Agonist-induced desensitization of cholinergically stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown is independent of endogenously activated protein kinase C in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Activation of M3 muscarinic receptors in HT-29 cells by carbachol rapidly increases polyphosphoinositide breakdown. Pretreatment of these cells with carbachol (0.1 mM) for 5 h completely inhibits the subsequent ability of carbachol to increase [3H]inositol monophosphate ([3H]InsP) accumulation, paralleled by a total loss of muscarinic binding sites. In contrast, protein kinase C (PK-C)-mediated desensitization by incubation with phorbol esters [PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)], leading to a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cholinergically stimulated InsP release (95% inhibition after 4 h with 0.1 microM-PMA), is accompanied by only a 40% decrease in muscarinic receptor binding, which suggests an additional mechanism of negative-feedback control. Neither carbachol nor PMA pretreatment had any effect on receptor affinity. Incubation with carbachol for 15 min caused a small increase of membrane-associated PK-C activity (15% increase, P less than 0.05) as compared with the potency of phorbol esters (PMA) (3-4-fold increase, P less than 0.01). Long-term incubation (4-24 h) with PMA resulted in a complete down-regulation of cytosolic and particulate PK-C activity. Stimulation of InsP release by NaF (20 mM) was not affected after a pretreatment with phorbol esters or carbachol, demonstrating an intact function of G-protein and phospholipase-C (PL-C) at the effector side. Determination of PL-C activity in a liposomal system with [3H]PtdInsP2 as substrate, showed no change in PL-C activity after carbachol (13 h) and short-term PMA (2.5 h) pretreatment, whereas long-term preincubation with phorbol esters (13 h) caused a small but significant decrease in PL-C activity (19%, P less than 0.05). Our results indicate that agonist-induced desensitization of phosphoinositide turnover occurs predominantly at the receptor level, with a rapid loss of muscarinic receptors. Exogenous activation of PK-C by phorbol esters seems to dissociate the interaction between receptor and G-protein/PL-C, without major effects on total cellular PL-C activity.
Project description:Short-term pretreatment (9 min) with the phorbol ester 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) alone had no effect on the basal release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA), but enhanced K+ (100 mM)-, acetylcholine (0.1 mM)-, carbachol (1 mM)-, muscarine (1 mM)- and arecoline (1 mM)-evoked release by 2.3-, 6.4-, 3.0-, 2.0- and 2.0-fold respectively in SH-SY5Y cells. Maximum effects of PMA were observed after a 10 min preincubation at a concentration of 0.1 microM. There was a 4-fold decrease in the EC50 values (concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation) observed for carbachol- and acetylcholine-evoked release of [3H]NA in the presence of PMA. The inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate did not alter the K(+)- or carbachol-evoked release of [3H]NA. The enhancement of release in the presence of PMA was more potently inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors RO 31-7549 [concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC50) = 0.18 microM/bd and RO 31-8220 (IC50 = 0.56 microM) than by either polymyxin-B or H-7. Furthermore, in the absence of PMA, both K(+)- and carbachol-evoked release was inhibited by these antagonists. Atropine, hexahydro-sila-difenidol and pirenzepine antagonized the PMA-enhanced carbachol-evoked release of [3H]NA, with Ki values of 2.75 +/- 0.25 nM, 2.6 +/- 0.64 nM and 294 +/- 17 nM respectively. These values were consistent with the coupling of an M3 muscarinic receptor to the release of [3H]NA in SH-SY5Y cells. Whereas pretreatment with PMA (5 min) enhanced M3-evoked release of [3H]NA, it decreased the muscarinic-agonist-evoked initial peak (greater than 85%) and plateau phase in intracellular Ca2+. These results suggest that noradrenaline release evoked by muscarinic agonists was triggered not only by relatively small changes in Ca2+ but also by activation of protein kinase C.
Project description:The effects of the muscarinic agonist carbachol, histamine and bradykinin on incorporation of [3H]inositol into the phosphoinositides and the formation of [3H]InsPs were examined in bovine tracheal smooth-muscle (BTSM) slices labelled with [3H]inositol. These agonists result in substantial and dose-related increases in the incorporation of [3H]inositol into the phospholipids. Carbachol and histamine stimulated the incorporation of [3H]inositol into the phospholipids to the same degree, despite histamine being only 35% as effective as carbachol on [3H]InsP accumulation. Histamine and carbachol, at maximal concentrations, were non-additive with respect to both the stimulated incorporation of [3H]inositol and [3H]InsP formation. For carbachol this effect on incorporation was found to occur to a similar extent in PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 as well as PtdIns. The initial effect of carbachol on [3H]inositol incorporation was rapid (maximal by 10 min); however, with prolonged stimulation large secondary declines in PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 labelling were observed, with depletion of the much larger PtdIns pool only evident in the presence of Li+. Lowering buffer [Ca2+] increased the incorporation of [3H]inositol under basal conditions, but did not attenuate the subsequent agonist-stimulated incorporation effect. The large changes in specific radioactivity of the phosphoinositides, and consequently the [3H]InsP products, after carbachol stimulation resulted in the apparent failure of atropine to reverse the [3H]InsP response completely. Labelling muscle slices with [3H]inositol in the presence of carbachol or labelling for longer periods (greater than 6 h) prevented subsequent carbachol-stimulated effects on incorporation without significantly altering the dose-response relationship for carbachol-stimulated [3H]InsP formation and resulted in steady-state labelling conditions confirmed by the ability of atropine to reverse fully the [3H]InsP response to carbachol. This study demonstrates the profound effects of a number of agonists on [3H]inositol incorporation into the phospho- and polyphosphoinositides in BTSM with important consequent changes in the specific radioactivity of these lipids and the resulting [3H]InsP products. In addition, a selective depletion of PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 over PtdIns has been demonstrated with prolonged muscarinic-receptor stimulation.
Project description:1. The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in agonist-induced contractions of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle has been investigated. 2. The phorbol esters, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), relaxed tissues precontracted by submaximal concentrations of carbachol, histamine or substance P. 3. This inhibitory action of the phorbol esters was reversed following the application of ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Similarly, pretreatment with ouabain inhibited the ability of phorbol esters to relax tissues precontracted by the above agonists. 4. The slow relaxation of the tonic component of contraction induced by submaximal concentrations of carbachol and histamine, and all concentrations of substance P, was abolished in the presence of ouabain. 5. In Na(+)-loaded tissues, PDBu and carbachol caused a concentration-dependent increase of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, assessed by ouabain-sensitive 86Rb(+)-uptake. Extrusion of Na+, assessed by the cellular content of the ion, was also stimulated by PDBu (the effect of carbachol was not investigated). 6. We conclude that phorbol esters inhibit the tonic component of contractions induced by submaximal concentrations of these agonists through activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. We suggest that PKC may exert feedback control over the tonic component of agonist contractions through stimulation of the pump.
Project description:Preincubation with receptor agonists or phorbol esters desensitized muscarinic-receptor-mediated [3H]cyclic GMP responses in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. However, desensitization mediated by phorbol esters was heterologous, whereas that effected by receptor agonist was specific towards the muscarinic receptors. In addition, there was no loss of cell surface muscarinic receptors, as measured by the binding of the hydrophilic ligand [3H]N-methylscopolamine, when cells were treated with phorbol esters, but receptor-agonist-induced desensitization was accompanied by a decrease in cell surface receptor density. We examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the desensitization of muscarinic receptors by employing a kinase inhibitor and by down-regulation of PKC by long-term incubation of cells with phorbol esters. Whereas these manoeuvres had marked effects on phorbol-ester-induced desensitization of muscarinic responses, they did not block agonist-induced down-regulation and desensitization of muscarinic receptors. In addition, when phosphoinositide hydrolysis was suppressed, the muscarinic agonist was still capable of mediating receptor sequestration and desensitization. These results suggest that the mechanisms for regulating muscarinic receptor sensitivity could be both PKC-dependent and PKC-independent, being mediated by phorbol esters and receptor agonists respectively.
Project description:1. We have investigated the effect of phorbol esters and the down-regulation of protein kinase C on contraction of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle to carbachol and high K+. 2. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) enhanced the phasic component and inhibited or enhanced, respectively, the tonic component of contraction to carbachol and high K+. In contrast, 4 alpha-phorbol, which does not activate protein kinase C, had no effect on these responses. 3. Exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 1 microM) for up to 8 h induced a time-dependent loss of [3H]-PDBu binding sites, consistent with the down-regulation of protein kinase C by this treatment. 4. The phasic component of contraction to carbachol or high K+ was unaffected following the down-regulation of protein kinase C. The tonic component of contraction to carbachol was markedly enhanced by this treatment while that to high K+ was partially suppressed. 5. These data suggest that although the activation of protein kinase C can lead to potentiation of the phasic component of contraction to carbachol or high K+, this appears to have little physiological significance since the response is not altered in tissues in which protein kinase C has been down-regulated. On the other hand, protein kinase C may limit the tonic contraction to carbachol but potentiate that to high K+.
Project description:The efficacy of muscarinic-receptor agonists for stimulation of inositol phosphate formation and Ca2+ mobilization in intact 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells is correlated with their capacity for formation of a GTP-sensitive high-affinity binding complex in membranes from these cells [Evans, Hepler, Masters, Brown & Harden (1985) Biochem. J. 232, 751-757]. These observations prompted the proposal that a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein serves to couple muscarinic receptors to the phospholipase C involved in phosphoinositide hydrolysis in 1321N1 cells. Inositol phosphate (InsP) formation was measured in a cell-free preparation from 1321N1 cells to provide direct support for this idea. The formation of InsP3, InsP2 and InsP1 was increased in a concentration-dependent manner (K0.5 approximately 5 microM) by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) in washed membranes prepared from myo-[3H]inositol-prelabelled 1321N1 cells. Both GTP[S] and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) stimulated InsP formation by 2-3-fold over control; GTP, GDP and GMP were much less efficacious. Millimolar concentrations of NaF also stimulated the formation of inositol phosphates in membrane preparations from 1321N1 cells. In the presence of 10 microM-GTP[S], the muscarinic cholinergic-receptor agonist carbachol stimulated (K0.5 approximately 10 microM) the formation of InsP above that achieved with GTP[S] alone. The effect of carbachol was completely blocked by atropine. The order of potency of nucleotides for stimulation of InsP formation in the presence of 500 microM-carbachol was GTP[S] greater than p[NH]ppG greater than GTP = GDP. Pertussis toxin, at concentrations that fully ADP-ribosylate and functionally inactivate Gi (the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein), had no effect on InsP formation in the presence of GTP[S] or GTP[S] plus carbachol. These data are consistent with the idea that a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein that is not Gi is involved in receptor-mediated stimulation of InsP formation in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.
Project description:Rabbit iris smooth muscle was prelabelled with myo-[3H]inositol for 90 min and the effect of carbachol on the accumulation of inositol phosphates from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2], phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) was monitored with anion-exchange chromatography. Carbachol stimulated the accumulation of inositol phosphates and this was blocked by atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, and it was unaffected by 2-deoxyglucose. The data presented demonstrate that, in the iris, carbachol (50 microM) stimulates the rapid breakdown of PtdIns(4,5)P2 into [3H]inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) and diacylglycerol, measured as phosphatidate, and that the accumulation of InsP3 precedes that of [3H]inositol bisphosphate (InsP2) and [3H]inositol phosphate (InsP). This conclusion is based on the following findings. Time course experiments with myo-[3H]inositol revealed that carbachol increased the accumulation of InsP3 by 12% in 15s and by 23% in 30s; in contrast, a significant increase in InsP release was not observed until about 2 min. Time-course experiments with 32P revealed a 10% loss of radioactivity from PtdIns(4,5)P2 and a corresponding 10% increase in phosphatidate labelling by carbachol in 15s; in contrast a significant increase in PtdIns labelling occurred in 5 min. Dose-response studies revealed that 5 microM-carbachol significantly increased (16%) the accumulation of InsP3 whereas a significant increase in accumulation of InsP2 and InsP was observed only at agonist concentrations greater than 10 microM. Studies on the involvement of Ca2+ in the agonist-stimulated breakdown of PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the iris revealed the following. Marked stimulation (58-78%) of inositol phosphates accumulation by carbachol in 10 min was observed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Like the stimulatory effect of noradrenaline, the ionophore A23187-stimulated accumulation of InsP3 was inhibited by prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic blocker, thus suggesting that the ionophore stimulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2 breakdown we reported previously [Akhtar & Abdel-Latif (1978) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 204, 655-688; Akhtar & Abdel-Latif (1980) Biochem. J. 192, 783-791] was secondary to the release of noradrenaline by the ionophore. The carbachol-stimulated accumulation of inositol phosphates was inhibited by EGTA (0.25 mM) and this inhibition was reversed by excess Ca2+ (1.5 mM), suggesting that EGTA treatment of the tissue chelates extracellular Ca2+ required for polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase activity. K+ depolarization, which causes influx of extracellular Ca2+ in smooth muscle, did not change the level of InsP3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:Activation of the G-protein-coupled muscarinic (M3) receptor in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells is known to lead to phosphoinositol hydrolysis and noradrenaline release. In this study, the effect of carbachol on tyrosine phosphorylation and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity in SH-SY5Y cells was examined. Carbachol concentration-dependently induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including one of 42 kDa. This tyrosine-phosphorylated 42 kDa protein co-eluted from a Mono Q anion-exchange column with MAP kinase activity and with immunologically detected MAP kinase. Stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of MAP kinase were also observed after incubation of cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Down-regulation or inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) abolished the stimulatory effects of both carbachol and PMA on MAP kinase activity, whereas EGF-stimulated MAP kinase activity remained unaffected. Thus carbachol acting through the muscarinic (M3) receptor PKC-dependently induced tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of a 42 kDa MAP kinase in SH-SY5Y cells, whereas EGF-induced MAP kinase activation occurred independently of PKC.
Project description:The role of various intracellular signals and of their possible interactions in the control of neurotransmitter release was investigated in PC12 cells. To this purpose, agents that affect primarily the cytosolic concentration of Ca2+, [Ca2+]i (ionomycin, high K+), agents that affect cyclic AMP concentrations (forskolin; the adenosine analogue phenylisopropyladenosine; clonidine) and activators of protein kinase C (phorbol esters) were applied alone or in combination to either growing chromaffin-like PC12-cells, or to neuron-like PC12+ cells differentiated by treatment with NGF (nerve growth factor). In addition, the release effects of muscarinic-receptor stimulation (which causes increase in [Ca2+]i, activation of protein kinase C and decrease in cyclic AMP) were investigated. Two techniques were employed to measure catecholamine release: static incubation of [3H]dopamine-loaded cells, and perfusion incubation of unlabelled cells coupled to highly sensitive electrochemical detection of released catecholamines. The results obtained demonstrate that: (1) release from PC12 cells can be elicited by both raising [Ca2+]i and activating protein kinases (protein kinase C and, although to a much smaller extent, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase); and (2) these various control pathways interact extensively. Activation of muscarinic receptors by carbachol induced appreciable release responses, which appeared to be due to a synergistic interplay between [Ca2+]i and protein kinase C activation. The muscarinic-induced release responses tended to become inactivated rapidly, possibly by feedback desensitization of the receptor mediated by protein kinase C. Muscarinic inactivation was prevented (or reversed) by agents that increase, and accelerated by agents that decrease, cyclic AMP. Agents that stimulate release primarily through the Ca2+ pathway (ionomycin and high K+) were found to be equipotent in both PC12- and PC12+ cells, whereas the protein kinase C activator 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate was approx. 10-fold less potent in PC12+ cells, when administered either alone or in combination with ionomycin. In contrast, the cell binding of phorbol esters was not greatly modified by NGF treatment. Thus control of neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells is changed by differentiation, with a diminished role of the mechanism mediated by protein kinase C.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated an inhibition of agonist-induced inositol phospholipid breakdown and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) mobilization by phorbol esters in platelets. In this study, we have examined the effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on agonist-induced granule secretion and correlated it with agonist-induced [Ca2+]i mobilization, arachidonate and thromboxane (Tx) release in human platelets. With increasing times of incubation with PMA (10 s-5 min), the rise in [Ca2+]i induced by thrombin and the TxA2 mimetic, U46619, was increasingly inhibited (90-100% with 5 min incubation) and, correlating with this, thrombin-induced [3H]arachidonate, TxB2 and beta-thromboglobulin (beta TG) release were also inhibited. In addition, the conversion of exogenously added arachidonate to TxB2 was inhibited (50-80%) by a 10 s-5 min pretreatment with PMA. However, secretion of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine (5HT) induced by thrombin or U46619 was not inhibited by 10 s-2 min incubations with PMA and, on the contrary, with low agonist concentrations, was potentiated by PMA in the absence of a significant rise in [Ca2+]i or endogenous Tx formation, to levels significantly greater than or equal to the sum of that obtained when agonist and PMA were added separately. With longer times of incubation with PMA (5 min), these synergistic effects became less pronounced as inhibitory effects of PMA on agonist-induced [14C]5HT secretion became apparent. The results indicate that, while PMA may cause an inhibition of agonist-induced [Ca2+]i mobilization resulting in an inhibition of agonist-induced arachidonate, TxB2 and beta TG release, its effects on agonist-induced 5HT secretion may be complicated by [Ca2+]i-independent synergistic effects of agonist and PMA.