Characterization and cellular distribution of acidic peptide and oligosaccharide metal-binding compounds from kidneys.
ABSTRACT: Two low-molecular-mass Ni-binding fractions first isolated from human kidneys [Templeton & Sarkar (1985) Biochem. J. 230, 35-42] are further characterized. Both components are acidic and are readily separated from each other by gel chromatography on Bio-Gel P-2. After equilibration with 63Ni the largest complex constitutes about 30% of the radioactive 63Ni and is an approx. 3.5 kDa peptide and the smallest species comprise short oligosaccharides containing 70% of the radioactivity. Both of these components are found in human, bovine and porcine kidneys as well as in a porcine proximal tubule-like cell line LLC-PK1. There is a small variation in amino acid composition between species. The oligosaccharides are reducing sugars and contain sulphate, glucosamine, glucuronic acid and iduronic acid with two to four overall negative charges. The monosaccharide composition was determined by h.p.l.c. with pulsed amperometric detection of the acid hydrolysates and by gas chromatography. In the LLC-PK1 cell line the acidic peptide is both intracellular and extracellular, whereas the oligosaccharides are only intracellular. The concentration of extracellular peptide, as measured by 63Ni binding, is found to increase after exposure of the cells to low micromolar concentrations of Ni, whereas the oligosaccharide concentrations, also measured by 63Ni binding, remain constant. The oligosaccharide component is decreased by 40% in the presence of NH4Cl, suggesting that is derived from degradation of internalized heparan sulphate.
Project description:The presence of sulphate groups on various saccharide residues of N-linked carbohydrate units has now been observed in a number of glycoproteins. To explore the cell specificity of this post-translational modification, we evaluated sulphate incorporation into virus envelope glycoproteins by a variety of cells, since it is believed that assembly of their N-linked oligosaccharides is to a large extent dependent on the enzymic machinery of the host. Employing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) envelope glycoprotein (G protein) as a model, we noted that the addition of [35S]sulphate substituents into its complex carbohydrate units occurred in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), Madin-Darby bovine kidney, LLC-PK1 and BHK-21 cell lines but was not detectable in BRL 3A, BW5147.3, Chinese hamster ovary, HepG2, NRK-49F, IEC-18, PtK1 or 3T3 cells. The sulphate groups were exclusively located on C-3 of galactose [Gal(3-SO4)] and/or C-6 of N-acetylglucosamine [GlcNAc(6-SO4)] residues in the N-acetyllactosamine sequence of the branch chains. Moreover, we observed that the pronounced host-cell-dependence of the terminal galactose sulphation was reflected by the 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate:Gal-3-O-sulphotransferase activity assayed in vitro. Comparative studies carried out on the haemagglutinin of the influenza virus envelope formed by MDCK and LLC-PK1 cells indicated that sulphate in this glycoprotein was confined to its complex N-linked oligosaccharides where it occurred as Gal(3-SO4) and GlcNAc(6-SO4) on peripheral chains as well as on the mannose-substituted N-acetylglucosamine of the core. Since sulphation in both internal and peripheral locations of the virus glycoproteins was found to be arrested by the alpha1-->2 mannosidase inhibitor, kifunensine, as well as by the intracellular migration block imposed by brefeldin A, it was concluded that this modification is a late biosynthetic event which most likely takes place in the trans-Golgi network.
Project description:Selective periodate oxidation of unsubstituted l-iduronic acid residues in copolymeric dermatan sulphate chains was followed by reduction-hydrolysis or alkaline elimination. By this procedure the glucuronic acid-containing periods were isolated in oligosaccharide form; general formula: [Formula: see text] Further degradation of these oligosaccharides with chondroitinase-AC yielded three types of products: (a) sulphated trisaccharide containing an unsaturated uronosyl moiety in the non-reducing terminal and a C(4) fragment in the reducing terminal, DeltaUA-GalNAc-(-SO(4))-R; (b) monosulphated, unsaturated disaccharide, DeltaUA-GalNAc-SO(4) when n is greater than or equal to 2; and (c) N-acetylgalactosamine with or without sulphate. Oligosaccharides containing a single glucuronic acid residue (n=1) comprised more than half of the glucuronic acid-containing oligosaccharides. The terminal N-acetylgalactosamine moiety of the shortest oligosaccharide was largely 4-sulphated, whereas higher oligosaccharides primarily contained 6-sulphated or unsulphated hexosamine moieties in the same position. Moreover, IdUA-SO(4)-containing oligosaccharides were encountered. These oligosaccharides were resistant to the action of chondroitinase-ABC.
Project description:Keratan sulphate chains were isolated from bovine tracheal ring cartilage (15-18-month-old animals) after papain digestion of the tissue followed by ethanol fractionation, chondroitinase ABC digestion and alkaline borohydride reduction. The keratan sulphate chains were further purified by anion-exchange chromatography on a Pharmacia Mono-Q column in order to remove any contaminating chondroitin sulphate and O-linked oligosaccharides. The chains were then treated with keratanase and the digest was subjected to alkaline borohydride reduction, producing oligosaccharides with galactitol at their reducing ends. The reduced digest was chromatographed on a Nucleosil 5 SB anion-exchange column and individual oligosaccharides were isolated. One of these, oligosaccharide (I), was shown by 500 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy to have the following structure: NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc(6SO4) beta 1-3Gal-ol (I) The structure of this oligosaccharide shows that keratan sulphate chains from bovine tracheal ring cartilage may be terminated with N-acetylneuraminic acid linked alpha (2-3) to an unsulphated galactose. Keratan sulphate chains were also isolated from bovine femoral head cartilage (15-18-month-old animals) using an identical protocol, but with keratanase which was subsequently shown to have sialidase activity. This yielded oligosaccharide (II), the unsialyated version of (I): Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc(6SO4) beta 1-3Gal-ol (II).
Project description:A proteodermatan sulphate was isolated from 0.15 M-NaCl and 0.45 M-NaCl extracts of newborn-calf skin. The proteoglycan was separated from collagen and hyaluronic acid by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride and CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation. Further purification was performed by ion-exchange, affinity and molecular-sieve chromatography. The proteoglycan bound to concanavalin A-Sepharose in 1 M-NaCl. It gave a positive reaction with periodic acid/Schiff reagent and contained 8.3% of uronic acid. The dermatan sulphate, the only glycosaminoglycan component, was composed of 74% iduronosylhexosamine units and 26% glucuronosylhexosamine units. The Mr was assessed to be 15000-20000 by gel chromatography. The core protein was found to be a sialoglycoprotein that had O-glycosidic oligosaccharides with N-acetylgalactosamine at the reducing termini. The molar ratio of oligosaccharide chains to dermatan sulphate was approx. 3:1. From these results the proposed structure of proteodermatan sulphate is: one dermatan sulphate chain (average Mr 17500), three O-glycosidic oligosaccharide chains and probably N-glycosidic oligosaccharide chain(s) bound to one core-protein molecule (Mr 55000).
Project description:The N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides were liberated by hydrazinolysis from purified proteodermatan sulphate from newborn-calf skin and reduced with NaB3H4 at the reducing terminal sugar. One asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chain was linked to one core-protein molecule in proteodermatan sulphate. Structural sequences were analysed by using exoglycosidase digestion. These oligosaccharides were composed of di- and tri-antennary oligosaccharide structures of complex type.
Project description:Pigs are commonly used as an animal model to evaluate the toxic effects of exogenous compounds. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes numerous exogenous compounds and is abundantly expressed in the liver, kidneys, and intestines. The high amino acid similarity between human and porcine CYP1A1 indicates that they probably have the same metabolic characteristics. Therefore, understanding the regulatory mechanism of CYP1A1 expression in pigs is particularly important for predicting the toxicology and metabolic kinetics of exogenous chemicals. Currently, the transcriptional regulation of porcine CYP1A1 has rarely been studied, especially regarding basal transcription. In this study, we first confirmed that the key regulatory elements of porcine CYP1A1 basal transactivation are in the proximal promoter region using promoter truncation analysis via a dual luciferase assay in a porcine kidney cell line LLC-PK1. Two overlapping cis-elements, the xenobiotic response element (XRE) and GC box, in this proximal region potentially play key roles in the basal transactivation of porcine CYP1A1. Furthermore, using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation, the GC box binding protein Sp1 was confirmed to bind to the proximal promoter of porcine CYP1A1, instead of AhR, the XRE binding protein. In LLC-PK1 cells, by knocking down either Sp1 or AhR, the expression of porcine CYP1A1 at the mRNA level and protein level was significantly downregulated, suggesting both proteins are important for porcine CYP1A1 expression. However, promoter activity analysis in LLC-PK1 cells treated with an AhR agonist and antagonist confirmed that AhR does not participate in the basal regulation of porcine CYP1A1 at the proximal promoter. In conclusion, our study revealed that the proximal promoter is the key regulatory region for porcine CYP1A1 basal expression. Although AhR plays an important role in the transactivation of porcine CYP1A1 expression, the key determinant transcription factor for its basal transactivation is Sp1 at the proximal promoter of porcine CYP1A1.
Project description:Chick-embryo cartilage contains a unique set of proteoglycans. Type H proteoglycan (PG-H) is the most abundant, constituting over 90% of the total cartilage hexuronate. We previously showed that treatment of PG-H with chondroitinase ACII and keratanase yields a protein-enriched core molecule [PG(-CS,KS)] with enzymically modified linkage oligosaccharides of the chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate chains. We report here that further treatment of PG(-CS,KS) with pepsin and N-oligosaccharide glycopeptidase (almond glycopeptidase) released four distinct types of mannose-containing oligosaccharide. Two of them were shown to be: (Formula: see text). Of the mannose-containing glycopeptides formed by pepsin digestion, about 40% (as mannose) were resistant to N-oligosaccharide glycopeptidase. Since the resistant fraction was enriched in keratan sulphate remnants, it is suggest that the mannose-containing oligosaccharides in this fraction represent those located in a keratan sulphate-enriched region of PG-H.
Project description:The D-glucuronosyl (GlcA)- and N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl (GalNAc)-transferases involved in chondroitin sulphate biosynthesis were studied in a microsomal preparation from chick-embryo chondrocytes. Transfer of GlcA and GalNAc from their UDP derivatives to 3H-labelled oligosaccharides prepared from chondroitin sulphate and hyaluronic acid was assayed by h.p.l.c. of the reaction mixture. Conditions required for maximal activities of the two enzymes were remarkably similar. Activities were stimulated 3.5-6-fold by neutral detergents. Both enzymes were completely inhibited by EDTA and maximally stimulated by MnCl2 or CoCl2. MgCl2 neither stimulated nor inhibited. The GlcA transferase showed a sharp pH optimum between pH5 and 6, whereas the GalNAc transferase gave a broad optimum from pH 5 to 8. At pH 7 under optimal conditions, the GalNAc transferase gave a velocity that was twice that of the GlcA transferase. Oligosaccharides prepared from chondroitin 4-sulphate and hyaluronic acid were almost inactive as acceptors for both enzymes, whereas oligosaccharides from chondroitin 6-sulphate and chondroitin gave similar rates that were 70-80-fold higher than those observed with the endogenous acceptors. Oligosaccharide acceptors with degrees of polymerization of 6 or higher gave similar Km and Vmax. values, but the smaller oligosaccharides were less effective acceptors. These results are discussed in terms of the implications for regulation of the overall rates of the chain-elongation fractions in chondroitin sulphate synthesis in vivo.
Project description:Oligosaccharide fragments of glycosaminoglycans may be separated for rapid analysis by electrophoresis through a 10% polyacrylamide matrix. An extensive ladder-like set of bands is observed for partial testicular hyaluronidase digests of chondroitin 4- or 6-sulphate, and for dermatan sulphate. Co-electrophoresis of purified oligosaccharides has established that the major bands of these patterns represent fragments differing in chain length by one disaccharide unit, with the smallest fragments having the greatest mobility. Additional minor bands, representing heterogeneity in the repeating unit structure, are also observed. There are slight differences in the mobilities of oligosaccharides derived from the three major types of sulphated glycosaminoglycans. Alcian Blue is employed for visualization of the digest fragments. Sample loads of 5-10 micrograms per band appear optimum. The smallest oligosaccharide which may be stained by this method is the hexasaccharide. After consideration of this effect, a good correlation is found to exist between densitometric scans of the gel-electrophoretic patterns and gel-filtration chromatographic profiles based on uronic acid concentration.
Project description:Heparan sulphates are highly sulphated linear polysaccharides involved in many cellular functions. Their biological properties stem from their ability to interact with a wide range of proteins. An increasing number of studies, using heparan sulphate-derived oligosaccharides, suggest that specific structural features within the polysaccharide are responsible for ligand recognition and regulation. In the present study, we show that strong anion-exchange HPLC alone, a commonly used technique for purification of heparan sulphate-derived oligosaccharides, may not permit the isolation of highly pure heparan sulphate oligosaccharide species. This was determined by PAGE analysis of hexa-, octa- and decasaccharide samples deemed to be pure by strong anion-exchange HPLC. In addition, subtle differences in the positioning of sulphate groups within heparan sulphate hexasaccharides were impossible to detect by strong anion-exchange HPLC. PAGE analysis on the other hand afforded excellent resolution of these structural isomers. The precise positioning of specific sulphate groups has been implicated in determining the specificity of heparan sulphate interactions and biological activities; hence, the purification of oligosaccharide species that differ in this way becomes an important issue. In this study, we have used strong anion-exchange HPLC and PAGE techniques to allow production of the homogeneous heparan sulphate oligosaccharide species that will be required for the detailed study of structure/activity relationships.