Roles of synthesis and degradation in the regulation of metallothionein accretion in a chicken macrophage-cell line.
ABSTRACT: Metallothionein (MT) is a metal-binding protein rapidly accreted in many tissues in response to trace elements or hormones. To gain an understanding of the regulation of MT accretion, rates of MT synthesis and degradation were determined by using a decay-kinetics technique. A chicken macrophage-cell line (HD11) that rapidly accretes incremental amounts of MT when stimulated with increasing concentrations of Zn2+ or Cd2+ was studied. The maximum rate of MT accretion occurred at 50 microM-Zn2+ or 20 microM-Cd2+. The absolute rate of MT accretion was less in macrophages incubated with 25 microM- as compared with 50 microM-Zn2+, owing to decreased and increased rates of MT synthesis and degradation respectively. The absolute rate of MT accretion was less in macrophages incubated with 10 microM- as compared with 20 microM-Cd2+, owing to a decreased rate of MT synthesis with no change in degradation. Compared with macrophages continually incubated with 50 microM-Zn2+, removal of Zn2+ from medium previously containing 50 microM-Zn2+ decreased the absolute rate of MT accretion, owing to decreased and increased rates of MT synthesis and degradation respectively. Removal of Cd2+ from medium previously containing 20 microM-Cd2+ also decreased the absolute rate of MT accretion in macrophages. Unlike Zn2+ removal, the decrease in MT accretion was due to a decreased rate of MT synthesis with no change in degradation. When macrophages incubated with 50 microM-Zn2+ were subsequently incubated with 20 microM-Cd2+, rates of MT synthesis and accretion were decreased as compared with cells continually incubated with 50 microM-Zn2+ or 20 microM-Cd2+. When macrophages incubated with 20 microM-Cd2+ were subsequently incubated with 50 microM-Zn2+, rates of MT synthesis and accretion were increased as compared with cells continually incubated with 50 microM-Zn2+ or 20 microM-Cd2+. Switching the metal in the incubation medium did not influence the rate of MT degradation. Our results indicate that the rate of MT accretion is determined by variations in the rates of MT synthesis and degradation, depending upon the inducing metal and the concentration of the metal.
Project description:Cadmium ions (Cd2+) have been reported to accumulate in bovine tissues, although Cd2+ cytotoxicity has not been investigated thoroughly in this species. Zinc ions (Zn2+) have been shown to antagonize the toxic effects of heavy metals such as Cd2+ in some systems. The present study investigated Cd2+ cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells, and explored whether this was modified by Zn2+. Exposure to Cd2+ led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death, with increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. Zn2+ supplementation alleviated Cd2+-induced cytotoxicity and this protective effect was more obvious when cells were exposed to a lower concentration of Cd2+ (10 ?M), as compared to 50 ?M Cd2+. This indicated that high levels of Cd2+ accumulation might induce irreversible damage in bovine kidney cells. Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding proteins that play an essential role in heavy metal ion detoxification. We found that co-exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ synergistically enhanced RNA and protein expression of MT-1, MT-2, and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in MDBK cells. Notably, addition of Zn2+ reduced the amounts of cytosolic Cd2+ detected following MDBK exposure to 10 ?M Cd2+. These findings revealed a protective role of Zn2+ in counteracting Cd2+ uptake and toxicity in MDBK cells, indicating that this approach may provide a means to protect livestock from excessive Cd2+ accumulation.
Project description:Exposure of adipocytes of rats to CdCl2 caused acceleration of [3-3H]glucose incorporation into lipid maximally at 500 microM in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.2% albumin. T.l.c. of the lipids extracted from adipocytes showed that Cd2+ increased labelling of di- and tri-[14C]acylglycerols predominantly. With increasing concentrations of glucose the apparent Km value was not affected by Cd2+, but the V value was increased, similarly to the effect of insulin. In the presence of insulin, Cd2+ (5 microM) exerted a consistent additive effect with a stimulatory effect of insulin on lipogenesis at all concentrations of insulin tested (5-50 mu units/ml). The stimulation was observed at a high concentration of glucose, suggesting that Cd2+ accelerated intracellular metabolism of glucose, mimicking insulin. However, although Zn2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the transport at a rate similar to that observed with insulin (200 mu units/ml), Cd2+ had no stimulating effect on the membrane transport of 3-O-methylglucose. The biological potency of Cd2+ and the insulin-like effects of Zn2+, both of which metals belong to the same group in the Periodic Table, are similar towards glucose metabolism, but quite different towards glucose transport.
Project description:Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) phosphorylase and Ap4A pyrophosphohydrolase activities have been purified from extracts of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Both activities were also detected in Scenedesmus brasiliensis, Scenedesmus quadricauda and in Chlorella vulgaris. This is the first time that both types of enzyme have been detected in the same species. The Ap4A phosphorylase has a molecular mass of 46-48 kDa, a broad pH optimum between 7.5 and 9.5, and requires a divalent ion for activity (Mg2+ > Co2+ > Ca2+ = Mn2+ = Cd2+ > Zn2+). It degrades substrates with at least four phosphate groups and always produces a nucleoside 5'-diphosphate product. The Km values for Ap4A and Pi are 5.3 microM and 160 microM, respectively, and kcat. = 1.8 s-1. Arsenate, vanadate, molybdate, chromate and tungstate can substitute for phosphate. The enzyme also catalyses Ap4A synthesis (Keq. = [Ap4A] [Pi]/[ATP][ADP] = 9 x 10(-4)) and ADP arsenolysis. The Ap4A hydrolase has a molecular mass of 26-28 kDa, an alkaline pH optimum of 8.8-9.8, and prefers Zn2+ as the stimulatory ion (Zn2+ > Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Co2+ > Cd2+). It degrades substrates with at least four phosphate groups, having a slight preference for Ap5A, and always produces a nucleoside 5'-triphosphate product. The Km value for Ap4A is 6.6 microM and kcat. = 1.3 s-1. It is inhibited competitively by adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (Ki = 0.67 microM) and non-competitively by fluoride (Ki = 150 microM). A 50-54 kDa dinucleoside 5',5'''-P1,P3-triphosphate (Ap3A) pyrophosphohydrolase was also detected in S. obliquus, S. quadricauda and C. vulgaris. The corresponding enzyme in S. brasiliensis (> 100 kDa) may be a dimer
Project description:The effects of the heavy-metal ions Cd2+ and Zn2+ on the homoeostasis of intracellular free Ca2+ in E367 neuroblastoma cells were examined using 19F-NMR spectroscopy with the fluorinated chelator probe 1,2-bis-(2-amino-5-fluorophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N', N'-tetra-acetic acid (5F-BAPTA). First, the technique was used to quantify the uptake and intracellular free concentrations of the heavy metals after treatment of the cells with 20 microM CdCl2 or 100 microM ZnCl2. Secondly, metal-induced transients in intracellular free Ca2+ were recorded. Addition of 20 microM CdCl2, but not 100 microM ZnCl2, evoked a transient increase in Ca2+ from a resting level of 84 nM to approx. 190 nM within 15 min after addition of the metal. Zn2+ at 20 microM completely prevented the induction of a Ca2+ transient by Cd2+. Ca2+ was mobilized by Cd2+ from intracellular organelles, since depletion of these stores by thapsigargin abolished the effect of the toxic metal. Furthermore, 20 microM Cd2+ evoked a transient rise in cellular Ins(1,4,5)P3, reaching a maximum level within 5 min after addition of the metal. These results demonstrate that perturbation of the Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ca2+ messenger system is an early and discrete cellular effect of Cd2+.
Project description:Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a group of intrinsically disordered proteins that exhibit extreme diversity in structure, biological functionality, and metal ion specificity. Structures of coordinatively saturated metalated MTs have been extensively studied, but very limited structural information for the partially metalated MTs exists. Here, the conformational preferences from partial metalation of rabbit metallothionein-2A (MT) by Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ag+ are studied using nanoelectrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry. We also employ collision-induced unfolding to probe differences in the gas-phase stabilities of these partially metalated MTs. Our results show that despite their similar ion mobility profiles, Cd4-MT, Zn4-MT, Ag4-MT, and Ag6-MT differ dramatically in their gas-phase stabilities. Furthermore, the sequential addition of each Cd2+ and Zn2+ ion results in the incremental stabilization of unique unfolding intermediates.
Project description:The Cd2+ and Zn2+ assisted photo-catalytic degradation of soil incorporated chlorpyrifos (CLP) was reported in current study. The soil samples fortified with CLP and metals were irradiated in photo-reactor for different time intervals to check maximum degradation. Soil samples extracted with acetonitrile were analyzed by HPLC. The results of the study revealed a complete mineralization of insecticide from soil that followed first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model. The CLP degradation rate in soil was higher in photoreactor than control with variation in half-life from 41 days to 20 days. The degradation of CLP in photoreactor was 5 fold augmented after Zn2+ fortification of soil while Cd2+ had negligible effect on CLP photodegradation. Thus Zn2+ fortification of soil will not only replenish the important nutrient for plant growth but will also help in alleviating the harmful effects of CLP on soil flora and fauna by enhancing its rate of photodegradation.
Project description:1. The inflow of Mn2+ across the plasma membranes of isolated hepatocytes was monitored by measuring the quenching of the fluorescence of intracellular quin2, by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by the uptake of 54Mn2+. The inflow of other divalent metal ions was measured using quin2. 2. Under ionic conditions which resembled those present in the cytoplasmic space, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ each quenched the fluorescence of a solution of Ca2(+)-quin2. 3. The addition of Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Cd2+ to cells loaded with quin2 caused a time-dependent decrease in the fluorescence of intracellular quin2. Plots of the rate of decrease in fluorescence as a function of the concentration of Mn2+ reached a plateau at 100 microM-Mn2+. 4. The rate of decrease in fluorescence induced by Mn2+ was stimulated by 20% in the presence of vasopressin. The effect of vasopressin was completely inhibited by 200 microM-verapamil. Adrenaline, angiotensin II and glucagon also stimulated the rate of decrease in the fluorescence of intracellular quin2 induced by Mn2+. 5. The rate of decrease in fluorescence induced by Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ or Cd2+ was stimulated by between 20 and 190% in the presence of vasopressin or angiotensin II. 6. The rates of uptake of Mn2+ measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy or by using 54Mn2+ were inhibited by about 20% by 1.3 mM-Ca2+o and stimulated by 30% by vasopressin. 7. Plots of Mn2+ uptake, measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy or with 54Mn2+, as a function of the extracellular concentration of Mn2+ were biphasic over the range 0.05-1.0 mM added Mn2+ and did not reach a plateau at 1.0 mM-Mn2+. 8. It is concluded that (i) hepatocytes possess both a basal and a receptor-activated divalent cation inflow system, each of which has a broad specificity for metal ions, and (ii) the receptor-activated divalent cation inflow system is the receptor-operated Ca2+ channel.
Project description:To help to evaluate the role of metallothionein (MT) in peripheral-blood leucocytes, we examined MT protein and mRNA levels in these cells before and after exposure to CdCl2 in culture. Protein was assayed by 109Cd2+ binding, and RNA by dot-blot hybridization. MT was induced in both lymphocytes and adherent monocytes about 10-fold with a 12 h exposure to 10 microM-CdCl2, but absolute levels were 3-fold higher in monocytes: 57 x 10(5) (+Cd2+) versus 6 x 10(5) (-Cd2+) molecules/cell for monocytes; 18 x 10(5) (+Cd2+) versus 2 x 10(5) (-Cd2+) for lymphocytes. Polymorphonuclear cells expressed relatively little MT (0.6 x 10(5) molecules/cell), and this did not change with phorbol ester stimulation or exposure to Cd2+, arguing against a direct protective role for MT in activated neutrophils. MT mRNA levels corresponded qualitatively to expression of protein in these cells. Our data provide quantitative comparisons of leucocyte MT expression and regulation in the human population. Variation in both basal and induced MT mRNA levels reflects environmental or experimental (intra-individual) and possibly genetic (inter-individual) differences.
Project description:HeLa cells synthesize metallothioneins in response to Cd2+. The kinetics of thionein (apoprotein of metallothionein) synthesis was studied by pulse-labelling the cells with [35S]cysteine and measuring relative amounts of the labelled thioneins separated by electrophoresis. Thionein synthesis rapidly increases in the first 6-8 h after exposure to 0.5 micrograms of Cd2+/ml, and begins to decrease in a few hours after reaching the maximum. However, the rate of synthesis never returns to the basal value at least in 30 h after Cd2+ exposure; instead, the second increase in thionein synthesis occurs at 16-18 h. A possible regulatory mechanism of thionein synthesis is discussed from these results, together with the data on intracellular accumulation and subcellular distribution of 109Cd2+. The initial increase of thionein synthesis is accompanied by an increase of mRNA coding for thioneins (MT-mRNA). The induction of MT-mRNA is sensitive to Actinomycin D, but not to cycloheximide, suggesting transcriptional regulation without any mediating protein synthesis. Two thionein isomers are coded for by mRNA molecules of almost the same size, which is similar to that of hepatic MT-mRNA of mouse and rat.
Project description:The effects of graded doses of insulin and corticosterone on myofibrillar protein turnover were investigated in growing diabetic rats in order to assess their counteractive roles in the control of protein accretion. N tau-Methylhistidine excretion and carcass protein accretion were measured over 6 days in streptozotocin-diabetic rats receiving either a constant catabolic dose of corticosterone accompanied by graded doses of insulin or a constant dose of insulin accompanied by graded doses of corticosterone. The high corticosterone dose decreased the rate of protein accretion by both increasing the rate of degradation and decreasing the rate of synthesis. Increasing insulin dosage counteracted these effects, but could not restore positive accretion rates. Direct measurement of protein-synthesis rates gave results comparable with those obtained from use of N tau-methylhistidine excretion. At constant insulin dosage, increased corticosterone to 45 mg/kg body wt. per day caused a dose-related linear decrease in protein accretion rates from +4.5 to -3.2% per day. Growth ceased at 28 mg of corticosterone/kg body wt. per day, largely owing to a fall in synthesis rates (-3.5%/day) rather than the increase in degradation rates (+1.0%/day). However, at steroid doses greater than 30 mg/kg body wt. per day the degradation rate increased markedly and accounted for most of the additional fall in accretion. These results show that insulin antagonizes the action of glucocorticoids on both the synthesis and degradative pathways of myofibrillar protein turnover. The changes in fractional degradation rates appear relatively more attenuated by insulin than are those of synthesis.