Evidence that the sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I to inhibition by malonyl-CoA is an important site of regulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in the fetal and newborn rabbit. Perinatal development and effects of pancreatic hormones in cultured rabbit hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT: The temporal changes in oleate oxidation, lipogenesis, malonyl-CoA concentration and sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT 1) to malonyl-CoA inhibition were studied in isolated rabbit hepatocytes and mitochondria as a function of time after birth of the animal or time in culture after exposure to glucagon, cyclic AMP or insulin. (1) Oleate oxidation was very low during the first 6 h after birth, whereas lipogenesis rate and malonyl-CoA concentration decreased rapidly during this period to reach levels as low as those found in 24-h-old newborns that show active oleate oxidation. (2) The changes in the activity of CPT I and the IC50 (concn. causing 50% inhibition) for malonyl-CoA paralleled those of oleate oxidation. (3) In cultured fetal hepatocytes, the addition of glucagon or cyclic AMP reproduced the changes that occur spontaneously after birth. A 12 h exposure to glucagon or cyclic AMP was sufficient to inhibit lipogenesis totally and to cause a decrease in malonyl-CoA concentration, but a 24 h exposure was required to induce oleate oxidation. (4) The induction of oleate oxidation by glucagon or cyclic AMP is triggered by the fall in the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT I. (5) In cultured hepatocytes from 24 h-old newborns, the addition of insulin inhibits no more than 30% of the high oleate oxidation, whereas it stimulates lipogenesis and increases malonyl-CoA concentration by 4-fold more than in fetal cells (no oleate oxidation). This poor effect of insulin on oleate oxidation seems to be due to the inability of the hormone to increase the sensitivity of CPT I sufficiently. Altogether, these results suggest that the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT I is the major site of regulation during the induction of fatty acid oxidation in the fetal rabbit liver.
Project description:The effects of pancreatic hormones and cyclic AMP on the induction of ketogenesis and long-chain fatty acid oxidation were studied in primary cultures of hepatocytes from fetal and newborn rabbits. Hepatocytes were cultivated during 4 days in the presence of glucagon (10(-6) M), forskolin (2 x 10(-5) M), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10(-4) M), 8-bromo cyclic AMP (10(-4) M) or insulin (10(-7) M). Ketogenesis and fatty acid metabolism were measured using [1-14C]oleate (0.5 mM). In hepatocytes from fetuses at term, the rate of ketogenesis remained very low during the 4 days of culture. In hepatocytes from 24-h-old newborn, the rate of ketogenesis was high during the first 48 h of culture and then rapidly decreased to reach a low value similar to that measured in cultured hepatocytes from term fetuses. A 48 h exposure to glucagon, forskolin or cyclic AMP derivatives is necessary to induce ketone body production in cultured fetal hepatocytes at a rate similar to that found in cultured hepatocytes from newborn rabbits. In fetal liver cells, the induction of ketogenesis by glucagon or cyclic AMP results from changes in the partitioning of long-chain fatty acid from esterification towards oxidation. Indeed, glucagon, forskolin and cyclic AMP enhance oleate oxidation (basal, 12.7 +/- 1.6; glucagon, 50.0 +/- 5.5; forskolin, 70.6 +/- 5.4; cyclic AMP, 77.5 +/- 3.4% of oleate metabolized) at the expense of oleate esterification. In cultured fetal hepatocytes, the rate of fatty acid oxidation in the presence of cyclic AMP is similar to the rate of oleate oxidation present at the time of plating (85.1 +/- 2.6% of oleate metabolized) in newborn rabbit hepatocytes. In hepatocytes from term fetuses, the presence of insulin antagonizes in a dose-dependent fashion the glucagon-induced oleate oxidation. Neither glucagon nor cyclic AMP affect the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I). The malonyl-CoA concentration inducing 50% inhibition of CPT I (IC50) is 14-fold higher in mitochondria isolated from cultured newborn hepatocytes (0.95 microM) compared with fetal hepatocytes (0.07 microM), indicating that the sensitivity of CPT I decreases markedly in the first 24 h after birth. The addition of glucagon or cyclic AMP into cultured fetal hepatocytes decreased by 80% and 90% respectively the sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA inhibition. In the presence of cyclic AMP, the sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA inhibition in cultured fetal hepatocytes is very similar to that measured in cultured hepatocytes from 24-h-old newborns.
Project description:Fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were studied in isolated hepatocytes from adult rats adapted for 44 days on low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF), diet or high-fat diets, composed of long-chain (LCT) or medium-chain (MCT) triacylglycerols. The rates of [1-14C]octanoate oxidation were almost similar in each group studied, whereas the oxidation of [1-14C]oleate was 50% lower in the LF group than in animals adapted to high-fat diets. The rates of oleate oxidation are inversely correlated with the rates of lipogenesis. However, it seems unlikely that [malonyl-CoA] itself represents the sole mechanism involved in the regulation of oleate oxidation during long-term LCT or MCT feeding, since: (1) despite a 3-fold higher concentration of malonyl-CoA in MCT-fed rats than in LCT-fed ones, the rates of oleate oxidation are similar; (2) when malonyl-CoA concentration is increased after stimulation of lipogenesis (by adding lactate + pyruvate) in MCT-fed rats, to a level comparable with that of the LF group, the rate of oleate oxidation remains 55% higher than that measured under similar conditions in the LF-fed rats; (3) in the LF group, the 90% decrease in malonyl-CoA concentration [by 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid] is not associated with a stimulation of oleate oxidation. By contrast, the sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) to malonyl-CoA is markedly decreased in the LCT- and MCT-fed rats, by 90% and 70% respectively. The relevance of this decrease in the sensitivity of CPT I is discussed.
Project description:The rates of ketogenesis from endogenous substrates, butyrate or oleate, have been measured in isolated hepatocytes from suckling and weanling rats. Ketogenesis from endogenous substrate and from oleate decreased on weaning, whereas the rate from butyrate remained unchanged. It is concluded that the major site of regulation of ketogenesis during this period of development involves the disposal of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA between the esterification and beta-oxidation pathways. Modulators of lipogenesis [dihydroxyacetone and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid] did not alter the rate of ketogenesis in hepatocytes from suckling rats, and it is suggested that this is due to the low rate of lipogenesis in these cells. Hepatocytes from fed weanling rats have a high rate of lipogenesis and evidence is presented for a reciprocal relationship between ketogenesis and lipogenesis, and ketogenesis, and esterification in these cells. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP stimulated ketogenesis from oleate in hepatocytes from fed weanling rats, even in the presence of an inhibitor of lipogenesis [5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid], but not in cells from suckling rats. It is suggested that cyclic AMP may act via inhibition of esterification and that in hepatocytes from suckling rats ketogenesis is already maximally stimulated by the high basal concentrations of cyclic AMP [Beaudry, Chiasson & Exton (1977) Am. J. Physiol. 233, E175--E180].
Project description:In newborn-pig hepatocytes, the rate of oleate oxidation is extremely low, despite a very low malonyl-CoA concentration. By contrast, the sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I to malonyl-CoA inhibition is high, as suggested by the very low concentration of malonyl-CoA required for 50% inhibition of CPT I (IC50). The rates of oleate oxidation and ketogenesis are respectively 70 and 80% lower in mitochondria isolated from newborn-pig liver than from starved-adult-rat liver mitochondria. Using polarographic measurements, we showed that the oxidation of oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-L-carnitine is very low when the acetyl-CoA produced is channelled into the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway by addition of malonate. In contrast, the oxidation of the same substrates is high when the acetyl-CoA produced is directed towards the citric acid cycle by addition of malate. We demonstrate that the limitation of ketogenesis in newborn-pig liver is due to a very low amount and activity of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase as compared with rat liver mitochondria, and suggest that this could promote the accumulation of acetyl-CoA and/or beta-oxidation products that in turn would decrease the overall rate of fatty acid oxidation in newborn- and adult-pig livers.
Project description:In hepatocytes isolated from 48 h-old starved of suckling newborn pigs or from 15-day-old starved piglets, the rate of ketogenesis from oleate or from octanoate is very low. This is not due to an inappropriate fatty acid uptake by the isolated liver cells, but results from a limited capacity for fatty acid oxidation. Some 80-95% of oleate taken up is converted into esterified fats, whatever the age or the nutritional conditions. Three lines of indirect evidences suggest that fatty acid oxidation is not controlled primarily by malonyl-CoA concentration in newborn pig liver. Firstly, the addition of glucagon does not increase fatty acid oxidation or ketogenesis. Secondly, the rate of lipogenesis is very low in isolated hepatocytes from newborn pigs. Thirdly, the rates of oxidation and ketogenesis from octanoate are also decreased in isolated hepatocytes from newborn and young piglets. The huge rate of esterification of fatty acids in the liver of the newborn pigs probably represents a species-specific difference in intrahepatic fatty acid metabolism.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that the induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in rodents may represent an adaptive response to disturbances in hepatic lipid metabolism. The following studies were done to determine the effects of 2-hydroxy-3-propyl-4-[6-(tetrazol-5-yl)hexyloxy]acetophenone (4-THA), a tetrazole-substituted acetophenone which induces peroxisomal beta-oxidation in rodent liver, on fatty acid oxidation in vitro. In isolated hepatocytes, 4-THA inhibited the oxidation of oleate (C18:1) and decreased the mitochondrial redox state. The inhibition was more pronounced in the presence of 0.2 mM-oleate than with 0.5 mM, indicating the inhibition may be competitive. 4-THA had no effect on the oxidation of octanoate (C8:0), suggesting that the site of inhibition of oleate oxidation was the carnitine-dependent transport across the mitochondrial inner membrane. In rat liver mitochondria, 4-THA inhibited carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) competitively with respect to the substrate palmitoyl-CoA, increasing the apparent Km from 19 microM to 86 microM. The inhibition of CPT-I by 4-THA was independent of the concentration of the co-substrate carnitine. Whereas fasting attenuated the inhibition of CPT-I by malonyl-CoA, it did not diminish the inhibition by 4-THA. Inhibition of transferase activity by 4-THA and malonyl-CoA was attenuated in mitochondria which had been solubilized with octyl glucoside to expose the latent form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-II), suggesting that the inhibition was specific for CPT-I. The specificity was further demonstrated in studies of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in which 4-THA inhibited the oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA but not palmitoylcarnitine. The results demonstrate that 4-THA inhibits fatty acid oxidation in rat liver in vitro at the site of transport across the mitochondrial inner membrane, CPT-I. Whether this disruption in mitochondrial oxidation is causally related to the induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation is yet to be determined.
Project description:The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g. oleate) against the lipotoxic action of saturated fatty acids (e.g. palmitate) in skeletal muscle cells remain poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the role of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation in mediating oleate's protective effect against palmitate-induced lipotoxicity. CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1), which is the key regulatory enzyme of mitochondrial LCFA oxidation, is inhibited by malonyl-CoA, an intermediate of lipogenesis. We showed that expression of a mutant form of CPT1 (CPT1mt), which is active but insensitive to malonyl-CoA inhibition, in C2C12 myotubes led to increased LCFA oxidation flux even in the presence of high concentrations of glucose and insulin. Furthermore, similar to preincubation with oleate, CPT1mt expression protected muscle cells from palmitate-induced apoptosis and insulin resistance by decreasing the content of deleterious palmitate derivates (i.e. diacylglycerols and ceramides). Oleate preincubation exerted its protective effect by two mechanisms: (i) in contrast to CPT1mt expression, oleate preincubation increased the channeling of palmitate toward triglycerides, as a result of enhanced diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 expression, and (ii) oleate preincubation promoted palmitate oxidation through increasing CPT1 expression and modulating the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and AMP-activated protein kinase. In conclusion, we demonstrated that targeting mitochondrial LCFA oxidation via CPT1mt expression leads to the same protective effect as oleate preincubation, providing strong evidence that redirecting palmitate metabolism toward oxidation is sufficient to protect against palmitate-induced lipotoxicity.
Project description:The sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I to inhibition by 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate was decreased markedly in liver mitochondria isolated from either 48 h-starved or streptozotocin-diabetic rats. These treatments of the rat also decreased the sensitivity of fatty acid oxidation by isolated hepatocytes to inhibition by this compound. Furthermore, incubation of hepatocytes prepared from fed rats with N6O2'-dibutyryl cyclic AMP also decreased the sensitivity, whereas incubation of hepatocytes prepared from starved rats with lactate plus pyruvate had the opposite effect on 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I of mitochondria to 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate increased in a time-dependent manner, as previously reported for malonyl-CoA. Likewise, oleoyl-CoA activated carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in a time-dependent manner and prevented the sensitization by 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate. Increased exogenous carnitine caused a moderate increase in fatty acid oxidation by hepatocytes under some conditions and a decreased 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate inhibition of fatty acid oxidation at low oleate concentration, without decreasing the difference in 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate inhibition between fed- and starved-rat hepatocytes. Time-dependent changes in the conformation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I or the membrane environment may be involved in differences among nutritional states in 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate-sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I.
Project description:The mechanism of activation of mitochondrial overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) by treatment of hepatocytes with okadaic acid (OA) was investigated. Activation was observed when cells were permeabilized with digitonin, but not when a total membrane fraction was obtained by sonication. Both cell disruption methods preserved the activation of phosphorylase observed in OA-treated hepatocytes. Activation of CPT I was also observed in crude homogenates of OA-treated hepatocytes, but it was lost upon subsequent isolation of mitochondria from such homogenates. In all experiments, any activation observed did not depend on the presence or absence of fluoride ions in the permeabilization/homogenization media. When hepatocytes were permeabilized in the absence of fluoride and further incubated with exogenous phosphatases 1 and 2A, the OA-induced activation of CPT was not reversed, whereas the activation of glycogen phosphorylase in the same cells was rapidly reversed. Treatment of hepatocytes with OA, followed by permeabilization and incubation before assay of CPT I, demonstrated that OA had no short-term effect on the sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA, although the difference in sensitivity between cells isolated from fed and starved rats was fully preserved. Incubation of isolated mitochondria or purified mitochondrial outer membranes with cyclic AMP-dependent or AMP-activated protein kinases, under phosphorylating conditions, did not affect the activity of CPT I or its sensitivity to malonyl-CoA inhibition. Under the same conditions, the use of [32P]ATP resulted in the labelling of several outer-membrane proteins but, unlike [3H]etomoxir-labelled CPT I, none of them was specifically removed from membrane extracts by a specific polyclonal antibody to the enzyme. We conclude that the increase in overt CPT activity observed in permeabilized hepatocytes is not due to direct phosphorylation of CPT I, but may involve interactions between the mitochondrial outer membrane and other membranous or soluble cytosolic components of the cell.
Project description:Lipogenesis is increased in hepatocytes from fed lactating rats compared with virgin rats. Inhibition of lipogenesis with 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid resulted in increased ketogenesis from endogenous substrate, but not from oleate. Dihydroxyacetone increased ketogenesis from endogenous substrate, but not from oleate. Dihydroxyacetone increased lipogenesis and esterification of [1--14C]oleate and decreased ketogenesis; these changes were reversed by the inhibitor. The reciprocal relationship between lipogenesis and ketogenesis in hepatocytes from fed rats may be due to alterations in [malonyl-CoA] [McGarry, Mannaerts & Foster (1977) J. Clin. Invest. 60, 265--270; Cook, King & Veech (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 2529--2531], but this mechanism is not considered to be sufficient to explain the increased ketogenesis in starvation completely.