A monoclonal anti-peptide antibody reacting with the insulin receptor beta-subunit. Characterization of the antibody and its epitope and use in immunoaffinity purification of intact receptors.
ABSTRACT: A mouse monoclonal antibody (CT-1) was prepared against the C-terminal peptide sequence of the human insulin receptor beta-subunit (KKNGRILTLPRSNPS). The antibody reacted with native human and rat insulin receptors in solution, whether or not insulin was bound and whether or not the receptor had undergone prior tyrosine autophosphorylation. The antibody also reacted specifically with the receptor beta-subunit on blots of SDS/polyacrylamide gels. Preincubation of soluble receptors with antibody increased the binding of 125I-insulin approx. 2-fold. The antibody did not affect insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation, but increased the basal autophosphorylation rate approx. 2-fold. The amino acid residues contributing to the epitope for CT-1 were defined by construction and screening of an epitope library. Oligonucleotides containing 23 random bases were synthesized and ligated into the vector pCL627, and the corresponding peptide sequences expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli were screened by colony blotting. Reactive peptides were identified by sequencing the oligonucleotide inserts in plasmids purified from positive colonies. Six different positive sequences were found after 900,000 colonies had been screened, and the consensus epitope was identified as GRVLTLPRS. Phosphorylation of the threonine residue within this sequence (corresponding to the known phosphorylation site Thr-1348 in the insulin receptor) decreased the affinity of antibody binding approx. 100-fold, as measured by competition in an e.l.i.s.a. Antibody CT-1 was used for immunoaffinity isolation of insulin receptor from detergent-solubilized human placental or rat liver microsomal membranes. Highly purified receptor was obtained in 60% yield by binding to CT-1-Sepharose immunoadsorbent and specific elution with a solution of peptide corresponding to the known epitope. This approach to purification under very mild conditions may in principle be used with any protein for which an antibody is available and for which a peptide epitope or 'mimotope' can be identified.
Project description:Anti-peptide antibodies directed against a highly-conserved sequence of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain have been used to study the relationship between this specific region and kinase activation. Antibodies have been prepared by the injection into a rabbit of a synthetic peptide (P2) corresponding to residues 1110-1125 of the proreceptor. The peptide exhibits 88-95% sequence similarity with the corresponding sequence in the v-ros protein and in receptors for epidermal growth factor and for insulin-like growth factor 1. Two antibodies with different specificities could be separated from total antiserum obtained after immunization with P2. One antibody [anti-(P-Tyr)] cross-reacted with phosphotyrosine and immunoprecipitated solely autophosphorylated receptors. This antibody was shown to increase or decrease the receptor tyrosine kinase activity depending on its concentration. In all circumstances receptor autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation were modulated in a parallel fashion. The second antibody (anti-P2) failed to immunoprecipitate the insulin receptor, but was found to interact with both the peptide and the receptor by e.l.i.s.a. assay. Using a tyrosine co-polymer we found that anti-P2 activated the insulin receptor kinase leading to substrate phosphorylation at a level similar to that observed with insulin. This effect was additive to the hormonal effect. In contrast, receptor autophosphorylation was not modified by the anti-peptide. The differential effect of this anti-peptide further supports the idea that receptor autophosphorylation and kinase activity towards exogenous substrates might be independently regulated. Finally, our data suggest that conformational changes in the receptor tyrosine kinase domain may be sufficient for activation of its enzymic activity.
Project description:Hybrid insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors have previously been described in human placenta, but it has not been possible to study their properties in the presence of classical insulin receptors and type I IGF receptors. To facilitate the purification of hybrids, we produced an anti-peptide monoclonal antibody IGFR 1-2, directed against the C-terminal peptide of the type I IGF receptor beta-subunit. The antibody bound native human and rat type I IGF receptors, and reacted specifically with the beta-subunit on immunoblots. Solubilized placental microsomal membranes were depleted of classical type I IGF receptors by incubation with an immobilized monoclonal antibody IGFR 24-55, which reacts well with type I receptors but very poorly with hybrid receptors. Residual hybrid receptors were then isolated by incubation with immobilized antibody IGFR 1-2, and recovered by elution with excess of synthetic peptide antigen. Binding properties of hybrids were compared with those of immuno-affinity-purified insulin receptors and type I IGF receptors, by using the radioligands 125I-IGF-I and 125I-insulin. Hybrids bound approx. 20 times as much 125I-IGF-I as 125I-insulin at tracer concentrations (approx. 0.1 nM). The binding of 125I-insulin, but not 125I-IGF-I, to hybrids increased after treatment with dithiothreitol to reduce disulphide bonds between the alpha-subunits. Hybrids behaved very similarly to type I receptors with respect to the inhibition of 125I-IGF-I binding by unlabelled IGF-I and insulin. By contrast, the affinity of hybrids for insulin was approx. 10-fold lower than that of classical insulin receptors, as assessed by inhibition of 125I-insulin binding by unlabelled hormone. It is concluded that the properties of insulin receptors, but not IGF receptors, are markedly affected by assembly as hybrid compared with classical structures, and that hybrids are more likely to be responsive to IGF-I than insulin under physiological conditions.
Project description:Rabbit antisera were raised against synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to defined or putative sites of insulin receptor serine/threonine phosphorylation (Ser-1305, Ser-1327, Thr-1348). All of these antibodies bound specifically to the immunogenic phosphopeptide but not to the non-phosphorylated form of the peptide or to other phosphopeptides, in a microtitre plate competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anti-PS1327 antibody reacted well with native insulin receptor prepared from phorbol ester-treated transfected CHO.T cells, but showed little reaction with receptor from untreated cells. Anti-PT1348 antibody in crude form reacted substantially with receptor from both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated and untreated cells, but displayed specificity for phosphoreceptor after adsorption to remove antibodies reactive with dephosphopeptide. The ability to discriminate between receptor from cells treated with or without phorbol ester was retained when these antibodies were used to probe denatured receptor on Western blots. Thus anti-PS1327 and anti-PT1348 react with insulin receptor in a site-specific and phosphorylation-state-dependent manner. Anti-PT1348, but not anti-PS1327, also showed increased reactivity with receptor prepared from insulin-treated cells. The third antibody, anti-PS1305, did not react with intact insulin receptor under any conditions. It is concluded that serine 1327 is a major, previously unrecognized, site of phorbol ester-induced receptor phosphorylation, and that anti-phosphopeptide antibodies will be valuable reagents with which to examine the serine/threonine phosphorylation state of receptor extracted from tissues.
Project description:Purified human insulin receptors were inserted into placental plasma-membrane vesicles by fusion of membranes with receptor-lysophosphatidylcholine micelles. Scatchard analysis of insulin binding showed that about 10-15% of the added receptors became inserted into the membrane. The receptor number could be increased about 3-fold, corresponding to approx. 5 pmol of receptor/mg of membrane protein. The receptors became firmly bound to the membrane, as they could not be removed by extensive wash. The insertion of exogenous receptors could be demonstrated by immunoblotting. The inserted insulin receptor had the same insulin-binding affinity as the isolated receptor and the endogenous receptor of the membrane. Insulin binding in the presence or absence of Triton X-100 revealed that more than 80% of the exogenous receptors had a right-side-out orientation. Function of the inserted receptors, as observed by insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation, could be demonstrated. About 80% of the added lysophospholipid, corresponding to approx. 160 nmol of lysophospholipid/mg of membrane protein, became integrated into the membrane and was partly metabolized to phospholipid and to non-esterified fatty acid. The method of insertion of isolated insulin receptors using the natural detergent, lysophospholipid, may be a method for insertion of receptors into intact cells, where the lysophospholipid, as in the plasma-membrane vesicles, will be acylated to phospholipid.
Project description:Human ?- and ?-enolases are highly homologous enzymes, difficult to differentiate immunologically. In this work, we describe production, purification and properties of anti-?- and anti-?-enolase polyclonal antibodies. To raise antibodies, rabbits were injected with enolase isoenzymes that were purified from human kidney (?-enolase) and skeletal muscle (?-enolase). Selective anti-?- and anti-?-enolase antibodies were obtained by affinity chromatography on either ?- or ?-enolase-Sepharose columns. On Western blots, antibodies directed against human ?-enolase, did not react with human ?-isoenzyme, but recognized pig and rat ?-enolase. To determine what makes these antibodies selective bioinformatic tools were used to predict conformational epitopes for both enolase isoenzymes. Three predicted epitopes were mapped to the same regions in both ?- and ?-enolase. Peptides corresponding to predicted epitopes were synthesized and tested against purified antibodies. One of the pin-attached peptides representing ?-enolase epitope (the C-terminal portion of the epitope 3 - S262PDDPSRYISPDQ273) reacted with anti-?-enolase, while the other also derived from the ?-enolase sequence (epitope 2 - N193VIKEKYGKDATN205) was recognized by anti-?-enolase antibodies. Interestingly, neither anti-?- nor anti-?-antibody reacted with a peptide corresponding to the epitope 2 in ?-enolase (G194VIKAKYGKDATN206). Further analysis showed that substitution of E197 with A in ?-enolase epitope 2 peptide lead to 70% loss of immunological activity, while replacement of A198 with E in peptide representing ?-enolase epitope 2, caused 67% increase in immunological activity. Our results suggest that E197 is essential for preserving immunologically active conformation in epitope 2 peptidic homolog, while it is not crucial for this epitope's antigenic activity in native ?-enolase.
Project description:Ligand-activated signaling through the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is implicated in many physiological processes ranging from normal human growth to cancer proliferation and metastasis. IGF1R has also emerged as a target for receptor-mediated transcytosis, a transport phenomenon that can be exploited to shuttle biotherapeutics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We employed differential hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to characterize the interactions of the IGF1R ectodomain with a recently discovered BBB-crossing single-domain antibody (sdAb), VHH-IR5, in comparison with IGF-1 binding. HDX-MS confirmed that IGF-1 induced global conformational shifts in the L1/FnIII-1/-2 domains and ?-CT helix of IGF1R. In contrast, the VHH-IR5 sdAb-mediated changes in conformational dynamics were limited to the ?-CT helix and its immediate vicinity (L1 domain). High-resolution NMR spectroscopy titration data and linear peptide scanning demonstrated that VHH-IR5 has high-affinity binding interactions with a peptide sequence around the C-terminal region of the ?-CT helix. Taken together, these results define a core linear epitope for VHH-IR5 within the ?-CT helix, overlapping the IGF-1 binding site, and suggest a potential role for the ?-CT helix in sdAb-mediated transcytosis.
Project description:A 110kDa component of the chick oviduct progesterone receptor (PR) has been purified to homogeneity according to electrophoretic criteria and specific activity (assuming one progestagen-binding site/110kDa). The procedure involved affinity chromatography of 0.3 M-KCl-prepared cytosol, followed by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography (elution at 0.2 M-KCl). The final yield was about 12% in terms of binding activity. Properties of the 110kDa component indicate that it is identical with the 'B' subunit described previously [Stokes radius approximately 6.1 nm; sedimentation coefficient, (S20, w) approximately 4S; frictional ratio approximately 1.77]. It reacted with the IgG-G3 polyclonal antibody, but not with BF4 monoclonal antibody raised against the 8S molybdate-stabilized chick oviduct PR and reacting with its 90kDa component. Another progesterone-binding component, corresponding to the 'A' subunit, also previously described, was eluted from the DEAE-Sephacel column at approximately 0.08 M-KCl, and contained a peptide of molecular mass approx. 75-80kDa, which had S20, w approximately 4S in a sucrose gradient. This component was also recognized by IgG-G3, but not by BF4; it was very unstable in terms of hormone-binding activity.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies previously shown to react with five distinct epitopes on the human insulin receptor were tested for their metabolic effects on isolated human adipocytes. Two antibodies which reacted with receptor alpha-subunit and completely inhibited 125I-insulin binding mimicked the actions of insulin to stimulate lipogenesis from [14C]glucose and to inhibit catecholamine-induced lipolysis. On a molar basis, these antibodies were comparable in potency with insulin itself. Two other antibodies which decreased insulin binding only slightly or not at all also mimicked these metabolic effects of insulin. One of these antibodies reacted with receptor beta-subunit. In contrast, a further antibody which reacted with alpha-subunit and inhibited insulin binding did not affect basal lipogenesis or catecholamine-induced lipolysis, but was able to antagonize the effects of insulin on these processes. The same antibody antagonized the insulin-like effect of another antibody with which it competed in binding to insulin receptor, but not the effect of an antibody which bound independently to the receptor. It is concluded that binding of ligand at or close to the insulin-binding site is neither necessary nor sufficient to trigger insulin-like metabolic effects, which may rather depend on some general property of antibodies, such as their ability to cross-link and aggregate receptor molecules.
Project description:The effects of insulin and anti-(insulin receptor) monoclonal antibodies on tyrosine phosphorylation were investigated in fibroblasts transfected with human insulin receptor cDNA (NIH 3T3HIR3.5 cells) using anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblotting. Insulin increased levels of tyrosine phosphorylation in two major proteins of molecular mass 97 kDa (pp97, assumed to be the insulin receptor beta-subunit) and 185 kDa (pp185). Insulin-mimetic anti-receptor antibodies also stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of both pp97 and pp185. The observation of antibody-stimulated pp97 phosphorylation, as detected by immunoblotting, is in contrast with previous data which failed to show receptor autophosphorylation in NIH 3T3HIR3.5 cells labelled with [32P]P1. The effect of insulin on pp97 was maximal within 1 min, but the response to antibody was apparent only after a lag of 1-2 min and rose steadily over 20 min. The absolute level of antibody-stimulated phosphorylation of both pp97 and pp185 after 20 min was only about 20% of the maximum level induced by equivalent concentrations of insulin, even at concentrations of antibody sufficient for full occupancy of receptors. Another insulin-mimetic agent, wheat-germ agglutinin, stimulated receptor autophosphorylation with kinetics similar to those produced by the antibody. It is suggested that the relatively slow responses to both agents may be a function of the dependence on receptor cross-linking. These data are consistent with a role for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in the mechanism of action of insulin-mimetic anti-receptor antibodies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The dysregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the oncogenesis of various malignancies including glioblastoma and some epithelial cancers. Oncogenesis occurs from the overexpression of EGFR, often linked to gene amplification or receptor mutagenesis. The 287-302 loop in the extracellular domain is exposed completely on EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII), partially exposed on some cancers but cryptic on normal cells. We report on the generation of antibodies to this loop.<h4>Methods</h4>The 286-303 peptide was coupled chemically to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. After immunizations, sera were assayed for reactivity to the peptide. Mice with high titers were used for hybridoma production. Purified antibodies were isolated from hybridoma supernatants, while V regions were cloned and sequenced. Receptor binding was characterized using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry. A recombinant immunotoxin was generated from the 40H3 antibody and its cytotoxic activity characterized on relevant cancer cell lines.<h4>Results</h4>Seven monoclonal antibodies were generated to the 287-302 loop and characterized further. Each one reacted with EGFRvIII but not wild-type EGFR. Based on reactivity with the immunizing peptide, antibodies were mapped to one of three subgroups. One antibody, 40H3, also exhibited binding to MDA-MB-468 and A431 cells but not to non-cancerous WI-38 cells. Because of its unusual binding characteristics, a recombinant immunotoxin was generated from 40H3, which proved to be cytotoxic to MDA-MB-468, A431 and F98<sub>npEGFRvIII</sub> expressing cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Immunization with a peptide corresponding to a cryptic epitope from EGFR can produce tumor cell-binding antibodies. The 40H3 antibody was engineered as a cytotoxic recombinant immunotoxin and could be further developed as a therapeutic agent.