Structural specificity for prostaglandin effects on hepatocyte glycogenolysis.
ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs) are known to have effects on hepatic glucose metabolism. Some actions of PGs in intact liver systems may not involve PG effects directly at the level of the hepatocyte. To define the ability of structurally distinct prostaglandins to affect hepatocyte metabolism directly, the regulation of glycogenolysis was studied in hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. PGF and PGB2 inhibited glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis in the hepatocyte system. Pinane thromboxane A2 (PTA2) and PGD2 had no effect on glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis. Consistent with their inhibition of glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis, PGF2 and PGF2 alpha inhibited glucagon-stimulated hepatocyte cyclic AMP accumulation. These actions of PGB2 and PGF2 alpha are identical with those previously reported for PGE2. Additionally, PGE2, PGF2 alpha and PGB2 inhibited glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in purified hepatic plasma membranes. In contrast, PGF2 alpha, PGD2 and PTA2 were all without affect on basal rates of hepatocyte glycogenolysis or hepatocyte cyclic AMP content. PGE2 also inhibited glycogenolysis stimulated by the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. Exogenous arachidonic acid was not able to reproduce the affects of PGE2 or PGF2 alpha on hepatocyte glycogenolysis, consistent with an extra-hepatocyte source of the prostaglandins in the intact liver. Thus PGE2 and PGF2 alpha act specifically to inhibit glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. No prostaglandin tested was found to stimulate glycogenolysis. PGE2 and PGF2 alpha may represent intra-hepatic modulators of hepatocyte glucose metabolism.
Project description:A wide spectrum of prostaglandins (PG) stimulate both the production of cyclic AMP and an increase in free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) in the osteogenic osteosarcoma cell line, UMR-106-01, which has characteristics compatible with osteoblasts. Using PG-stimulated determinations of the second messengers cyclic AMP and [Ca2+]i, a method for classification of PG receptors is presented. UMR-106-01 cells demonstrate three subclasses of PG receptors. One receptor interacts with PGF2 alpha, PGD2, and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) to increase [Ca2+]i. A second receptor binds PGE2, PGE1, PGI2, PGA2 and 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha to increase [Ca2+]i by stimulation of a second separate phospholipase C pool. A third receptor accepts PGE2, PGE1, PGA2, PGI2 and to a lesser extent PGF2 alpha, PGD2 and TxB2 to increase cyclic AMP. Such a classification system may be applicable to other cells responding to multiple PGs by inducing changes in cellular second messengers.
Project description:In hepatocytes isolated from fed rats, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) increased, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate [Fru(2,6)P2] levels and stimulated the glycolytic flux. The rise in Fru(2,6)P2 was related to an increase in glucose 6-phosphate levels which resulted from the stimulation of glycogenolysis. In cells obtained from 24 h-starved rats, no effects of either PGE2 or PGF2 alpha could be observed. In addition, when the stimulation of glycogenolysis was abolished by incubation of fed-rat hepatocytes in a Ca2(+)-depleted medium, Fru(2,6)P2 levels did not increase. Furthermore, no effects of PGs on 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity could be observed. These results indicate that PGE2 and PGF2 alpha show similar actions to Ca2(+)-dependent hormones on hepatic glucose metabolism.
Project description:Zymosan (non-boiled) induced glycogenolysis biphasically, with no lag time, in the perfused rat liver. After the zymosan was boiled, it could be separated into two fractions, both of which stimulated glycogenolysis independently. The soluble fraction of boiled zymosan (zymosan sup) showed homologous desensitization, indicating that zymosan sup-induced glycogenolysis is a receptor-mediated event. Mannan (polymannose), which is known to be a biologically active component of zymosan, induced a glycogenolytic response similar to that produced by zymosan sup, and desensitized the response to the latter. Preinfusion of platelet-activating factor (PAF, 20 nM) or isoprenaline (10 microM) did not extinguish the glycogenolytic response to zymosan sup, while the response to a secondary infusion of PAF was blocked. The glycogenolytic response to zymosan sup was completely inhibited by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, 10 microM), a lipoxygenase inhibitor, and by ONO-1078 (100 ng/ml), a leukotriene (LT) D4 receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the glycogenolytic effect of zymosan pellet (the particulate fraction of boiled zymosan) was not affected by preinfusion of zymosan sup, and was inhibited by ibuprofen (20 microM), a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor. Prostaglandins (PGs) detected in the perfusate were augmented with infusion of zymosan pellet. Opsonization of the zymosan pellet by serum (complement) enhanced the glycogenolytic response without a lag period, and with a concomitant enhancement of PG output. Correlations between glucose production and PGs were r = 0.832 (PGD2), r = 0.872 (PGF2 alpha), r = 0.752 (PGE2) and r = 0.349 (6-oxo-PGF1 alpha). The glycogenolytic response to non-boiled zymosan was delayed and the biphasic glycogenolytic response was not observed when mannan was infused first. NDGA mimicked the effects of the preinfusion of mannan, while ibuprofen had no effect on the non-boiled-zymosan-induced glycogenolysis. These results suggest: (1) that non-boiled zymosan stimulates glycogenolysis through a mannose receptor-dependent, but unidentified, pathway, (2) that zymosan sup induces glycogenolysis via mannose receptor activation through the production of peptide-LTs but not PAF, and (3) that zymosan pellet causes glycogenolysis through the production of prostanoids, which is enhanced in the presence of complement.
Project description:Recent reports of a pertussis-toxin (Ptx)-sensitive inhibition of glucose-induced insulin release by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in transformed beta-cells prompted us to look for the presence of prostaglandin-regulatable GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) on the secretory granules of normal pancreatic islets. PGE2 (but not PGF2 alpha, PGA2, PGB2 or PGD2) stimulated in a concentration-dependent manner a high-affinity GTPase activity in the secretory-granule-enriched fractions of both normal rat and human islets. Similar results were found after sucrose-density-gradient-centrifugation-based isolation of secretory granules to those after a differential-centrifugation procedure. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 800 nM PGE2, a concentration known to inhibit both phases of glucose-induced insulin secretion from pure beta-cell lines. The GTPase stimulatory effect of PGE2 was blocked virtually totally by Ptx pretreatment; it was not due to an effect on substrate binding since no measurable effect of PGE2 on binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate was observed in cognate fractions. Other Ptx-sensitive inhibitors of insulin secretion (such as adrenaline or clonidine) also stimulated GTPase activity, suggesting that one (or more) inhibitory exocytotic G-proteins (i.e. a putative GEi) is located on the secretory granules. These studies demonstrate, for the first time in an endocrine gland, the presence of a regulatable G-protein, strategically located on the secretory granules where it might regulate the exocytotic cascade distal to both plasma-membrane events and the generation of soluble mediators of insulin secretion.
Project description:Prostaglandin generation and its inter-relation to the metabolic effects of insulin and prior exercise were examined in perfused muscle of fed rats. During a 60 min perfusion of the rat hindquarter, a substantial release of the prostaglandins PGF2 alpha, PGE2 and 6-oxoPGF1 alpha was observed. Blood cells present in the perfusate released these substances in negligible amounts indicating the prostaglandins were produced by the hindquarter. Addition of insulin to the perfusate increased both glucose uptake and the generation of PGE2 and 6-oxoPGF1 alpha. At 30 min after intense treadmill exercise, glucose and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake by the hindquarter were increased in the absence of added insulin, but prostaglandin release was not increased. Insulin further increased glucose and AIB uptake; however, in contrast with its effects in non-exercised rats, insulin no longer stimulated prostaglandin generation. Indomethacin (10 microM) added to the perfusate inhibited the release of PGF2 alpha and PGE2 by 90% and the release of 6-oxoPGF1 alpha by 54%. It had no effect on the stimulation of glucose uptake by either insulin or prior exercise. The data indicate that insulin increases prostaglandin synthesis by perfused rat muscle, and that prior exercise blocks this effect. They suggest that under the conditions studied prostaglandins do not mediate the effects of insulin or prior exercise on glucose uptake.
Project description:Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) inactivated glycogen synthase and activated glycogen phosphorylase in rat hepatocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These effects were dependent on the presence of Ca2+ in the incubation medium. When glycogen synthase was immunoprecipitated from cells incubated with [32P]Pi and then treated with PGE2 or PGF2 alpha, there was increased phosphorylation of the 88 kDa subunit of the enzyme. This phosphorylation affected two CNBr fragments of the glycogen synthase, CB-1 and CB-2, the same fragments that are phosphorylated by different glycogenolytic hormones. No phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by prostaglandins was observed in the absence of Ca2+. Thus the effect of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha on these glycogen-metabolizing enzymes supports a role for regulation by prostaglandins of glucose metabolism in parenchymal liver cells.
Project description:Prostaglandins are synthesized through the metabolism of arachidonic acid via the cyclooxygenase pathway. There are five primary prostaglandins, PGD2, PGE2, PGF2, PGI2, and thromboxane B2, that all signal through distinct seven transmembrane, G-protein coupled receptors. The receptors through which the prostaglandins signal determines their immunologic or physiologic effects. For instance, the same prostaglandin may have opposing properties, dependent upon the signaling pathways activated. In this article, we will detail how inhibition of cyclooxygenase metabolism and regulation of prostaglandin signaling regulates allergic airway inflammation and asthma physiology. Possible prostaglandin therapeutic targets for allergic lung inflammation and asthma will also be reviewed, as informed by human studies, basic science, and animal models.
Project description:The administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and the thromboxane A2 analogue, ONO-11113, to rat livers perfused with media containing either 1.3 mM- or 10 microM-Ca2+ was followed by a stimulation of Ca2+ efflux, changes in O2 uptake and glucose output, and increase in portal pressure. The responses elicited by 5 microM-PGF2 alpha were similar to those induced by the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. At both 1.3 mM and 10 microM extracellular Ca2+, PGF2 alpha induced Ca2+ efflux (70-90 nmol/g of liver), probably from the same source as that released by phenylephrine. Prostaglandin D2 (5 microM) and prostaglandin E2 (5 microM) also induced responses, but these were generally much smaller (less than 30%) than those induced by PGF2 alpha. Similarly to vasopressin and other Ca2+-mobilizing hormones, PGF2 alpha also interacted synergistically with glucagon (and cyclic AMP) in stimulating Ca2+ influx both in the perfused liver and in isolated hepatocytes. By comparison with phenylephrine and PGF2 alpha, ONO-11113 was much more potent in inducing vasoconstriction, and, at concentrations of 10-200 nM, induced a different pattern of changes in Ca2+ flux, respiration and glycogenolysis. There was first a rapid efflux of Ca2+ (45-60 nmol/g of liver), followed by a smaller Ca2+ influx, and a further release of Ca2+ (approx. 90 nmol/g of liver) when ONO-11113 was removed. Respiration was first stimulated but then markedly inhibited. At concentrations less than 5 nM, ONO-11113 induced a sustained stimulation of O2 uptake and a more prolonged efflux of Ca2+, with less Ca2+ efflux occurring upon the removal of the agent. Glycogenolysis followed a pattern which was similar to the Ca2+ response. Co-administration of glucagon did not potentiate Ca2+ influx by ONO-11113, but the action of ONO-11113 was inhibited (50%) by a few minutes' prior administration of 10 nM-vasopressin. The vasoconstrictive action of ONO-11113 was synergistically potentiated by the co-administration of phenylephrine. Since the actions of arachidonic acid, platelet-activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine in liver were recently found to be cyclo-oxygenase-sensitive, the results provide strong evidence that at least PGF2 alpha and thromboxane A2 may be involved in mediating the action of these agents.
Project description:The production of prostaglandins (PG) E2 and F2 alpha and their possible role in regulation of protein turnover in cultured skeletal-muscle cells were examined. Primary chick myoblasts and myotubes, and L8 myotubes, produced PGE2 and PGF2 alpha from endogenous arachidonic acid. PG production by all three cell types was increased manyfold by the addition of exogenous arachidonic acid. Arachidonate-stimulated PG production was inhibited by the addition of indomethacin (0.1 mM). When L8 and chick myotubes were treated with PGE2, PGF2 alpha, arachidonic acid (0.01 mM) or indomethacin (0.1 mM), no significant alterations in rates of protein synthesis or degradation were observed. Rates of protein synthesis and degradation in these cells were responsive to the addition of 10% fetal-bovine serum under identical experimental conditions. Thus, in contrast with incubated adult skeletal muscle, it appears that the production of prostaglandin metabolites from arachidonic acid is unrelated to regulation of protein turnover in cultured muscle cells.
Project description:Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been identified as a PG necessary for ovulation, but the ovulatory gonadotropin surge also increases PGF2 alpha levels in primate periovulatory follicles. To better understand the role of PGF2 alpha in ovulation, pathways utilized for PGF2 alpha synthesis by the primate follicle were examined. Monkeys were treated with gonadotropins to stimulate multiple follicular development; follicular aspirates and whole ovaries were removed before and at specific times after administration of an ovulatory dose of hCG to span the 40 h periovulatory interval. Human granulosa cells were also obtained (typically 34-36 h after hCG) from in vitro fertilization patients. PGF2 alpha can be synthesized from PGH2 via the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3. AKR1C3 mRNA and protein levels in monkey granulosa cells were low before hCG and peaked 24-36 h after hCG administration. Human granulosa cells converted PGD2 into 11 beta-PGF2 alpha, confirming that these cells possess AKR1C3 activity. PGF2 alpha can also be synthesized from PGE2 via the enzymes AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. Monkey granulosa cell levels of AKR1C1/AKR1C2 mRNA was low 0-12 h, peaked at 24 h, and returned to low levels by 36 h after hCG administration. Human granulosa cell conversion of [(3)H]PGE2 into [(3)H]PGF2 alpha was reduced by an AKR1C2-selective inhibitor, supporting the concept that granulosa cells preferentially express AKR1C2 over AKR1C1. In summary, the ovulatory gonadotropin surge increases granulosa cell expression of AKR1C1/AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Both of these enzyme activities are present in periovulatory granulosa cells. These data support the concept that follicular PGF2 alpha can be synthesized via two pathways during the periovulatory interval.