this enzyme was undertaken to understand its altered specificity and to help in the design of site-directed mutants with desired specificities. In this paper, the structure of the Bro1 penicillin G acylase has been solved at 2.5 A resolution by molecular replacement. The R-factor after refinement is 0.154 and R-free is 0.165. Of the 758 residues in the Bro1 penicillin acylase heterodimer (alpha-subunit, 205; beta-subunit, 553), all but the eight C-terminal residues of the alpha-subunit have been modeled based on a partial Bro1 sequence and the complete wild-type P. rettgeri sequence. A tightly bound calcium ion coordinated by one residue from the alpha-subunit and five residues from the beta-subunit has been identified. This enzyme belongs to the superfamily of Ntn hydrolases and uses Ogamma of Ser beta1 as the characteristic N-terminal nucleophile. A mutation of the wild-type Met alpha140 to Leu in the Bro1 acylase hydrophobic specificity pocket is evident from the electron density and is consistent with the observed specificity change for Bro1 acylase. The electron density for the N-terminal Gln of the alpha-subunit is best modeled by the cyclized pyroglutamate form. Examination of aligned penicillin acylase and cephalosporin acylase primary sequences, in conjunction with the P. rettgeri and Escherichia coli penicillin acylase crystal structures, suggests several mutations that could potentially allow penicillin acylase to accept charged beta-lactam R-groups and to function as a cephalosporin acylase and thus be used in the manufacture of semi-synthetic cephalosporins.