Interleukin-2-dependent phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma-susceptibility-gene product p110-115RB in human T-cells.
ABSTRACT: The state of phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene product, p110-115RB, is thought to have fundamental importance in controlling the progression of the cell through the cell cycle. We have studied RB phosphorylation in human T-cells in the context of T-cell activation, stimulated by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). We show that, of the signals associated with T-cell activation, only signals that directly lead to movement into S phase of the cell cycle are capable of stimulating RB phosphorylation. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent inhibitor of IL-2 synthesis and cellular proliferation, blocked RB phosphorylation, and this was recovered with exogenous IL-2, indicating a direct involvement of IL-2 in controlling RB phosphorylation. We found that PHA did not stimulate RB phosphorylation within 10 h of treatment, but IL-2 could effectively stimulate RB phosphorylation within 2 h, and this approached a maximum within 8-10 h of IL-2 treatment. Further, by using actinomycin D to inhibit new gene transcription following IL-2 stimulation, we found that early-cell-cycle phosphorylation of RB required IL-2-stimulated gene transcription. From these data we conclude that, in human T-cells, RB phosphorylation is not directly associated with T-cell receptor-mediated events, but requires the interaction of IL-2 and new gene transcription following IL-2 stimulation.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Genetic variants in the transcription factor STAT4 are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a more severe disease phenotype. This study aimed to clarify how the SLE-associated intronic STAT4 risk allele rs7574865[T] affects the function of immune cells in SLE. METHODS:Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 52 genotyped patients with SLE. Phosphorylation of STAT4 (pSTAT4) and STAT1 (pSTAT1) in response to interferon (IFN)-?, IFN-? or interleukin (IL)-12, total levels of STAT4, STAT1 and T-bet, and frequency of IFN-?+ cells on IL-12 stimulation were determined by flow cytometry in subsets of immune cells before and after preactivation of cells with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and IL-2. Cellular responses and phenotypes were correlated to STAT4 risk allele carriership. Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKi) selective for TYK2 (TYK2i) or JAK2 (JAK2i) were evaluated for inhibition of IL-12 or IFN-?-induced activation of SLE PBMCs. RESULTS:In resting PBMCs, the STAT4 risk allele was neither associated with total levels of STAT4 or STAT1, nor cytokine-induced pSTAT4 or pSTAT1. Following PHA/IL-2 activation, CD8+ T cells from STAT4 risk allele carriers displayed increased levels of STAT4 resulting in increased pSTAT4 in response to IL-12 and IFN-?, and an augmented IL-12-induced IFN-? production in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The TYK2i and the JAK2i efficiently blocked IL-12 and IFN-?-induced activation of PBMCs from STAT4 risk patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:T cells from patients with SLE carrying the STAT4 risk allele rs7574865[T] display an augmented response to IL-12 and IFN-?. This subset of patients may benefit from JAKi treatment.
Project description:T lymphocytes can be activated to proliferate by triggering the T-cell antigen-receptor complex (CD3-Ti) with anti-CD3 (Cluster of Differentiation 3) monoclonal antibody (mAb) or with the mitogenic lectin phytohaemagglutinin A (PHA). We have investigated the relationship between lymphocyte activation and protein phosphorylation in the human leukaemic T-cell line Jurkat. Incubation of 32P-labelled Jurkat cells with anti-CD3 mAb or PHA induced the phosphorylation of two cytosolic proteins that migrate with apparent Mr values of 21,000 (pp21) and 23,000 (pp23) and pI values of 5.1 and 5.0 respectively. Peptide mapping of the two proteins produced the same phosphopeptides pattern, suggesting that pp21 and pp23 are closely related. The phosphorylation of pp21 and pp23 induced by anti-CD3 mAb appeared to be transient, since it was already detected 2 min after the addition of the mAb, reached a maximum at 10 min and recovered its basal level after 1 h. Phosphorylation of pp21 and pp23 could also be elicited by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4), two agents that bypass the T-cell-receptor complex and produced an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. In addition, we found that vanadate, like the Ca2+ ionophore, induced the secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2) when used in combination with a submitogenic concentration of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. These results show that the Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of pp21 and pp23 represents an early event in the process of signal transduction through the CD3-Ti receptor complex.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extracts of Plumbago zeylanica containing suberosin exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. We purified suberosin from such extracts and studied its effects on a set of key regulatory events in the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Proliferation of PBMC in culture was measured by uptake of 3H-thymidine; production of cytokines and cyclins by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Transcription factors NF-AT and NF-kappaB were assayed by immunocytochemistry and EMSA. KEY RESULTS: Suberosin suppressed PHA-induced PBMC proliferation and arrested cell cycle progression from the G1 transition to the S phase. Suberosin suppressed, in activated PBMC, transcripts of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and cyclins D3, E, A, and B. DNA binding activity and nuclear translocation of NF-AT and NF-kappaB induced by PHA were blocked by suberosin. Suberosin decreased the rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in PBMC stimulated with PHA. Suberosin did not affect phosphorylation of p38 and JNK but did reduce activation of ERK in PHA-treated PBMC. Pharmacological inhibitors of NF-kappaB, NF-AT, and ERK decreased expression of mRNA for the cyclins, IL-2, and IFN-gamma and cell proliferation in PBMC activated by PHA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The inhibitory effects of suberosin on PHA-induced PBMC proliferation, were mediated, at least in part, through reduction of [Ca2+]i, ERK, NF-AT, and NF-kappaB activation, and early gene expression in PBMC including cyclins and cytokines, and arrest of cell cycle progression in the cells. Our observations provide an explanation for the anti-inflammatory activity of P. zeylanica.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Although production of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is now banned, release from existing products will continue for many years. The PBDEs are assumed to be neurotoxic and toxic to endocrine organs at low concentrations. Their effect on the immune system has not been investigated thoroughly. We aimed to investigate the influence of DE-71 on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with Escherichia Coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohaemagglutinin-L (PHA-L).<h4>Material and methods</h4>PBMCs isolated from healthy donors were pre-incubated with DE-71 at various concentrations and subsequently incubated with the monocyte stimulator LPS, or the T-cell activator PHA-L. Interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-17A, and IL-17F were quantified in the supernatants by Luminex kits.<h4>Results</h4>At non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.01-10 ?g/mL), DE-71 significantly enhanced secretion of IL-1?, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, and TNF-? (p<0.001-0.019; n = 6) from LPS-stimulated PBMCs. IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-17A, and IL-17F (p = <0.001-0.043; n = 6) secretion were enhanced from PHA-L-stimulated PBMCs as well. Secretion of IL-1?, IL-2, IL-10, IL-8 and IL-6 was not significantly affected by DE-71.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We demonstrate an enhancing effect of DE-71 on cytokine production by normal human PBMCs stimulated with LPS or PHA-L ex vivo.
Project description:The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) regulates early G1 phase checkpoints, including the DNA damage response, as well as cell cycle exit and differentiation. The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 partially inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, resulting in release of E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains largely unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. Here we find that Rb is un-phosphorylated in G0 cells and becomes exclusively mono-phosphorylated throughout all of early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Early G1 phase mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but each shows a preferential binding pattern to specific E2F1-4 transcription factors. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by a quantum hyper-phosphorylation (>12 phosphates/Rb). Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription. In contrast, a non-phosphorylatable ?Cdk-Rb allele was non-functional for regulating a DNA damage response, but functional for driving cell cycle exit and differentiation during myogenesis. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that there is no progressive multi-phosphorylation or hypo-phosphorylation inactivation of Rb during early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Instead, cyclin D:Cdk4/6 generates functionally active, mono-phosphorylated Rb that is the only Rb isoform present in cells during early G1 phase. Global transcriptional analysis of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with conditional deletion of the endogenous RB gene by treatment with cell permeable TAT-Cre. Comparison to unaltered MEFs and MEFs with physiological level of exogenous wildtype or phospho-mutant RB expressed at time of RB gene deletion.
Project description:Low Protein Kinase C zeta (PKCζ) levels in cord blood T cells (CBTC) have been shown to correlate with the development of allergic sensitization in childhood. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible. We have examined the relationship between the expression of different levels of PKCζ in CBTC and their development into mature T cell cytokine producers that relate to allergy or anti-allergy promoting cells. Maturation of naïve CBTC was initiated with anti-CD3/-CD28 antibodies and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2). To stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production the cells were treated with Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Irrespective of the PKCζ levels expressed, immature CBTC showed no difference in lymphocyte proliferation and the production of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Th1 cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and influenced neither their maturation from CD45RA<sup>+</sup> to CD45RO<sup>+</sup> cells nor cell viability/apoptosis. However, upon maturation the low PKCζ expressing cells produced low levels of the Th1 cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), no changes to levels of the Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and an increase in the Th9 cytokine, IL-9. Other cytokines, lymphotoxin-α (LT-α), IL-10, IL-17, IL-21, IL-22 and Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were not significantly different. The findings support the view that low CBTC PKCζ levels relate to the increased risk of developing allergic diseases.
Project description:Inflammation and activation of the acute phase response (APR) are energetically demanding processes that protect against pathogens. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are antigens commonly used to stimulate inflammation and the APR, respectively. We tested the hypothesis that the APR after an LPS challenge was energetically more costly than the inflammatory response after a PHA challenge in the fish-eating Myotis bat (Myotis vivesi). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) after bats were administered PHA and LPS. We also measured skin temperature (Tskin) after the LPS challenge and skin swelling after the PHA challenge. Injection of PHA elicited swelling that lasted for several days but changes in RMR and body mass were not significant. LPS injection produced a significant increase in Tskin and in RMR, and significant body mass loss. RMR after LPS injection increased by 140-185% and the total cost of the response was 6.50 kJ. Inflammation was an energetically low-cost process but the APR entailed a significant energetic investment. Examination of APR in other bats suggests that the way in which bats deal with infections might not be uniform.
Project description:The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, to release E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. In this study, we find that Rb is exclusively mono-phosphorylated in early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but show preferential E2F binding patterns. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by quantum hyper-phosphorylation. Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription, whereas cells undergoing differentiation utilize un-phosphorylated Rb. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that mono-phosphorylated Rb, generated by cyclin D:Cdk4/6, is the only Rb isoform in early G1 phase.
Project description:Targeting cell cycle regulation in colorectal cancer has not been fully evaluated. We investigated the efficacy of the CDK4/6 inhibitor, abemaciclib, and confirmed a synergistic interaction for PI3K p110? and CDK dual inhibition in colorectal cancer cell lines. Caco-2 and SNU-C4 cell lines were selected to explore the mechanism of action for and resistance to abemaciclib. In vitro and in vivo models were used to validate the anti-tumor activity of abemaciclib monotherapy and BYL719 combination therapy. Abemaciclib monotherapy inhibited cell cycle progression and proliferation in Caco-2 and SNU-C4 cells. CDK2-mediated Rb phosphorylation and AKT phosphorylation appeared to be potential resistance mechanisms to abemaciclib monotherapy. Abemaciclib/BYL719 combination therapy demonstrated synergistic effects regardless of PIK3CA mutation status but showed greater efficacy in the PIK3CA mutated SNU-C4 cell line. Growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and migration inhibition were confirmed as mechanisms of action for this combination. In an SNU-C4 mouse xenograft model, abemaciclib/BYL719 combination resulted in tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis with tolerable toxicity. Dual blockade of PI3K p110? and CDK4/6 showed synergistic anti-tumor effects in vivo and in vitro in human colorectal cancer cell lines. This combination could be a promising candidate for the treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
Project description:GB virus C (GBV-C) coinfection is associated with reduced immune activation and a block in CD4(+) T-cell proliferation following interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy in HIV-infected individuals. We examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-infected subjects with and without GBV-C viraemia to determine if GBV-C correlated with reactivation of latent HIV, T-cell proliferation or T-cell survival following in vitro activation with phytohaemagglutinin A and IL-2 (PHA/IL-2).HIV-infected subjects whose HIV viral load was suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for >6 months were studied. PBMCs were cultured with and without PHA/IL-2 and monitored for HIV reactivation, proliferation and survival. GBV-C viraemia and in vitro replication were detected by real-time RT-PCR. HIV reactivation was determined by measuring HIV p24 antigen in culture supernatants. Proliferation was measured by counting viable cells and survival measured by flow cytometry.Of 49 HIV-infected individuals, 26 had GBV-C viraemia. Significantly less HIV reactivation and PBMC proliferation following in vitro activation with PHA/IL-2 was observed in samples from GBV-C viraemic subjects compared with non-viraemic controls. Following 5 weeks in culture, GBV-C replication was associated with preservation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells compared with non-viraemic controls.GBV-C appears to inhibit immune activation and IL-2 signalling pathways, which might contribute to a reduction in reactivation of latent HIV from cellular reservoirs. In addition, GBV-C viraemia was associated with a reduction in activation-induced T-cell death. GBV-C-associated T-cell effects could contribute to the observed protective effect of GBV-C coinfection in HIV-infected individuals.