Regulation of the expression of the mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase gene. Its role in the control of ketogenesis.
ABSTRACT: We have explored the role of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase in regulating ketogenesis. We had previously cloned the cDNA for mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and have now studied the regulation in vivo of the expression of this gene in rat liver. The amount of processed mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase mRNA is rapidly changed in response to cyclic AMP, insulin, dexamethasone and refeeding, and is greatly increased by starvation, fat feeding and diabetes. We conclude that one point of ketogenic control is exercised at the level of genetic expression of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase.
Project description:Cytosolic and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthases were first recognized as different chemical entities in 1975, when they were purified and characterized by Lane's group. Since then, the two enzymes have been studied extensively, one as a control site of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and the other as an important control site of ketogenesis. This review describes some key developments over the last 25 years that have led to our current understanding of the physiology of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in the HMG-CoA pathway and in ketogenesis in the liver and small intestine of suckling animals. The enzyme is regulated by two systems: succinylation and desuccinylation in the short term, and transcriptional regulation in the long term. Both control mechanisms are influenced by nutritional and hormonal factors, which explains the incidence of ketogenesis in diabetes and starvation, during intense lipolysis, and in the foetal-neonatal and suckling-weaning transitions. The DNA-binding properties of the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor and other transcription factors on the nuclear-receptor-responsive element of the mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase promoter have revealed how ketogenesis can be regulated by fatty acids. Finally, the expression of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in the gonads and the correction of auxotrophy for mevalonate in cells deficient in cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme may play a role in cholesterogenesis in gonadal and other tissues.
Project description:A method for the fractionation of sheep rumen epithelium with limited mitochondrial breakage is described. The distributions of the enzymes of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA pathway of ketogenesis indicate that this process is exclusively mitochondrial. Enzyme activities are sufficient to account for the ketogenic rates found in vivo. The failure of (-)-hydroxycitrate to block ketogenic flux supports this view. 3-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity is largely associated with particulate material in the mitochondrial fraction. ATP citrate lyase activity was found, with appreciable acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase in the cytoplasmic fraction.
Project description:Levels of mRNA for mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and actin were analysed during liver regeneration. mRNA levels for mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase decreased rapidly, reaching a minimum 12 h after partial hepatectomy and returning to normal at 24-36 h. In contrast, CPT I, CPT II and FAS mRNAs increased throughout the period examined. Expression of actin increased significantly during regeneration. Levels of mRNA for mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase also decreased as a result of surgical stress, although the effect of hepatectomy was much greater. We determined the levels of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase using specific antibodies. The amount of protein rapidly decreased, although less markedly than the corresponding mRNA levels. These results show that the decrease described in ketogenesis in partially hepatectomized rats correlated with the decrease in the expression of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase, suggesting that this enzyme may also be a control point in ketogenesis in the regenerating liver, as it is in normal and diabetic rats.
Project description:1. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase (EC 220.127.116.11) in extracts of rapidly frozen rat livers was doubled in animals treated in various ways to increase ketogenic flux. 2. Some 90% of the activity measured was mitochondrial, and changes in mitochondrial activity dominated changes in total enzyme activity. 3. The elevated HMG-CoA synthase activities persisted throughout the isolation of liver mitochondria. 4. Intramitochondrial succinyl-CoA content was lower in whole liver homogenates and in mitochondria isolated from animals treated with glucagon or mannoheptulose. 5. HMG-CoA synthase activity in mitochondria from both ox and rat liver was negatively correlated with intramitochondrial succinyl-CoA levels when these were manipulated artificially. Under these conditions, the differences between mitochondria from control and hormone-treated rats were abolished. 6. These findings show that glucagon can decrease intramitochondrial succinyl-CoA concentration, and that this in turn can regulate mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase. They support the hypothesis that the formation of ketone bodies from acetyl-CoA may be regulated by the extent of succinylation of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase.
Project description:We have investigated, by RNase protection assays in rat brain regions and primary cortical astrocyte cultures, the presence of the mRNA species encoding the three mitochondrially located enzymes acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (mt. HMG-CoA synthase) and HMG-CoA lyase (HMG-CoA lyase) that together constitute the ketogenic HMG-CoA cycle. As a prerequisite we obtained a full-length cDNA encoding rat HMG-CoA lyase by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR coupled to a modification of PCR-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (PCR-RACE). We report here: (1) the nucleotide sequence of rat mt. HMG-CoA lyase, (2) detection of the mRNA species encoding all three HMG-CoA cycle enzymes in all regions of rat brain during suckling, (3) approximately twice the abundance of mt. HMG-CoA synthase mRNA in cerebellum than in cortex in 11-day-old suckling rat pups, (4) significantly lower abundances of mt. HMG-CoA synthase mRNA in brain regions derived from rats weaned to a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet compared with the corresponding regions derived from the suckling rat, and (5) the presence of mt. HMG-CoA synthase mRNA in primary cultures of neonatal cortical astrocytes at an abundance similar to that found in liver of weaned animals. These results provide preliminary evidence that certain neural cell types possess ketogenic potential and might thus have a direct role in the provision of fatty acid-derived ketone bodies during the suckling period.
Project description:Several reports in the literature have suggested the renoprotective effects of ketone bodies and green tea polyphenols (GTPs). Our previous study found that GTP consumption could elevate the renal expression of the ketogenic rate-limiting enzyme, which was decreased by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Here, we investigated whether ketogenesis can mediate renoprotection by GTPs against an HFD.Wistar rats were fed a standard or HFD with or without GTPs for 18 weeks. The renal oxidative stress level, kidney function, renal expression, and activity levels of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase 2 (HMGCS2) and sirtuin 3(SIRT3) were detected. The increased renal oxidative stress and the loss of renal function induced by the HFD were ameliorated by GTPs. Renal ketogenesis and SIRT3 expression and activity levels, which were reduced by the HFD, were restored by GTPs. In vitro, HEK293 cells were transfected with the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA HMGCS2. GTP treatment could upregulate HMGCS2 and SIRT3 expression. Although SIRT3 expression was not affected by HMGCS2 transfection, the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) level and the acetyl-MnSOD (K122)/MnSOD ratio were reduced in HMGCS2-transfected cells in the context of H2O2.The ketogenesis/SIRT3 pathway mediates the renoprotection of GTPs against the oxidative stress induced by an HFD.
Project description:Low expression of the mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase gene during development correlates with an unusually low hepatic ketogenic capacity and lack of hyperketonaemia in piglets. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the 5' end of the pig mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase gene. The 581 bp region proximal to the transcription start site permits transcription of a reporter gene, confirming the function of the promoter. The pig mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase promoter is trans-activated by the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and a functional response element for PPAR (PPRE) has been localized in the promoter region. Pig PPRE is constituted by an imperfect direct repeat (DR-1) and a downstream sequence, both of which are needed to confer PPAR-sensitivity to a thymidine kinase promoter and to form complexes with PPAR.retinoid X receptor heterodimers. A role of PPAR trans-activation in starvation-associated induction of gene expression is suggested.
Project description:Succinyl-CoA (3-carboxypropionyl-CoA) inactivates ox liver mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (EC 18.104.22.168) in a time-dependent manner, which is partially prevented by the presence of substrates of the enzyme. The inactivation is due to the enzyme catalysing its own succinylation. Complete inactivation corresponds to about 0.5 mol of succinyl group bound/mol of enzyme dimer. The succinyl-enzyme linkage appears to be a thioester bond and is probably formed with the active-site cysteine residue that is normally acetylated by acetyl-CoA. Succinyl-CoA binds to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase with a binding constant of 340 microM and succinylation occurs with a rate constant of 0.57 min-1. Succinyl-enzyme breaks down with a half-life of about 40 min (k = 0.017 min-1) at 30 degrees C and pH 7 and is destabilized by the presence of acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA. A control mechanism is postulated in which flux through the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA cycle of ketogenesis is regulated according to the extent of succinylation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase.
Project description:The low ketogenic capacity of pigs correlates with a low activity of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase. To identify the molecular mechanism controlling such activity, we isolated the pig cDNA encoding this enzyme and analysed changes in mRNA levels and mitochondrial specific activity induced during development and starvation. Pig mitochondrial synthase showed a tissue-specific expression pattern. As with rat and human, the gene is expressed in liver and large intestine; however, the pig differs in that mRNA was not detected in testis, kidney or small intestine. During development, pig mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase gene expression showed interesting differences from that in the rat: (1) there was a 2-3 week lag in the postnatal induction; (2) the mRNA levels remained relatively abundant through the suckling-weaning transition and at maturity, in contrast with the fall observed in rats at similar stages of development; and (3) the gene expression was highly induced by fasting during the suckling, whereas no such change in mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels has been observed in rat. The enzyme activity of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase increased 27-fold during starvation in piglets, but remained one order of magnitude lower than rats. These results indicate that post-transcriptional mechanism(s) and/or intrinsic differences in the encoded enzyme are responsible for the low activity of pig HMG-CoA synthase observed throughout development or after fasting.
Project description:In newborn-pig hepatocytes, the rate of oleate oxidation is extremely low, despite a very low malonyl-CoA concentration. By contrast, the sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I to malonyl-CoA inhibition is high, as suggested by the very low concentration of malonyl-CoA required for 50% inhibition of CPT I (IC50). The rates of oleate oxidation and ketogenesis are respectively 70 and 80% lower in mitochondria isolated from newborn-pig liver than from starved-adult-rat liver mitochondria. Using polarographic measurements, we showed that the oxidation of oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-L-carnitine is very low when the acetyl-CoA produced is channelled into the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway by addition of malonate. In contrast, the oxidation of the same substrates is high when the acetyl-CoA produced is directed towards the citric acid cycle by addition of malate. We demonstrate that the limitation of ketogenesis in newborn-pig liver is due to a very low amount and activity of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase as compared with rat liver mitochondria, and suggest that this could promote the accumulation of acetyl-CoA and/or beta-oxidation products that in turn would decrease the overall rate of fatty acid oxidation in newborn- and adult-pig livers.