Initial glucose kinetics and hormonal response to a gastric glucose load in unrestrained post-absorptive and starved rats.
ABSTRACT: A gastric [U-14C]glucose load (4.8 mg/g body wt.) was delivered to unrestrained post-absorptive or 30 h-starved rats bearing peripheral and portal vein catheters and continuously perfused with [3-3H]glucose, in order to compare their metabolic and hormonal responses. In the basal state, portal and peripheral glycaemia were less in starved rats than in rats in the post-absorptive period (P less than 0.01), whereas blood lactate was similar. Portal insulinaemia (P less than 0.05) and protal glucagonaemia (P less than 0.005) were lower in starved rats, but insulin/glucagon ratio was higher in post-absorptive rats (P less than 0.005). The glucose turnover rate was decreased by starvation (P less than 0.005). After glucose ingestion, blood glucose was similar in post-absorptive and starved rats. A large portoperipheral gradient of lactate appeared in starved rats. Portal insulinaemia reached a peak at 9 min, and was respectively 454 +/- 68 and 740 +/- 65 mu-units/ml in starved and post-absorptive rats. Portal glucagonaemia remained stable, but was higher in post-absorptive rats (P less than 0.05). At 60 min after the gastric glucose load, 30% of the glucose was delivered at the periphery in both groups. The total glucose appearance rate was higher in starved rats (P less than 0.05), as was the glucose utilization rate (P less than 0.05), whereas the rate of appearance of exogenous glucose was similar. This was due to a non-suppressed hepatic glucose production in the starved rats, whereas it was totally suppressed in post-absorptive rats. At 1 h after the glucose load, the increase in both liver and muscle glycogen concentration was greater in starved rats. Thus short-term fasting induces an increased portal lactate concentration after a glucose load, and produces a state of liver insulin unresponsiveness for glucose production, whereas the sensitivity of peripheral tissues for glucose utilization is unchanged or even increased. This might allow preferential replenishment of the peripheral stores of glycogen.
Project description:1. The equations derived by Heath (1968) were applied to data from experiments on rats in four metabolic states: fed, post-absorptive, starved and 2hr. after an eventually lethal injury. The data used were: (a) The fractions of label injected as C1-, C2- and C3-pyruvate (where the prefix indicates the position of labelling) that are incorporated into carbon dioxide and glucose in post-absorptive and injured rats (yields). Yields could be corrected to yields on label taken up by the liver. (b) The (C5-label in glutamate)/(total label in glutamate) ratio in the liver after C2-pyruvate in rats in all four states. (c) The distribution of label within glutamate after C2-pyruvate or C2-alanine in the livers of fed, post-absorptive and starved rats. (d) The distribution of label within glucose after C2-lactate or C2-pyruvate in starved rats. (e) The relative specific radioactivities of pyruvate, aspartate, glutamate and (in two states only) of glucose 6-phosphate after injection of [U-(14)C]glucose into rats in all four states. These data were previously published, except those after (e) and some after (b) above, which are given in this paper. 2. In addition the concentrations of pyruvate, citrate, glutamate and aspartate in the livers of post-absorptive and injured rats were found. Injury decreased glutamate and citrate concentrations and to a smaller extent aspartate and pyruvate concentrations. 3. Non-steady-state theory showed that most of the data could be used without serious error in steady-state theory. Steady-state theory correlated all but one observation (the relative yields of (14)CO(2) from C2- and C3-pyruvate) listed after (a)-(e) above within the experimental errors, and gave rough estimates of the rates of pyruvate carboxylation, conversion of pyruvate and fat into acetyl-CoA and utilization of glutamate. The main conclusions were: (a) symmetrization of label in oxaloacetate both in the mitochondrion and in the cytoplasm was far from complete, because oxaloacetate did not equilibrate with fumarate in either. From this and other findings it was deduced: (b) that malate or fumarate or both left the mitochondrion, and not oxaloacetate; (c) that there was a loss from the mitochondrion of a fraction of the malate or fumarate or both formed from succinate, and (d) the resulting deficiency of oxaloacetate for the perpetuation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was made up from pyruvate in fed and post-absorptive rats, but (e) in the starved rat could only be made up by utilization of glutamate. (f) In the fed rat the tricarboxylic acid cycle ran mostly on pyruvate, but in the post-absorptive and starved rat mostly on fat. (g) In the injured rat the tricarboxylic acid cycle was slowed, label in oxaloacetate was completely symmetrized (cf. conclusion a), and the tricarboxylic acid cycle utilized glutamate. (h) The conclusions were not invalidated by isotopic exchange, i.e. flux of label without net flux of compound, nor by interaction with lipogenic processes. (i) In the kidneys interaction between the tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis was different from in the liver, and was much less. The effects on the theory were roughly assessed, and were small. 4. The experiments and optimum experimental conditions required to check the theory are listed, and several predictions, open to experimental confirmation, are made.
Project description:1. Rates and rate coefficients of glucose utilization and replacement in post-absorptive rats, either conscious or under halothane anaesthesia, were determined in a thermoneutral environment by using [5-3H]- and [U-14C]glucose. Label was not injected into rats under halothane until about 0.5h after anaesthesia was initiated. 2. Comparison with the results for 24h-starved rats in the preceding paper [Heath et al. (1977) Biochem. J. 162, 643-651] showed that insulin concentrations were considerably higher but rate coefficients for glucose utilization were little altered in post-absorptive rats. Sensitivity to insulin was thus considerably increased by a 24h period of starvation in the rat. 3. Fractional recycling of glucose carbon in post-absorptive rats was under one-half of that in starved rats, reflecting the larger contribution of liver glycogenolysis to glucose production in the former. 4. In post-absorptive rats halothane decreased the mean rate of glucose utilization by about 17%. This decrease was associated with an increase in mean plasma insulin concentration, showing that halothane decreased sensitivity to insulin. 5. Recycling was slightly increased by halothane, indicating that the contribution of liver glycogen to the total glucogenic rate was decreased, probably because liver glycogen concentration were about 40% lower throughout the rate determinations in halothane. 6. Comparison of our results with earlier work shows that during and shortly after induction of halothane anaesthesia glucose turnover must have been greatly increased whereas from about 0.5h after induction it was decreased.
Project description:1. 3-Mercaptopicolinic acid (SK&F 34288) inhibited gluconeogenesis in vitro, with lactate as substrate, in rat kidney-cortex and liver slices. 2. In perfused rat livers, gluconeogenesis was inhibited when lactate, pyruvate or alanine served as substrate, but not with fructose, suggesting pyruvate carboxylase or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase as the site of inhibition. No significant effects were evident in O(2) consumption, hepatic glycogen, urea production, or [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratios. 3. A hypoglycaemic effect was evident in vivo in starved and alloxan-diabetic rats, starved guinea pigs and starved mice, but not in 4h-post-absorptive rats. 4. In the starved rat the hypoglycaemia was accompanied by an increase in blood lactate. 5. A trace dose of [(14)C]lactate in vivo was initially oxidized to a lesser extent in inhibitor-treated rats, but during 90min the total CO(2) evolved was slightly greater. The total amount of the tracer oxidized was not significantly different from that in the controls.
Project description:Rats were stressed by intravenous injection, tail-warming or moderate restraint for 30s, i.e. by stresses imposed by normal handling during experiment. Liver glutamate concentrations were greatly affected. The results were substantially the same in two varieties of rat (Wistar and Sprague-Dawley), in two laboratories, in experiments carried out by two sets of workers, and after all three stresses. The following detailed results refer to Wistar rats. 1. In starved rats at 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C and in post-absorptive rats at 20 degrees C stress by injection raised liver glutamate concentrations from 1.54, 1.57 and 1.88mumol/g wet wt. 30s after injection to 3.4, 2.7 and 3.6mumol/g wet wt. respectively a few minutes later. In starved rats at 20 degrees C the concentration then fell slowly to 2.3mumol/g wet wt., in starved rats at 30 degrees C it remained steady, and in post-absorptive rats at 20 degrees C it rose slowly to about 4.3mumol/g wet wt. The final values seemed fairly steady and corresponded to an ;alert' state. 2. In starved rats at 20 degrees C anaesthesia, with or without injection or cannulation during it, raised glutamate concentrations to the ;alert' values, which were maintained for 2-3h. 3. Liver alanine concentration in post-absorptive rats initially fell from 1.5 to 0.8mumol/g, and then stayed fairly constant. 4. Aspartate and glutamine concentrations altered only in starved rats, and proportionately much less than those of glutamate. 5. The necessity for knowing the time-dependence of glutamate concentrations after experimental handling is emphasized. 6. There is no wholly satisfactory explanation of the observations.
Project description:Compared with glucose, lactate + acetate stimulated ventricular protein synthesis in anterogradely perfused hearts from fed or 72 h-starved rats. Stimulation was greater on a percentage basis in starved rats. Atrial protein synthesis was not detectably stimulated by lactate + acetate. Insulin stimulated protein synthesis in atria and ventricles. The stimulation of protein synthesis by lactate + acetate and insulin was not additive, the percentage stimulation by insulin being less in the ventricles of lactate + acetate-perfused hearts than in glucose-perfused hearts. Perfusion of hearts from 72 h-starved or alloxan-diabetic rats with glucose + lactate + acetate + insulin did not increase protein-synthesis rates or efficiencies (protein synthesis expressed relative to total RNA) to values for fed rats, implying there is a decrease in translational activity in these hearts. In the perfused heart, inhibition of protein synthesis by starvation and its reversal by re-feeding followed a relatively prolonged time course. Synthesis was still decreasing after 3 days of starvation and did not return to normal until after 2 days of re-feeding.
Project description:Glucose utilization indices (GUI) of interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) declined by 84% after 48 h starvation. Two-thirds of the overall response was observed within 6 h, correlating with decreased insulin concentrations. Re-feeding 48 h-starved rats restored insulin concentrations and evoked a rapid 15-fold increase in IBAT GUI. GUI values after re-feeding were markedly higher than those observed at equivalent insulin concentrations in control post-absorptive rats.
Project description:1. Tubule fragments were isolated after treatment of rat kidney cortex with collagenase. The formation of glucose and lactate on incubation with 5mM-pyruvate was then measured under various conditions. 2. When tubule fragments were isolated from fed rats in the absence of Ca2+ and then incubated with various Ca2+ concentrations, an incubation period of 15--30 min was necessary to establish a metabolic steady state. Under these conditions glucose formation was increased by Ca2+, adrenaline or 3':5'-cyclic AMP to a greater extent than was lactate formation. Data show that appreciable lactate formation could not have resulted from glycolytic metabolism of glucose formed by gluconeogenesis during incubation. 3. When tubule fragments were isolated from fed rats in the presence of 1.27 mM-Ca2+ and adjustments made to the Ca2+ concentration at the commencement of incubation, metabolic steady state was rapidly established. Under these conditions lactate formation was almost insensitive to Ca2+ concentration (0.16--4.5 mM), whereas glucose formation varied with Ca2+ concentration in a sigmoidal manner. 3':5'-Cyclic AMP decreased this sigmoidicity. 4. Ca2+ depletion of the tissue before incubation appeared to change permanently the relationship between extracellular Ca2+ concentration and the measured rates of metabolic processes. 5. Under conditions of metabolic steady state, glucose formation by tubule fragments from fed rats was less sensitive than lactate formation to inhibition by 3-mercaptopicolinate or 2-n-butylmalonate. Lactate formation by tubule fragments prepared from 48 h-starved rats was more sensitive to these inhibitors. 6. Estimates were made of the rate of futile cycling of C3 species through pyruvate kinase. This was greater in the starved than in the fed state, was decreased by 3':5'-cyclic AMP in both the fed and the starved state, but was unaffected by Ca2+. 7. These results suggested that formation of lactate and glucose is less tightly linked in kidney cortex than in liver. A considerable amount of the supply of reducing equivalents for lactate formation did not appear to be associated with an energy-dependent translocation from mitochondria to cytosol involving a pyruvate leads to oxaloacetate leads to phosphoenolpyruvate leads to pyruvate cycle.
Project description:1. The rates of gluconeogenesis from most substrates tested in the perfused livers of well-fed rats were about half of those obtained in the livers of starved rats. There was no difference for glycerol. 2. A diet low in carbohydrate increased the rates of gluconeogenesis from some substrates but not from all. In general the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on rat liver are less marked than those on rat kidney cortex. 3. Glycogen was deposited in the livers of starved rats when the perfusion medium contained about 10mm-glucose. The shedding of glucose from the glycogen stores by the well-fed liver was greatly diminished by 10mm-glucose and stopped by 13.3mm-glucose. Livers of well-fed rats that were depleted of their glycogen stores by treatment with phlorrhizin and glucagon synthesized glycogen from glucose. 4. When two gluconeogenic substrates were added to the perfusion medium additive effects occurred only when glycerol was one of the substrates. Lactate and glycerol gave more than additive effects owing to an increased rate of glucose formation from glycerol. 5. Pyruvate also accelerated the conversion of glycerol into glucose, and the accelerating effect of lactate can be attributed to a rapid formation of pyruvate from lactate. 6. Butyrate and oleate at 2mm, which alone are not gluconeogenic, increased the rate of gluconeogenesis from lactate. 7. The acceleration of gluconeogenesis from lactate by glucagon was also found when gluconeogenesis from lactate was stimulated by butyrate and oleate. This finding is not compatible with the view that the primary action of glucagon in promoting gluconeogenesis is an acceleration of lipolysis. 8. The rate of gluconeogenesis from pyruvate at 10mm was only 70% of that at 5mm. This ;inhibition' was abolished by oleate or glucagon.
Project description:1. Measurements of arteriovenous differences across mammary glands of normal and starved lactating rats, and lactating rats made short-term insulin-deficient with streptozotocin or prolactin-deficient with bromocryptine, showed that only in the starved animals was there a significant decrease in glucose uptake. This decrease was accompanied by release of lactate and pyruvate from the gland, in contrast with the uptake of these metabolites by glands of normal lactating rats. 2. There were no marked differences in metabolite concentrations in freeze-clamped glands in the four conditions studied, apart from a decrease in [lactate] and [pyruvate] and an increase in [glucose] in the glands of the streptozotocin-treated group. 3. Acini isolated from the glands of starved, insulin or prolactin-deficient rats had a higher production of lactate and pyruvate from glucose than did glands from normal rats; this is in agreement with the reported decrease in the proportion of active pyruvate dehydrogenase in these situations [Field & Coore (1976) Biochem. J.156, 333-337; Kankel & Reinauer (1976) Diabetologia12, 149-154]. 4. Addition of insulin did not increase the uptake of glucose by acini from normal glands, but it caused a significant increase in the utilization of glucose by acini from glands of starved rats. Insulin did not decrease the accumulation of lactate and pyruvate in any of the experiments. 5. It is concluded that isolated acini represent a suitable model for the study of mammary-gland carbohydrate metabolism in that they reflect metabolism of the gland in vivo.
Project description:1. The regulation of glucose uptake and disposition in skeletal muscle was studied in the isolated perfused rat hindquarter. 2. Insulin and exercise, induced by sciatic-nerve stimulation, enhanced glucose uptake about tenfold in fed and starved rats, but were without effect in rats with diabetic ketoacidosis. 3. At rest, the oxidation of lactate (0.44 mumol/min per 30 g muscle in fed rats) was decreased by 75% in both starved and diabetic rats, whereas the release of alanine and lactate (0.41 and 1.35 mumol/min per 30 g respectively in the fed state) was increased. Glycolysis, defined as the sum of lactate+alanine release and lactate oxidation, was not decreased in either starvation or diabetes. 4. In all groups, exercise tripled O2 consumption (from approximately 8 to approximately 25 mumol/min per 30 g of muscle) and increased the release and oxidation of lactate five- to ten-fold. The differences in lactate release between fed, starved and diabetic rats observed at rest were no longer apparent; however, lactate oxidation was still several times greater in the fed group. 5. Perfusion of the hindquarter of a fed rat with palmitate, octanoate or acetoacetate did not alter glucose uptake or lactate release in either resting or exercising muslce; however, lactate oxidation was significantly inhibited by acetoacetate, which also increased the intracellular concentration of acetyl-CoA. 6. The data suggest that neither that neither glycolysis nor the capacity for glucose transport are inhbitied in the perfused hindquarter during starvation or perfusion with fatty acids or ketone bodies. On the other hand, lactate oxidation is inhibited, suggesting diminished activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. 7. Differences in the regulation of glucose metabolism in heart and skeletal muscle and the role of the glucose/fatty acid cycle in each tissue are discussed.