Evidence for copper and 3,4,6-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone cofactors in an amine oxidase from the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli K-12.
ABSTRACT: The cofactors present in a amine oxidase induced in Escherichia coli K-12 by growth on 2-phenylethylamine have been studied by spectroscopic methods. E.s.r. spectroscopy establishes the presence of cupric copper while resonance Raman spectroscopy on the phenylhydrazine derivative of the enzyme provides strong evidence for the oxidized form of 3,4,6-trihydroxyphenylalanine (TOPA) quinone. The amine oxidase should accordingly be classified as EC 220.127.116.11. This is the first report of such an amine oxidase in a Gram-negative bacterium.
Project description:Two different Cu2+-depleted derivatives of bovine serum amine oxidase (BSAO) have recently been prepared, which contain about 0.5 mol/dimer of phenylhydrazine-reactive topa quinone (TPQ) cofactor and, depending on the reagents used, about 0.2 or 0.7 residual Cu2+/dimer [Agostinelli, De Matteis, Sinibaldi, Mondovi and Morpurgo (1997) Biochem. J. 324, 497-501]. The benzylamine oxidase activity of both derivatives was <5% and increased up to approximately 20% on incorporation of Co2+, irrespective of the residual Cu2+ content, which was unaffected by the treatment according to atomic absorption and ESR spectroscopy. The residual Cu2+ ions appeared to be distributed one per dimer and to be bound to inactive subunits, whereas Co2+ was bound to active subunits. The change in the active site had an appreciable influence on the kinetic behaviour. With several amines, the kinetic parameters, Km and kc, measured for Co2+-BSAO were different from those for native BSAO. This excludes the possibility that the catalytic activity was due to residual Cu2+. Furthermore, Co2+ restored to nearly native level the intensity of the TPQ 480 nm band and the reactions with phenylhydrazine or benzylhydrazine, which had been slowed down or abolished, respectively, in Cu2+-depleted samples. The CD spectrum, measured for the derivative with low Cu2+ content, was compatible with Co2+ binding to the copper site. The amine oxidase activity of the Co2+ derivative, which cannot form a semiquinone radical as an intermediate of the catalytic reaction, strongly suggests that the Cu+-semiquinone is not an obligatory intermediate of BSAO catalytic pathway.
Project description:An Escherichia coli K-12 2-phenylethylamine oxidase gene with a mutated leader sequence region produced a largely inactive form of the enzyme in the cytoplasm. This form of the enzyme was activated 30-50-fold on incubation at 30 degrees C in the absence of any added cofactors. After activation the enzyme contained a quinone which was not detected in the non-activated form. This is the first report of the formation in vitro of any quinoenzyme cofactor.
Project description:Amine oxidase from pig plasma (PPAO) has two bound Cu2+ ions and at least one pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) moiety as cofactors. It is shown that recovery of activity by copper-depleted PPAO is linear with respect to added Cu2+ ions. Recovery of e.s.r. and optical spectral characteristics of active-site copper parallel the recovery of catalytic activity. These results are consistent with both Cu2+ ions contributing to catalysis. Further e.s.r. studies indicate that the two copper sites in PPAO, unlike those in amine oxidases from other sources, are chemically distinct. These comparative studies establish that non-identity of the Cu2+ ions in PPAO is not a requirement for amine oxidase activity. It is shown through the use of a new assay procedure that there are two molecules of PQQ bound per molecule of protein in PPAO; only the more reactive of these PQQ moieties is required for activity.
Project description:Human vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial copper-dependent amine oxidase involved in the recruitment and extravasation of leukocytes at sites of inflammation. VAP-1 is an important therapeutic target for several pathological conditions. We expressed soluble VAP-1 in HEK293 EBNA1 cells at levels suitable for detailed mechanistic studies with model substrates. Using the model substrate benzylamine, we analyzed the steady-state kinetic parameters of VAP-1 as a function of solution pH. We found two macroscopic pK(a) values that defined a bell-shaped plot of turnover number k(cat,app) as a function of pH, representing ionizable groups in the enzyme-substrate complex. The dependence of (k(cat)/K(m))(app) on pH revealed a single pK(a) value (?9) that we assigned to ionization of the amine group in free benzylamine substrate. A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 6 to 7.6 on (k(cat)/K(m))(app) over the pH range of 6 to 10 was observed with d(2)-benzylamine. Over the same pH range, the KIE on k(cat) was found to be close to unity. The unusual KIE values on (k(cat)/K(m))(app) were rationalized using a mechanistic scheme that includes the possibility of multiple isotopically sensitive steps. We also report the analysis of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) using para-substituted protiated and deuterated phenylethylamines. With phenylethylamines we observed a large KIE on k(cat,app) (8.01 ± 0.28 with phenylethylamine), indicating that C-H bond breakage is limiting for 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone reduction. Poor correlations were observed between steady-state rate constants and QSAR parameters. We show the importance of combining KIE, QSAR, and structural studies to gain insight into the complexity of the VAP-1 steady-state mechanism.
Project description:Plasma amine oxidases (EC 18.104.22.168) are classified as containing the organic cofactor pyridoxal phosphate. Biochemical and bioassays on the pig plasma amine oxidase fail to reveal the presence of pyridoxal phosphate and 31P n.m.r. evidence is also inconsistent with pyridoxal phosphate in the enzyme. Resonance Raman spectral studies on phenylhydrazone derivatives of the pig and bovine plasma enzymes have been carried out and comparisons made with the corresponding derivatives of pyridoxal phosphate and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). The resonance Raman evidence indicates that the cofactor in both plasma amine oxidases is PQQ or a closely related species and not pyridoxal phosphate. The results substantiate earlier reports concerning the identity of the organic cofactor.
Project description:NN-Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) was able to bind, at 1.0 mM concentration, only about 50% the Cu(II) ions of bovine plasma amine oxidase. Under reducing conditions, this Cu(II) was removed with inactivation of the enzyme. Up to 90% activity could be recovered by treatment with excess Cu(II). The organic cofactor, sensitive to carbonyl reagents, was reduced in the half-Cu-depleted protein and no longer bound phenylhydrazine. The fully reacted protein, in the presence of 10 mM-DDC, lost 50% Cu(II) upon storage at -20 degrees C, but in this case the residual Cu(II) was in the DDC-bound form and the cofactor was in the oxidized state, as it could still bind phenylhydrazine. In the presence of DDC, the rate of reaction with phenylhydrazine was always low, even at 50% DDC saturation, and all derivatives showed identical modifications of the optical and e.p.r. spectra with respect to the phenylhydrazone of the native protein. It is concluded that the two Cu(II) ions are not equivalent, that removal of a single Cu(II) is sufficient to inhibit the re-oxidation of the organic cofactor, and that both Cu(II) ions are in some way involved in the reaction with phenylhydrazine. After reaction with DDC, the optical and e.p.r. spectra of 63Cu(II)-amine oxidase and of 63Cu(II)-carbonic anhydrase [Morpurgo, Desideri, Rigo, Viglino & Rotilio (1983) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 746, 168-175] are very similar and show distorted equatorial co-ordination to Cu(II) of two sulphur atoms and two magnetically equivalent nitrogen atoms.
Project description:The activity of ox lung microsomal semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (EC 22.214.171.124; SSAO) towards benzylamine increased 20-fold during incubation at 37 degrees C. After an initial lag-period, activation was first-order with time and complete after approx. 20 h. No significant changes in activity towards methylamine, histamine or 2-phenylethylamine were observed, although mixed-substrate experiments were consistent with the same enzyme being involved in the oxidation of all these substrates, both before and after time-dependent activation. The enzyme-tryptophan fluorescence increased on incubation at 37 degrees C in parallel with the increase in activity towards benzylamine. Treatment of the activated-enzyme preparation with 6 M guanidinium chloride followed by dialysis, caused both the activity towards benzylamine and the fluorescence to fall to that occurring before activation. However, incubation of this preparation at 37 degrees C resulted in increases in fluorescence and activity similar to those seen with the unactivated enzyme. Benzylamine oxidation was inhibited, uncompetitively with respect to oxygen, by high substrate concentrations but no such inhibition was observed with the other amines. Activation resulted in an increase in V(max) for benzylamine oxidation, with no significant alterations in the K(m) or the K(si) for high-substrate inhibition. Kinetic studies were consistent with sequential mechanisms being followed for the oxidation of both benzylamine and methylamine but the dependence on oxygen concentration was complex. These results might indicate that benzylamine follows a different reaction pathway from the other substrates, with substrate-specific activation involving a reaction step that is rate-limiting for benzylamine oxidation but not for the others.
Project description:Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial cell-surface protein. It is also an enzyme posessing semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (EC.126.96.36.199). VAP-1 is involved in leukocyte traffic. To study the role of VAP-1 in tumor immunity, we compared gene expression profiles in melanomas growing in VAP-1 -/- mice and their wid-type littermates. Overall design: The B16-F10-Luc-G5 melanoma cells (Xenogen) were injected subcutaneously into abdominal area of 2 wild-type and 2 VAP-1 -/- mice. Tumors were grown until day 10 when mice were euthanized. Tumors were dissected and total RNA was isolated using the Qiagen RNA extraction kit.
Project description:Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) has been purified from bovine lung microsomes in a form which is catalytically active and stable to storage. The enzyme, an integral membrane protein, was solubilized with Triton X-100 and purification was achieved, in the presence of detergent, by chromatography with Cibacron Blue 3GA-agarose, hydroxylapatite, Lens culinaris-agarose, Resource Q-FPLC and gel filtration on Superdex 200 HR-FPLC. This is the first reported procedure for the extensive purification of a membrane-bound SSAO. The purified enzyme had an apparent Mr of 400000 but exhibited microheterogeneity with SDS/PAGE and isoelectric focusing, probably as a result of its glycoprotein nature. It behaved as a tetramer with subunits with apparent Mr values of 100. Antibodies raised towards the purified enzyme cross-reacted with the enzymes from human lung and bovine plasma. Redox-cycling staining and reaction with carbonyl reagents were consistent with the presence of a quinone cofactor, possibly topa quinone. The enzyme was also shown to contain two mol of Cu/mol of enzyme and removal of half of this bound copper resulted essentially in complete inhibition of enzyme activity. In contrast to the reported behaviour of the SSAO enzymes from plasma, the bovine lung enzyme was relatively insensitive to inhibition by cyanide, copper-chelating agents and amiloride. The specificity of the bovine lung enzyme was also narrower than reported for soluble SSAO. It catalysed the oxidative deamination of benzylamine, methylamine, 2-phenylethylamine and histamine but had no significant activity towards dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, tryptamine or tyramine.
Project description:Deoxyoligonucleotides corresponding to amino acid sequences of methylamine oxidase and polyclonal anti-methylamine oxidase antibodies were used to probe Arthrobacter strain P1 plasmid and chromosomal DNA libraries. Two open reading frames, maoxI and maoxII, which are greater than 99% homologous, were cloned from the chromosomal library. The deduced amino acid sequences of the coding regions are identical except for two residues near the C termini. On the other hand, the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of maoxI and maoxII are quite different. While either gene could code for methylamine oxidase, the dissimilarity in the 5'-flanking regions indicates that the genes are differently regulated. It was determined that maoxII alone encodes methylamine oxidase. The tyrosyl residue which is converted to topa quinone in the mature enzyme was located by comparison with amino acid sequences at the cofactor sites in other copper/topa quinone-containing amine oxidase. Transcriptional start sites and possible regulatory elements were identified in the 5' region of maoxI and maoxII, and stem-loop structures were found in the 3'-flanking regions. High levels of methylamine oxidase are produced when Arthrobacter strain P1 is grown on methylamine alone or on glucose plus methylamine, but growth on LB medium plus methylamine resulted in very low production of the enzyme. Expression of maoxII from its own promoter in Escherichia coli grown on glucose or LB medium with or without methylamine gave the same level of production of methylamine oxidase.