Identification of a new metalloproteinase inhibitor that forms tight-binding complexes with collagenase.
ABSTRACT: Connective-tissue cells produce a family of metalloproteinases which, once activated, can degrade all the components of the extracellular matrix. These potent enzymes are all inhibited by the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP), and it was thought that the levels of this inhibitor controlled the extracellular activity of these enzymes. We recently detected a new metalloproteinase inhibitor present in culture media of WI-38 fibroblasts. The inhibitor, named 'large inhibitor of metalloproteinases' (LIMP), can be separated from TIMP by gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 44, where it is eluted with an apparent Mr of 76,000. A portion of this inhibitor-containing peak binds to concanavalin A-Sepharose, indicating that at least some of the inhibitor contains carbohydrate. LIMP inhibits collagenase (MMP-1), stromelysin (MMP-3) and gelatinase (MMP-2) in a dose-dependent fashion. Collagenase forms tight-binding complexes with LIMP, which can be separated from free collagenase on gel-filtration columns. The complex is eluted with Mr 81,600 (AcA 44) or Mr 60,000 (Superose 12). This complex is larger than that formed between collagenase and TIMP, which has Mr 52,800 (Aca 44) or 41,000 (Superose 12). Polyclonal antibody to TIMP does not recognize LIMP by immunoblotting, and will not block the inhibition of collagenase by LIMP, showing that LIMP is not a multimeric form of TIMP. The role of this new inhibitor in connective-tissue breakdown studies and its relationship to previously described inhibitors of metalloproteinases is discussed.
Project description:When human articular cartilage is extracted with 2M-guanidinium hydrochloride at pH 7.5, an inhibitor is obtained that blocks the activity of three metalloproteinases, including collagenase. Molecular-sieve chromatography of the inhibitor gives an Mr value for the inhibitor of 28 500. The inhibitor is stable to heat (60 degrees C, 1h) and acid (pH2, 24 degrees C, 10 min). It is destroyed by trypsin and by reduction and alkylation. It is slowly inactivated by aminophenylmercuric acetate. It binds to concanavalin A-Sepharose and is eluted with alpha-D-1-O-methyl glucopyranoside. Complexes of enzyme and inhibitor are not re-activated by aminophenylmercuric acetate and only partially so by high levels of trypsin. These properties indicate that this inhibitor is a member of the TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases) class. Such an inhibitor, previously found in tissue culture and amniotic fluid, is now shown to be directly extractable from tissue.
Project description:Connective-tissue cells in culture produce a family of metalloproteinases which, once activated, can degrade all the components of the extracellular matrix. These potent enzymes are all inhibited by the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP), and it was thought that this inhibitor was solely responsible for the inhibition of these enzymes within connective tissue. However, other inhibitors have recently been described, including large inhibitor of metalloproteinases (LIMP) present in the culture medium of human foetal lung fibroblasts. Here we show that a large proportion of the inhibitory activity of LIMP consists of 72,000-M(r)-progelatinase bound to TIMP-2, a recently discovered low-M(r) metalloproteinase inhibitor closely related to TIMP. The physiological implications of the secretion of a complex of 72,000-M(r) progelatinase and TIMP-2 are discussed, and the separation of the complex in 6 M-urea is described.
Project description:On purification, human fibroblast collagenase breaks down into two major forms (Mr22,000 and Mr 27,000) and one minor form (Mr 25,000). The most likely mechanism is autolysis, although the presence of contaminating enzymes cannot be excluded. From N-terminal sequencing studies, the 22,000-Mr fragment contains the active site; differential binding to concanavalin A shows the 25,000-Mr fragment is a glycosylated form of the 22,000-Mr fragment. These low-Mr forms can be separated by Zn2+-chelate chromatography. An activity profile of this column, combined with data from substrate gels, indicates no activity against collagen in the 22,000-Mr and 25,000-Mr forms, but rather, activity casein and gelatin. The 27,000-Mr form has no activity. The 22,000/25,000-Mr form can act as an activator for collagenase in a similar way to that reported for stromelysin. The activity of the 22,000/25,000-Mr form is not inhibited by the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP). The 27,000-Mr C-terminal part of the collagenase molecule therefore appears to be important in maintaining the substrate-specificity of the enzyme, and also plays a role in the binding of TIMP.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of multidomain enzymes involved in the physiological degradation of connective tissue, as well as in pathological states such as tumor invasion and arthritis. Apart from transcriptional regulation, MMPs are controlled by proenzyme activation and a class of specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) that bind to the catalytic site. TIMP-2 is a potent inhibitor of MMPs, but it has also been implicated in a unique cell surface activation mechanism of latent MMP-2/gelatinase A/type IV collagenase (proMMP-2), through its binding to the hemopexin domain of proMMP-2 on the one hand and to a membrane-type MMP activator on the other. The present crystal structure of the human proMMP-2/TIMP-2 complex reveals an interaction between the hemopexin domain of proMMP-2 and the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2, leaving the catalytic site of MMP-2 and the inhibitory site of TIMP-2 distant and spatially isolated. The interfacial contact of these two proteins is characterized by two distinct binding regions composed of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. This unique structure provides information for how specificity for noninhibitory MMP/TIMP complex formation is achieved.
Project description:Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) is a broad spectrum inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which function in extracellular matrix catabolism. Here, phage display was used to identify variants of human TIMP-2 that are selective inhibitors of human MMP-1, a collagenase whose unregulated action is linked to cancer, arthritis, and fibrosis. Using hard randomization of residues 2, 4, 5, and 6 (L1) and soft randomization of residues 34-40 (L2) and 67-70 (L3), a library was generated containing 2 × 10(10) variants of TIMP-2. Five clones were isolated after five rounds of selection with MMP-1, using MMP-3 as a competitor. The enriched phages selectively bound MMP-1 relative to MMP-3 and contained mutations only in L1. The most selective variant (TM8) was used to generate a second library in which residues Cys(1)-Gln(9) were soft-randomized. Four additional clones, selected from this library, showed a similar affinity for MMP-1 as wild-type TIMP-2 but reduced affinity for MMP-3. Variants of the N-terminal domain of TIMP-2 (N-TIMP-2) with the sequences of the most selective clones were expressed and characterized for inhibitory activity against eight MMPs. All were effective inhibitors of MMP-1 with nanomolar K(i) values, but TM8, containing Ser(2) to Asp and Ser(4) to Ala substitutions, was the most selective having a nanomolar K(i) value for MMP-1 but no detectable inhibitory activity toward MMP-3 and MMP-14 up to 10 ?M. This study suggests that phage display and selection with other MMPs may be an effective method for discovering tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase variants that discriminate between specified MMPs as targets.
Project description:Rabbit uterine cervical fibroblasts produced a large amount of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as collagenase (MMP-1) and stromelysin (MMP-3) and a small relatively amount of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP). When cells were treated with progesterone or oestradiol-17 beta, both steroids concurrently decreased the level of procollagenase and prostromelysin in the culture media and the steady-state levels of the respective mRNAs. On the other hand, the level of TIMP in the culture media and the steady-state level of its mRNA were simultaneously increased by these steroids. Similarly, the suppression of production of MMPs and the augmentation of TIMP production by both steroids were observed with interleukin 1 (IL-1)-treated cells, but the action of progesterone was more effective than that of oestradiol-17 beta in the IL-1-untreated and -treated cells. These results suggest that collagenolysis in uterine cervical fibroblasts is negatively regulated by steroid hormones via the acceleration of TIMP production and the suppression of synthesis of MMPs at the pretranslational level.
Project description:A metalloproteinase inhibitor present in human rheumatoid synovial fluid was purified by a combination of heparin-Sepharose chromatography, concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The Mr of the purified inhibitor was 28000 by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and 30000 by gel filtration. The inhibitor blocked the activity of the metalloproteinases collagenase, gelatinase and proteoglycanase, but not thermolysin or bacterial collagenase. The serine proteinase trypsin was not inhibited. The inhibitory activity was lost after treatment with trypsin (0.5 micrograms/ml) at 37 degrees C for 30 min, 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (1 mM) at 37 degrees C for 3 h, after incubation for 30 min at 90 degrees C and by reduction and alkylation. These properties suggest that the inhibitor closely resembles the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases ('TIMP') recently purified from connective-tissue culture medium.
Project description:In our article, we evaluated the regulatory effects of the infusions of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20(+) B cells, on the serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) not responding to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy. Twelve RA patients were planned to receive four infusions of 1,000 mg of rituximab at weeks 0, 2, 24 and 26. The therapy was combined with methotrexate (MTX) (20-30 mg/week). Seven patients were refractory to previously received infliximab, and five to etanercept. Serum concentrations of interstitial collagenase (MMP-1), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), gelatinase B (MMP-9) and TIMP-1 were measured by ELISA on weeks 0, 2, 12, 24, 36 and 52. Initial infusion of rituximab downregulated serum MMP-1 (p < 0.01), MMP-3 (p < 0.001), MMP-9 (p < 0.001) and TIMP-1 (p < 0.05) levels. Second drug administration caused even more remarkable reduction of measured MMPs (p < 0.001 in all cases) and TIMP-1 level (p < 0.01). These findings were accompanied by significantly decreased ratios of measured MMPs to TIMP-1. Next rituximab infusions on weeks 24 and 26 sustained the suppression of serum MMPs levels. Prior to the initial rituximab infusion, serum concentrations of studied MMPs and TIMP-1 significantly correlated with markers of RA activity such as disease activity score (DAS28) and CRP levels. Rituximab therapy, beside a rapid clinical improvement, reduced serum MMPs concentrations in RA patients refractory to anti-TNF treatment. Repeated infusions of rituximab maintained initial serum MMPs suppression.
Project description:Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 forms a noncovalent complex with the precursor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (proMMP-2, progelatinase A) through interaction of the C-terminal domain of each molecule. We have isolated the proMMP-2-TIMP-2 complex from the medium of human uterine cervical fibroblasts and investigated the processes involved in its activation by 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA). The treatment of the complex with APMA-activated proMMP-2 by disrupting the Cys73-Zn2+ interaction of the zymogen. This is triggered by perturbation of the proMMP-2 molecule, but not by the reaction of the SH group of Cys73 with APMA. The 'activated' proMMP-2 (proMMP-2*) formed a new complex with TIMP-2 by binding to the N-terminal inhibitory domain of the inhibitor without processing the propeptide. Thus the APMA-treated proMMP-2*-TIMP-2 complex exhibited no gelatinolytic activity. In the presence of a small amount of free MMP-2, however, proMMP-2* in the complex was converted into the 65 kDa MMP-2 by proteolytic attack of MMP-2, but the complex did not exhibit gelatinolytic activity. The gelatinolytic activity detected after APMA treatment was solely derived from the activation of free proMMP-2. The removal of the propeptide of the proMMP-2* bound to TIMP-2 was also observed by MMP-3 (stromelysin 1), but not by MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase). MMP-3 cleaved the Asn80-Tyr81 bond of proMMP-2*. On the other hand, when MMP-3 was incubated with the proMMP-2-TIMP-2 complex, it bound to TIMP-2 and rendered proMMP-2 readily activatable by APMA. These results indicate that the blockage of TIMP-2 of the complex with an active MMP is essential for the activation of proMMP-2 when it is complexed with TIMP-2.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in tissue remodelling and angiogenesis. We have investigated the expression and regulation of MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-2 (gelatinase A), MMP-3 (stromelysin 1), MMP-7 (matrilysin), MMP-9 (gelatinase B) and their inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in human umbilical vein, femoral vein and microvascular endothelial cells, and compared these data with those obtained with human synovial fibroblasts. Non-stimulated vein endothelial cells expressed the mRNAs for MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. MMP-3 mRNA and protein were undetectable or only weakly expressed, but could be stimulated by the inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). The expression of MMP-3 and MMP-1 was further enhanced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Phorbol ester also induced TIMP-1 and MMP-9, the expression of the latter being further enhanced by TNF alpha or interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha). Similar stimulatory effects were observed in microvascular endothelial cells. Hence the inflammatory mediator TNF alpha induces/enhances the production of several matrix metalloproteinases in human endothelial cells. On the other hand, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were not affected or were affected in a variable way by TNF alpha and/or phorbol ester, suggesting a dissimilar regulation of these proteins. The cyclic AMP-enhancing agent forskolin affected the production of MMPs in a cell-type-specific way. In human vein endothelial cells it enhanced the PMA-mediated induction of MMP-9, whereas it suppressed this induction in human microvascular endothelial cells and in synovial fibroblasts. On the other hand, forskolin suppressed the PMA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in synovial fibroblasts, while it enhanced or did not affect this induction in various types of human endothelial cells. These observations may have implications for future pharmacological intervention in angiogenesis.