The cytosolic concentration of phosphate determines the maximal rate of glycogenolysis in perfused rat liver.
ABSTRACT: Glycogenolysis was studied in glycogen-rich perfused livers in which glycogen phosphorylase was fully converted into the a form by exposure of the livers to dibutyryl cyclic AMP. We monitored intracellular Pi by 31P n.m.r. Perfusion with Pi-free medium during 30 min caused a progressive decrease of the Pi signal to 50% of its initial value. In contrast, exposure of the livers to KCN and/or 2,4-dinitrophenol resulted in a rapid doubling of the Pi signal. Alterations in the intracellular Pi coincided with proportional changes in the rate of hepatic glycogenolysis (measured as the output of glucose plus lactate). The results indicate that the rate of glycogenolysis catalysed by phosphorylase a depends linearly on the hepatic Pi concentration. Hence the Km of phosphorylase a for its substrate Pi must be considerably higher than the concentrations that occur in the cytosol, even during hypoxia.
Project description:1. Ischaemia was applied for 30 min to the liver of Wistar rats and of gsd/gsd rats, which have a genetic deficiency of phosphorylase kinase. The rate of glycogenolysis corresponded closely to the concentration of phosphorylase a. The loss of glycogen from Wistar livers was accounted for by the intrahepatic increase in glucose plus lactate. Further, the accumulation of oligosaccharides was negligible in the gsd/gsd liver. 2. Isolated hepatocytes from Wistar and gsd/gsd rats were incubated for 40 min in the presence of either KCN or glucagon. Again, the production of glucose plus lactate was strictly dependent on the presence of phosphorylase a. However, the catalytic efficiency of phosphorylase a was about 2-fold higher in the presence of KCN. 3. We conclude that the hepatic glycogenolysis induced by anoxia and by KCN is solely mediated by phosphorylase a. The higher catalytic activity of phosphorylase a under these circumstances could be due to an increased concentration of the substrate Pi.
Project description:Rat livers perfused at constant flow via the portal vein with dibutyryl cyclic AMP produced glucose equivalents at a steady maximal rate (6 mumol/min per g of liver). Addition of adenosine (150 microM) caused a biphasic effect. (i) First, the glycogenolytic rate rose transiently, to a mean peak of 150% of control levels after 2 min. This glycogenolytic burst was reproduced by two P1-receptor agonists, but not by ATP, and was blocked by a P1-antagonist (8-phenyltheophylline), as well as by inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis (indomethacin, ibuprofen or aspirin). It did not occur in phosphorylase-kinase-deficient livers. The adenosine-induced glycogenolytic burst coincided with moderate and transient changes in portal pressure (+6 cmH2O) and O2 consumption (-20%), but it could not be explained by an increase in cytosolic Pi, since the n.m.r. signal fell precipitously. (ii) Subsequently, the rate of glycogenolysis decreased to one-third of the preadenosine value, in spite of persistent maximal activation of phosphorylase. The decrease could be linked to the decline in cytosolic Pi: both changes were prevented by the adenosine kinase inhibitor 5-iodotubercidin, whereas they were not affected by ibuprofen or 8-phenyltheophylline, and were not reproduced by non-metabolized adenosine analogues. In comparison with adenosine, ATP caused a slower decrease of Pi and of glycogenolysis. The fate of the cytosolic Pi was unclear, especially with administered ATP, which did not increase the n.m.r.-detectable intracellular ATP.
Project description:Liver glycogen degradation and phosphorylase activity were measured in normal and phosphorylase kinase-deficient (gsd/gsd) rats. During perfusion or ischaemia, gsd/gsd-rat livers showed a brisk glycogenolysis. There was also a small (1.9-fold) but significant transient increase in their phosphorylase alpha activity during ischaemia, despite their phosphorylase b kinase deficiency; it seems unlikely, however, that this was the main determinant of the glycogenolysis.
Project description:Sulphate ions have been known for some years to enhance the activity of hepatic glycogen phosphorylase b in vitro. Here we report that intravenous injections of 4.92 mmol of Na2SO4/kg body wt. to rats induced marked hepatic glycogenolysis in vivo, accompanied by polyuria, glycosuria and a mild hyperglycaemia. These effects were observed both in normal (Wistar) rats and in gsd/gsd rats that lacked hepatic phosphorylase kinase. In both rat strains the activity of glycogen phosphorylase in liver extracts was enhanced by pretreatment of the animals with Na2SO4, but in phosphorylase kinase-deficient livers the enhancement was solely in phosphorylase b activity, whereas both the a and b forms of the enzyme were activated in normal livers. Hepatic glycogenolysis was also induced by perfusing rat livers, both normal and gsd/gsd, with 25 mM-Na2SO4. Under these conditions both the rat strains showed only enhanced activities of glycogen phosphorylase b. This suggested that the increased activity of phosphorylase a in the extracts of normal livers after Na2SO4 administration in vivo was due to a hormonally mediated conversion of the b form into the a form. The activation of glycogen phosphorylase b was stable to dilution and appeared to be due to a long-lasting structural change in the enzyme or very tight binding of an activator.
Project description:1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) was identified previously as a potent inhibitor of both the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of glycogen phosphorylase (EC 126.96.36.199). In the present study, the effects of DAB were investigated in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. The transport of DAB into hepatocytes was dependent on time and DAB concentration. The rate of DAB transport was 192 pmol/min per mg of protein per mM DAB(medium-concentration). In hepatocytes, DAB inhibited basal and glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis with IC(50) values of 1.0+/-0.3 and 1.1+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The primary inhibitory effect of DAB on glycogenolysis was shown to be due to inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase but, at higher concentrations of DAB, inhibition of the debranching enzyme (4-alpha-glucanotransferase, EC 188.8.131.52) may have an effect. No effects on glycogen synthesis were observed, demonstrating that glycogen recycling does not occur in cultured hepatocytes under the conditions tested. Furthermore, DAB had no effects on phosphorylase kinase, the enzyme responsible for phosphorylation and thereby activation of glycogen phosphorylase, or on protein phosphatase 1, the enzyme responsible for inactivation of glycogen phosphorylase through dephosphorylation.
Project description:Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a liver-enriched, endoplasmic reticulum-tethered transcription factor known to regulate the hepatic acute-phase response and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrate that CREBH functions as a circadian transcriptional regulator that plays major roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The proteolytic cleavage and posttranslational acetylation modification of CREBH are regulated by the circadian clock. Functionally, CREBH is required in order to maintain circadian homeostasis of hepatic glycogen storage and blood glucose levels. CREBH regulates the rhythmic expression of the genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes for glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, including liver glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), and the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC). CREBH interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) to synergize its transcriptional activities in hepatic gluconeogenesis. The acetylation of CREBH at lysine residue 294 controls CREBH-PPAR? interaction and synergy in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism in mice. CREBH deficiency leads to reduced blood glucose levels but increases hepatic glycogen levels during the daytime or upon fasting. In summary, our studies revealed that CREBH functions as a key metabolic regulator that controls glucose homeostasis across the circadian cycle or under metabolic stress.
Project description:1. The glycogen formed in the livers of adult rats was labelled by injection of [1-14C] galactose soon after initiation of re-feeding after starvation. The rats were anaesthetized 4h later and glycogenolysis was induced by giving them a mixture of glucagon and insulin. In confirmation of previous work [Devos & Hers (1979) Eur J. Biochem. 99, 161-167],, there was a delay in degradation of the labelled glycogen by comparison with total glycogen. This pattern is considered as characteristic of an ordered glycogenolysis. Treatment of rats with phlorizin abolished the difference between the fate of labelled and total glycogen, causing, therefore, a random glycogenolysis. 2. Foetal liver glycogen was made radioactive by injecting [14C] glucose into the mother at the 19.5 day of gestation, i.e. at the time when this glycogen starts to be synthesized. During the postnatal degradation of this glycogen, radioactive and total glycogen were degraded at approximately the same rate, indicating that glycogenolysis occurred at random. In contrast, when puromycin was injected into the newborn rats, there was a delay in he degradation of the labelled glycogen as compared with that of total glycogen, as currently observed in the normal adult liver. 3. These data are discussed in relation with the fact that glycogen-filled vacuoles are currently seen in the livers of adult rats treated with phlorizin, and also in the neonatal livers, and that puromycin is known to cause the disappearance of these autophagic pictures in the liver of newborn rats. It is suggested that random glycogenolysis occurs through hydrolysis by the lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase, in the course of autophagy.
Project description:Nuclear glycogen was first documented in the early 1940s, but its role in cellular physiology remained elusive. In this study, we utilized pure nuclei preparations and stable isotope tracers to define the origin and metabolic fate of nuclear glycogen. Herein, we describe a key function for nuclear glycogen in epigenetic regulation through compartmentalized pyruvate production and histone acetylation. This pathway is altered in human non-small cell lung cancers, as surgical specimens accumulate glycogen in the nucleus. We demonstrate that the decreased abundance of malin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, impaired nuclear glycogenolysis by preventing the nuclear translocation of glycogen phosphorylase and causing nuclear glycogen accumulation. Re-introduction of malin in lung cancer cells restored nuclear glycogenolysis, increased histone acetylation, and decreased growth of cancer cells transplanted into mice. This study uncovers a previously unknown role for glycogen metabolism in the nucleus and elucidates another mechanism by which cellular metabolites control epigenetic regulation.
Project description:In isolated perfused rat livers, infusion of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (150 nM) resulted in a 3-fold stimulation of the rate of glucose production. This response was maximal at a perfusate PMA concentration of 150 nM, and was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of PMA (e.g. 300 nM). Stimulation of glycogenolysis by PMA was greatly decreased in livers perfused with Ca2+-free medium. PMA infusion into livers perfused in the absence of Ca2+ did not result in Ca2+ efflux from the livers. Additionally, in hepatocytes isolated from livers of fed rats, neither PMA nor 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol stimulated the rate of glucose production. Although indomethacin has been demonstrated to block PMA-stimulated hepatic glycogenolysis [Garcia-Sainz & Hernandez-Sotomayor (1985) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 132, 204-209], infusion of PMA into perfused rat livers did not alter the rates of production of either prostaglandin E2 or 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha in the livers. These data, along with the observed increases in the perfusion pressure and decrease in O2 consumption in isolated perfused livers suggest that phorbol-ester-stimulated glycogenolysis is not a consequence of a direct effect of phorbol ester on liver parenchymal cells.
Project description:Infusion of adenine nucleotides and adenosine into perfused rat livers resulted in stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis, transient increases in the effluent perfusate [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, and increased portal vein pressure. In livers perfused with buffer containing 50 microM-Ca2+, transient efflux of Ca2+ was seen on stimulation of the liver with adenine nucleotides or adenosine. ADP was the most potent of the nucleotides, stimulating glucose output at concentrations as low as 0.15 microM, with half-maximal stimulation at approx. 1 microM, and ATP was slightly less potent, half-maximal stimulation requiring 4 microM-ATP. AMP and adenosine were much less effective, doses giving half-maximal stimulation being 40 and 20 microM respectively. Non-hydrolysed ATP analogues were much less effective than ATP in promoting changes in hepatic metabolism. ITP, GTP and GDP caused similar changes in hepatic metabolism to ATP, but were 10-20 times less potent than ATP. In livers perfused at low (7 microM) Ca2+, infusion of phenylephrine before ATP desensitized hepatic responses to ATP. Repeated infusions of ATP in such low-Ca2+-perfused livers caused homologous desensitization of ATP responses, and also desensitized subsequent Ca2+-dependent responses to phenylephrine. A short infusion of Ca2+ (1.25 mM) after phenylephrine infusion restored subsequent responses to ATP, indicating that, during perfusion with buffer containing 7 microM-Ca2+, ATP and phenylephrine deplete the same pool of intracellular Ca2+, which can be rapidly replenished in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Measurement of cyclic AMP in freeze-clamped liver tissue demonstrated that adenosine (150 microM) significantly increased hepatic cyclic AMP, whereas ATP (15 microM) was without effect. It is concluded that ATP and ADP stimulate hepatic glycogenolysis via P2-purinergic receptors, through a Ca2+-dependent mechanism similar to that in alpha-adrenergic stimulation of hepatic tissue. However, adenosine stimulates glycogenolysis via P1-purinoreceptors and/or uptake into the cell, at least partially through a mechanism involving increase in cyclic AMP. Further, the hepatic response to adenine nucleotides may be significant in regulating hepatic glucose output in physiological and pathophysiological states.