Activation of superoxide formation and lysozyme release in human neutrophils by the synthetic lipopeptide Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4. Involvement of guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins and synergism with chemotactic peptides.
ABSTRACT: Upon exposure to the bacterial chemotactic peptide fMet-Leu-Phe, human neutrophils release lysozyme and generate superoxide anions (O2.-). The synthetic lipoamino acid N-palmitoyl-S-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]-(R)-cysteine (Pam3Cys), which is derived from the N-terminus of bacterial lipoprotein, when attached to Ser-(Lys)4 [giving Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4], activated O2.- formation and lysozyme release in human neutrophils with an effectiveness amounting to about 15% of that of fMet-Leu-Phe. Palmitic acid, muramyl dipeptide, lipopolysaccharide and the lipopeptides Pam3Cys-Ala-Gly, Pam3Cys-Ser-Gly, Pam3Cys-Ser, Pam3Cys-OMe and Pam3Cys-OH did not activate O2.- formation. Pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) and functionally uncouples formyl peptide receptors from G-proteins, prevented activation of O2.- formation by fMet-Leu-Phe and inhibited Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4-induced O2.- formation by 85%. Lipopeptide-induced exocytosis was pertussis-toxin-insensitive. O2.- formation induced by Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 and fMet-Leu-Phe was enhanced by cytochalasin B, by a phorbol ester and by a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor. Addition of activators of adenylate cyclase and removal of extracellular Ca2+ inhibited O2.- formation by fMet-Leu-Phe and Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 to different extents. Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 synergistically enhanced fMet-Leu-Phe-induced O2.- formation and primed neutrophils to respond to the chemotactic peptide at non-stimulatory concentrations. Our data suggest the following. (1) Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 activates neutrophils through G-proteins, involving pertussis-toxin-sensitive and -insensitive processes. (2) The signal transduction pathways activated by fMet-Leu-Phe and Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 are similar but not identical. (3) In inflammatory processes, bacterial lipoproteins and chemotactic peptides may interact synergistically to activate O2.- formation, leading to enhanced bactericidal activity.
Project description:Human neutrophils and HL-60 leukaemic cells possess an NADPH oxidase which catalyses superoxide (O2-) formation and is activated by the chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe). In dibutyryl cyclic AMP-differentiated HL-60 cells, ATP and UTP in the presence of cytochalasin B activated O2- formation with EC50 values of 5 microM and efficacies amounting to 30% of that of fMet-Leu-Phe. The potency order of purine nucleotides in activating O2- generation was ATP = adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) greater than ITP greater than dATP = ADP. Pyrimidine nucleotides activated NADPH oxidase in the potency order UTP greater than dUTP greater than CTP = TTP = UDP. Pertussis toxin completely prevented activation of NADPH oxidase by fMet-Leu-Phe and UTP, whereas the effect of ATP was only partially inhibited. ATP and UTP enhanced O2- generation induced by fMet-Leu-Phe by up to 8-fold, and primed the cells to respond to non-stimulatory concentrations of fMet-Leu-Phe. Activation of NADPH oxidase by UTP but not by ATP was inhibited by various activators of adenylate cyclase. In dimethyl sulphoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells and in human neutrophils, ATP and UTP per se did not activate NADPH oxidase, but they potentiated the effect of fMet-Leu-Phe. Our results suggest that purine and pyrimidine nucleotides act via purino- and novel pyrimidinoceptors respectively, which are coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins leading to the activation of NADPH oxidase. As ATP and UTP are released from cells under physiological and pathological conditions, these nucleotides may play roles as intercellular signal molecules in the activation of O2- formation.
Project description:Synthetic lipopeptide analogues of the N-terminus of bacterial lipoprotein are effective activators of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes. We studied the effect of the lipopeptide N-palmitoyl-S-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]- (R)-cysteinyl-(S)-seryl-(S)-lysyl-(S)-lysyl-(S)-lysyl-(S)-lysine [Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4] on tyrosine phosphorylation in dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP-differentiated HL-60 cells, using anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 concentration-dependently stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of 100/110 kDa and 60 kDa proteins and, to a lesser extent, of 55 kDa and 70/75 kDa proteins. Half-maximal and maximal effects were observed at concentrations of 1-6 and 5-50 micrograms/ml respectively. The lipopeptide-induced increase in phosphorylation was rapid and transient, with a peak response after 30-60 s. The lipopeptide (2S)-2-palmitoylamino-6-palmitoyloxymethyl-7-palmitoyloxy heptanoyl-Ser-(Lys)4 [Pam3Ahh-Ser-(Lys)4] was as potent as Pam3Cys-Ser(Lys)4, whereas (2S,6S)-2-palmitoylamino-6,7-bis(palmitoyloxy)heptanoyl++ +-Ser-(Lys)4 [Pam3Adh-Ser-(Lys)4] and Pam3Cys-Ser-Gly did not induce tyrosine phosphorylation. Lipopeptide-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was not affected by treatment of cells with pertussis toxin. Neither phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate nor A23187 induced tyrosine phosphorylation in dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP-differentiated HL-60 cells. In HL-60 promyelocytes, Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 had no effect on tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas the lipopeptide also induced tyrosine phosphorylation in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3-differentiated HL-60 cells and in human neutrophils. These results show that lipopeptides are effective stimulators of tyrosine phosphorylation in mature human myeloid cells.
Project description:N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induce disparate second-messenger generation and functional responses in neutrophils and HL-60 granulocytes. Receptors for these chemoattractants couple to a common pool of G-proteins which are substrates for both pertussis-toxin- and cholera-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation. The hypothesis that formyl-peptide and LTB4 receptors induce different receptor-specific conformations of activated G-proteins was tested. The ability of pertussis toxin and cholera toxin to ADP-ribosylate G(i) proteins coupled to formyl-peptide or LTB4 receptors in membranes isolated from HL-60 granulocytes was used to assess the conformational state of the alpha subunits. Cholera-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation of alpha 40 (40 kDa alpha subunit) was inhibited by guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate and GDP in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of fMet-Leu-Phe, but not LTB4, re-established cholera-toxin labelling of alpha 40 in the presence of either guanine nucleotide. In the absence of guanine nucleotides, fMet-Leu-Phe and C5a enhanced cholera-toxin-catalysed labelling of alpha 40, whereas LTB4 and platelet-activating factor had no effect. Preincubation with fMet-Leu-Phe, but not LTB4, inhibited pertussis-toxin labelling of alpha 40 in the presence of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and in the absence of guanine nucleotides. Preincubation with fMet-Leu-Phe or LTB4 enhanced pertussis-toxin labelling of alpha 40 in the presence of GDP. These data suggest that activated G(i) proteins coupled to formyl-peptide and LTB4 receptors exist in different conformations determined by the receptor with which they interact.
Project description:Phosphorylation of a 47 kDa protein in human neutrophils is induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), opsonized latex beads, fMet-Leu-Phe, calcium ionophore A23187 and fluoride. All of these stimuli activate the specialized microbicidal respiratory burst of neutrophils, and in each case the kinetics of activation correspond with the kinetics of phosphorylation of the 47 kDa protein. Trifluoperazine (50 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM), inhibitors of calmodulin and protein kinase C, abolish the increase in oxygen consumption and selectively prevent phosphorylation of the 47 kDa protein after PMA stimulation. Treatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin totally inhibits both superoxide production and phosphorylation of this protein in response to fMet-Leu-Phe, but not in response to PMA, indicating that a GTP-binding protein modulates the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor signal. Phosphorylation of the 47 kDa protein, a phenomenon absent from the neutrophils of subjects with autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease, which lack the respiratory burst, appears to be the common trigger for activation of the burst in normal neutrophils.
Project description:[3H]Arachidonic acid is released after stimulation of rabbit neutrophils with fMet-Leu-Phe or platelet-activating factor (PAF). The release is rapid and dose-dependent, and is inhibited in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated rabbit neutrophils. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinoline-sulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7) prevents this inhibition. In addition, PMA increases arachidonic acid release in H-7-treated cells stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe. [3H]Arachidonic acid release, but not the rise in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+, is inhibited in pertussis-toxin-treated neutrophils stimulated with PAF. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022 increases the concentration of diacylglycerol and potentiates [3H]arachidonic acid release in neutrophils stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe. This potentiation is not inhibited by H-7. These results suggest several points. (1) A rise in the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ is not sufficient for arachidonic acid release in rabbit neutrophils stimulated by physiological stimuli. (2) A functional pertussis-toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide regulatory protein and/or one or more of the changes produced by phospholipase C activation are necessary for arachidonic acid release produced by physiological stimuli. (3) Agents that stimulate PKC potentiate arachidonic acid release, and this potentiation is not inhibited by H-7. These agents produce their actions in part by direct membrane perturbation.
Project description:Gliadin, the immunogenic component within gluten and trigger of celiac disease, is known to induce the production of Interleukin-8, a potent neutrophil-activating and chemoattractant chemokine. We sought to study the involvement of neutrophils in the early immunological changes following gliadin exposure.Utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, the redistribution of major tight junction protein, Zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and neutrophil recruitment were assessed in duodenal tissues of gliadin-gavaged C57BL/6 wild-type and Lys-GFP reporter mice, respectively. Intravital microscopy with Lys-GFP mice allowed monitoring of neutrophil recruitment in response to luminal gliadin exposure in real time. In vitro chemotaxis assays were used to study murine and human neutrophil chemotaxis to gliadin, synthetic alpha-gliadin peptides and the neutrophil chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe, in the presence or absence of a specific inhibitor of the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor-1 (FPR1), cyclosporine H. An irrelevant protein, zein, served as a control.Redistribution of ZO-1 and an influx of CD11b+Lys6G+ cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine were observed upon oral gavage of gliadin. In vivo intravital microscopy revealed a slowing down of GFP+ cells within the vessels and influx in the mucosal tissue within 2 hours after challenge. In vitro chemotaxis assays showed that gliadin strongly induced neutrophil migration, similar to fMet-Leu-Phe. We identified thirteen synthetic gliadin peptide motifs that induced cell migration. Blocking of FPR1 completely abrogated the fMet-Leu-Phe-, gliadin- and synthetic peptide-induced migration.Gliadin possesses neutrophil chemoattractant properties similar to the classical neutrophil chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe, and likewise uses FPR1 in the process.
Project description:Inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) production and cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) elevations induced by leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-receptor activation were studied in the human promyelocytic-leukaemia cell line HL60, induced to differentiate by retinoic acid. The myeloid-differentiated HL60 cells respond to LTB4 by raising their [Ca2+]i with a dose-response relationship similar to that shown by normal human neutrophils. The observations of the LTB4 transduction mechanism were compared with those of the transduction mechanism of the chemotactic peptide fMet-Leu-Phe in HL60 cells differentiated with dimethyl sulphoxide. Both LTB4 and fMet-Leu-Phe triggered a rapid (less than 5 s) elevation of [Ca2+]i, which occurred in parallel with the InsP3 production from myo-[3H]inositol-labelled cells. The threshold concentrations of the agonists, for InsP3 production, were found at 10(-9) M, a slightly higher concentration than that required to detect [Ca2+]i elevations. No significant changes were noted in the phosphoinositide levels upon stimulation with LTB4. Exposure to Bordetella pertussis toxin before LTB4 stimulation abolished both the increased formation of InsP3 and the rise of [Ca2+]i. LTB4 and fMet-Leu-Phe elicited elevations of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] with no detectable lag time, followed by slower and more sustained inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate elevations. Stimulation with various leukotriene analogues revealed a good correlation between both total InsP3 as well as Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation and elevations of [Ca2+]1. Thus LTB4 receptor activation results in an increased production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 via a transduction mechanism also involving a nucleotide regulatory protein, as previously described for the fMet-Leu-Phe transduction mechanism.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphorylation in rabbit peritoneal neutrophils was examined by immunoblotting with antibodies specific for phosphotyrosine. Stimulation of the neutrophils with chemotactic factor fMet-Leu-Phe (10 nM) caused rapid increases of tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins with apparent molecular masses of (Group A) 54-58 kDa and 100-125 kDa and (Group B) 36-41 kDa. Stimulation of Group A proteins was observed by fMet-Leu-Phe (10 nM, maximum at 20 s) and A23187 (1 microM, 1 min). Stimulation of Group B proteins was observed by fMet-Leu-Phe (ED50 0.15 nM, 1 min), leukotriene B4 (ED50 0.15 nM, 1 min), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (ED50 25 ng/ml, 10 min) and partially by ionophore A23187 (1 microM, 1 min). Pretreatment of the cell with the protein kinase inhibitor H-7 (25 microM, 5 min) and PMA (0.1 microgram/ml, 3 min) partially inhibited the fMet-Leu-Phe effect. However, pretreatment of the cells with quin 2/AM (20 microM, 10 min) completely inhibited the fMet-Leu-Phe effect. The results indicate that rapid regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation is an early event occurring in stimulated neutrophils. Furthermore the effect of fMet-Leu-Phe on tyrosine phosphorylation may require Ca2+ mobilization and may partially require the activity of H-7-sensitive protein kinases.
Project description:Neutrophils stimulated with formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe) in the presence of butanol and ethanol formed phosphatidyl alcohols through a phospholipase D mechanism. The alcohols inhibited phosphatidic acid and diradylglycerol (DRG) formation, but did not block inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate release. fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated superoxide production was inhibited by alcohol concentrations which blocked DRG formation, whereas opsonized-zymosan-stimulated superoxide production was only partially decreased. These results suggest that phospholipase D activation is functionally linked to superoxide production in the human neutrophil.
Project description:The present studies were undertaken to characterize a serine protease released by N-formyl-L-Met-L-Leu-L-Phe (fMet-Leu-Phe)-stimulated neutrophils that rapidly induces platelet calcium mobilization, secretion and aggregation. The biological activity associated with this protease was unaffected by leupeptin, was only weakly diminished by N-p-tosyl-L-Lys-chloromethane, but was strongly inhibited by alpha 1-antitrypsin, soyabean trypsin inhibitor, N-tosyl-L-Phe-chloromethane and benzoyloxycarbonyl-Gly-Leu-Phe-chloromethane (Z-Gly-Leu-PheCH2Cl). These observations indicated that the biological activity of neutrophil supernatants could be attributed to a chymotrypsin-like enzyme such as cathepsin G. Furthermore, platelet aggregation and 5-hydroxytryptamine release induced by cell-free supernatants from fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated neutrophils were found to be blocked by antiserum to cathepsin G in a concentration-dependent manner but were unaffected by antiserum to elastase. The biological activity present in neutrophil supernatants co-purified with enzymic activity for cathepsin G during sequential Aprotinin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and carboxymethyl-Sephadex chromatography. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the reduced, purified protein, demonstrated three polypeptides with apparent Mr values of 31,500, 29,000 and 28,000 and four polypeptides were resolved on acid-gel electrophoresis. Purified cathepsin G from neutrophils cross-reacted with anti-(cathepsin G) serum in a double immunodiffusion assay and elicited platelet calcium mobilization, 5-hydroxytryptamine secretion and aggregation. Calcium mobilization and secretion induced by low concentrations of cathepsin G were partially dependent on arachidonic acid metabolites and ADP, while stimulation by higher enzyme concentrations was independent of amplification pathways, indicating that cathepsin G is a strong platelet agonist. These results suggest that pathological processes which stimulate neutrophils and release cathepsin G can in turn result in the recruitment and activation of platelets.