Prevalence of oropharyngeal beta-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga spp. in pediatric oncology patients over a ten-year period.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of beta-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga isolates in young children hospitalized in the Pediatric Oncology Department of Hôpital Sud (Rennes, France) over a ten-year period (1993-2002). METHODS: In neutropenic children, a periodic survey of the oral cavity allows a predictive evaluation of the risk of systemic infections by Capnocytophaga spp. In 449 children with cancer, 3,053 samples were collected by oral swabbing and plated on TBBP agar. The susceptibility of Capnocytophaga isolates to five beta-lactams was determined. RESULTS: A total of 440 strains of Capnocytophaga spp. were isolated, 309 (70%) of which were beta-lactamase producers. The beta-lactamase-producing strains were all resistant to cefazolin, 86% to amoxicillin, and 63% to ceftazidime. The proportion of strains resistant to third-generation cephalosporins remained high throughout the ten-year study, while susceptibility to imipenem and amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid was always conserved. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the risk of antibiotic failure in Capnocytophaga infections and the importance of monitoring immunosuppressed patients and testing for antibiotic susceptibility and beta-lactamase production.
Project description:The Capnocytophaga sputigena isolate NOR, responsible for septicemia, was resistant to amoxicillin and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins. In a cloning experiment, a new gene, bla(CSP-1), was identified; this gene encodes a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) that shares only 52% and 49% identities with the CME-1 and VEB-1 beta-lactamases, respectively. The G+C content of this gene, its genetic environment, the absence of conjugation transfer, and its detection in two reference strains suggested that it was an intrinsic resistance gene located on the chromosome.
Project description:The susceptibility to 14 antimicrobial agents and the mechanisms of aminopenicillin resistance were studied in 197 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae--109 isolated in 2007 (study group) and 88 isolated in 1997 (control group). Community antibiotic consumption trends were also examined. H. influenzae strains were consecutively isolated from the same geographic area, mostly from respiratory specimens from children and adults. Overall, amoxicillin resistance decreased by 8.4% (from 38.6 to 30.2%). Beta-lactamase production decreased by 15.6% (from 33 to 17.4%, P = 0.01), but amoxicillin resistance without beta-lactamase production increased by 7.1% (from 5.7 to 12.8%). All beta-lactamase-positive isolates were TEM-1, but five different promoter regions were identified, with Pdel being the most prevalent in both years, and Prpt being associated with the highest amoxicillin resistance. A new promoter consisting of a double repeat of 54 bp was detected. Community consumption of most antibiotics decreased, as did the geometric means of their MICs, but amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and azithromycin consumption increased by ca. 60%. For amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, a 14.2% increase in the population with an MIC of 2 to 4 microg/ml (P = 0.02) was observed; for azithromycin, a 21.2% increase in the population with an MIC of 2 to 8 microg/ml (P = 0.0005) was observed. In both periods, the most common gBLNAR (i.e., H. influenzae isolates with mutations in the ftsI gene as previously defined) patterns were IIc and IIb. Community consumption of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole decreased by 54%, while resistance decreased from 50 to 34.9% (P = 0.04). Antibiotic resistance in H. influenzae decreased in Spain from 1997 to 2007, but surveillance should be maintained since new forms of resistances may be developing.
Project description:Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) causes otitis media, sinusitis, and likely lower respiratory tract infections in children. Colonization, strain diversity, transmission, and antimicrobial susceptibility have implications for both children and their caregivers.For 13 months, we conducted a cross-sectional study of NTHi colonization. Upper respiratory tract cultures were performed in 273 infants and children 2 to 26 months of age and their primary caregivers. NTHi isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and antibiotic resistance was examined.Of the 273 infants, 44 (16.1%) were colonized with NTHi. Prevalence of NTHi varied from 14% in infants less than 6 months of age to 32% in infants between 19 and 26 months of age (P = 0.003). NTHi-colonized infants were more likely to attend day care (30% vs. 12%), have a recent respiratory infection (68% vs. 38%), have recently taken an antibiotic (27% vs. 9%), and have a primary caregiver who reported asthma (11% vs. 1%), compared with other infants (P < 0.01). In the 44 infants colonized with NTHi, we identified 33 different MLSTs. Of the 44 infant-primary caregiver dyads, 9 (20.5%) were colonized with NTHi, and 7 of these 9 shared identical NTHi strains. We also found beta-lactamase-negative NTHi with minimum inhibitory concentrations >2 ?g/mL for amoxicillin and beta-lactamase-positive NTHi with minimum inhibitory concentrations >2 ?g/mL for amoxicillin clavulanate.We found substantial diversity by MLST analysis among NTHi isolates from this community. Infant-primary caregiver dyads usually carried the same strain of NTHi, suggesting that infant-primary caregiver transmission is occurring.
Project description:Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ?94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 ?g/ml and troughs of >1.75 ?g/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize ampicillin resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from Portugal. Association between specific patterns of amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) (with or without ?-lactamase production) and ?-lactam susceptibility as well as genetic relatedness among isolates were investigated. METHODS: Two-hundred and forty non-consecutive H. influenzae isolates chosen according to their different ampicillin MICs [101 ?-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) isolates, 80 ?-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant (BLPAR) isolates and 59 ?-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-susceptible (BLNAS) isolates] were analysed. The ?-lactamase-encoding bla(TEM-1) gene was detected by PCR. The ftsI gene encoding PBP3 was sequenced. Genetic relatedness among isolates was examined by PFGE. RESULTS: Of the 240 H. influenzae isolates, 141 had mutations in the transpeptidase domain of the ftsI gene, including most BLNAR strains (94/101, 93.1%) and a high percentage of BLPAR strains (47/80, 58.8%). As previously reported, the latter have been described as ?-lactamase-positive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant (BLPACR). The most common amino acid substitutions were identified near the KTG motif: N526K (136/141, 96.5%), V547I (124/141, 87.9%) and N569S (121/141, 85.8%). The 141 strains were divided into 31 ftsI mutation patterns and included six groups (I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId and III-like). BLNAR strains were genetically diverse but close genetic relationships were demonstrated among BLPACR strains. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the non-enzymatic mechanism of resistance to ?-lactams is widespread among H. influenzae isolates in Portugal. Clonal dissemination of BLPACR strains showing high resistance to ampicillin and reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was documented.
Project description:Escherichia hermannii showed a low level of resistance to amoxicillin and ticarcillin, reversed by clavulanate, and a moderate susceptibility to piperacillin but was susceptible to all cephalosporins. A bla gene was cloned and encoded a typical class A beta-lactamase (HER-1, pI 7.5), which shares 45, 44, 41, and 40% amino acid identity with other beta-lactamases, AER-1 from Aeromonas hydrophila, MAL-1/Cko-1 from Citrobacter koseri, and TEM-1 and LEN-1, respectively. No ampR gene was detected. Only penicillins were efficiently hydrolyzed, and no hydrolysis was observed for cefuroxime and broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Sequencing of the bla gene in 12 other strains showed 98 to 100% identity with bla(HER-1).
Project description:The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, a combination of antibiotics potentially effective against beta-lactamase producing bacteria, was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 200 children with mild to severe skin and soft tissue infections. The majority (47%) had impetigo. Fifty (25%) children had mild pyodermas, 56 (28%) had moderate and 94 (47%) children had severe pyodermas. A pure growth of Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 130 (65%) children. S. pyogenes was isolated from 42 (21%), children and both organisms in 28 (14%) children. In mild to moderate pyoderma 84 per cent of children receiving the combination were cured clinically at the end of the 1st week, whereas 73.3 per cent children in amoxicillin group, 76.9 per cent children in erythromycin group and only 56 per cent children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure at the end of the 1st week. In severe pyoderma 96 per cent children receiving amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 90 per cent children in amoxicillin group, 83 per cent children in erythromycin group and 52 per cent children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid was well tolerated by children.
Project description:Fifty-two percent of 1,288 poultry isolates of campylobacters were ampicillin resistant, and resistance was more common among Campylobacter coli isolates (67.4%) than among Campylobacter jejuni isolates (47.5%). Production of beta-lactamase was typically associated with resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin (amoxicilline), penicillin, and ticarcillin. Regardless of beta-lactamase production, all isolates were resistant to piperacillin (MICs >or= 256 microg/ml), and most were resistant to carbenicillin, cloxacillin, and cephalosporins. Of all ampicillin-resistant campylobacters tested, 91% (347/380) carried the bla(OXA-61) gene, and 77% (136/175) of those tested with nitrocefin produced a beta-lactamase, presumably OXA-61. The isoelectric point (pI) of OXA-61 was 8.7, and the molecular mass was 31.0 kDa. Insertional inactivation of bla(OXA-61) in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and two ampicillin-resistant isolates resulted in increased susceptibility to ampicillin, co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid), penicillin, carbenicillin, oxacillin, and piperacillin, but the effects on MICs of cephalosporins and imipenem were negligible. Some C. jejuni isolates that lacked bla(OXA-61) produced a beta-lactamase, CjBla2, with a pI of 9.2 and molecular mass of 32.4 kDa. Mass spectrometry confirmed that the most prevalent beta-lactamase was the product of bla(OXA-61), but CjBla2 was not identified. OXA-61 is prevalent among Campylobacter spp. of veterinary origin and is similar to the beta-lactamase previously reported in human isolates. Production of OXA-61 was associated with resistance to penams but not cephalosporins. Co-amoxiclav remained active against all isolates tested.
Project description:Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal genes for two ?-lactamases, blaA an Ambler class A penicillinase and blaB an Ambler class C inducible cephalosporinase. In the present study, susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics and ?-lactamase inhibitor was studied for Y. enterocolitica strains of biovars 1A, 1B, 2 and 4. We observed that ?-lactamases were expressed differentially among strains of different biovars. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential expression, the sequences of genes and promoters of blaA were compared. Also, the variants of blaA present in different biovars were modeled and docked with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The mRNA secondary structures of blaA variants were also predicted in-silico. Our findings indicated that neither variations in the promoter regions, nor the secondary structures of mRNA contributed to higher/lower expression of blaA in different biovars. Analysis of H-bonding residues of blaA variants with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid revealed that if amino acid residues of a ?-lactamase interacting with amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid were similar, clavulanic acid was effective in engaging the enzyme, accounting for a significant reduction in MIC of amoxicillin-clavulanate. This finding might aid in designing better ?-lactamase inhibitors with improved efficiencies in future.
Project description:At this time an amino acid substitution at position 276 in the TEM-1 enzyme is associated with an additional substitution at position 69 in natural beta-lactamase-inhibitor-resistant (IRT) beta-lactamases. The effect of the Asn276-->Asp substitution on resistance was assessed with the Asn276Asp variant, generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant was resistant to beta-lactamase inhibitors, but the MICs of amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid or tazobactam were strikingly different for E. coli strains producing the Asn276Asp variant and those producing naturally occurring IRTs with single or double substitutions. The inhibitory effects of clavulanic acid and tazobactam were the same in IRTs with substitutions at position 69 (IRT-5 and IRT-6). The effect of clavulanic acid on the MICs of amoxicillin for the Asn276Asp variant was greater than that of tazobactam. In IRTs with double substitutions, at positions 69 plus 276 (IRT-4, IRT-7, and IRT-8) or 69 plus 275 (IRT-14), tazobactam was a more potent inhibitor than clavulanic acid. The effect of the Asn276-->Asp substitution on the values of the kinetic constants and the concentration required to inhibit by 50% the hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin confirms that this single mutation is responsible for resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors. Molecular modeling of the Asn276Asp mutant shows that Asp276 can form two salt bonds with Arg244 close to the penicillin-binding cavity. The addition of the Asp276 mutation to that preexisting at position 69 confers a higher selective advantage to bacteria, as shown by the reduction in beta-lactamase inhibitor efficiencies of the double variants. Therefore, the emergence of multiple mutations in TEM beta-lactamases by virtue of the use of beta-lactamase inhibitors increases selection pressure resulting in the convergent evolution of resistant strains.