A role for aminopeptidase N in Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport in bovine renal brush-border membranes.
ABSTRACT: A monoclonal antibody FD19 which removes reconstitutable Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport activity from solubilized bovine renal brush-border membrane vesicles was found to react specifically with the enzyme aminopeptidase N. Cleavage of aminopeptidase N from the membranes with papain inhibited Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport activity without affecting that of alpha-methyl D-glucoside. Removal of aminopeptidase substantially increased the Km values for the Na(+)-dependent transport of alanine, glutamine, leucine and phenylalanine without affecting the Vmax. Both Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport and aminopeptidase activity in intact vesicles were competitively inhibited by amino acids with very similar specificity. These results suggest that the amino acid-binding sites of aminopeptidase N and the transporter interact in some way to increase the Km of the transport process for its substrates. However, independent direct inactivation of the transport system by papain cannot be ruled out.
Project description:Amino acid transport activity from bovine renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) was reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine/5% stearylamine. Reconstitutable transport activity was enhanced in protein fractions binding to various lectins. When solubilized BBMV were fractionated on peanut lectin, a single protein band of average molecular mass 132 kDa was obtained. When this protein fraction was reconstituted into phospholipid membrane vesicles, amino acid transport activity was obtained with properties similar to those in native BBMV with regard to amino acid specificity, although the cation specificity was different. A monoclonal antibody which reacted with the same protein removed reconstitutable amino acid transport activity from solubilized BBMV. These findings may provide the first identification of a renal amino acid-transporting protein, although confirmation of this identification by other approaches will be required.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that membrane transporters for glutamine and glutamate are involved in control of liver metabolism in health and disease. We therefore investigated the effects of three catabolic states [starvation (60 h), diabetes (4 days after streptozotocin treatment) and corticosteroid (8-day dexamethasone) treatment] associated with altered hepatic amino acid metabolism on the activity of glutamine and glutamate transporters in sinusoidal membrane vesicles from livers of treated rats. In control preparations, L-[14C]glutamine uptake was largely Na(+)-dependent, but L-[14C]glutamate uptake was largely Na(+)-independent. Vmax. values for Na(+)-dependent uptake of glutamine and/or glutamate exceeded control values (by about 2- and 12-fold respectively) in liver membrane vesicles from starved (glutamine), diabetic (glutamate) or steroid-treated (glutamine and glutamate) rats. The Km values for Na(+)-dependent transport of glutamine or glutamate and the rates of their Na(+)-independent uptake were not significantly altered by any treatment. Na(+)-independent glutamate uptake appeared to include a dicarboxylate-exchange component. The patterns of inhibition of glutamine and glutamate uptake by other amino acids indicated that the apparent induction of Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport in catabolic states included increased functional expression of systems A, N (both for glutamine) and X-ag (for glutamate). The results demonstrate that conditions resulting in increased secretion of catabolic hormones (e.g. corticosteroid, glucagon) are associated with increased capacity for Na(+)-dependent transport of amino acids into liver cells from the blood. The modulation of hepatic permeability to glutamine and glutamate in these situations may control the availability of amino acids for intrahepatic metabolic processes such as ureagenesis, ammonia detoxification and gluconeogenesis.
Project description:The glutamate transport system of the bovine renal epithelial cell line NBL-1 was studied. The Km for Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport was found to be 13.8 +/- 2.4 microM (Vmax. 365 +/- 19.2 pmol/3 min per mg) and for Na(+)-dependent aspartate transport 4.5 +/- 1.1 microM (Vmax. 108 +/- 6.3 pmol/3 min per mg). The Km values are in close agreement with those expected for high-affinity Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport by System XAG-. Upon deprivation of amino acids, the Vmax. for Na+/aspartate co-transport rose to 203 +/- 6.0 pmol/3 min per mg (Km 3.8 +/- 0.5 microns). A probe was constructed to the high-affinity excitatory amino acid carrier (EAAC1) [Kanai and Hediger (1992) Nature (London) 360, 467-471]. The probe hybridized to a 3.5 kb transcript. On deprivation of amino acids, the level of EAAC1 mRNA decreased sharply before the measurable increase in transport levels, but was subsequently restored to control levels. A motif, which we propose is linked to amino acid deprivation, was found in the EAAC1 primary sequence.
Project description:Taurine transport in isolated brush-border-membrane vesicles from rat kidney is concentrative and it is driven by the Na+ gradient and transmembrane potential difference; binding is not a significant component of net uptake. The Na+-dependent component of net uptake is saturable with an apparent Km of 17 microM. The taurine-transport mechanism is selective for beta-amino compounds.
Project description:Transport of glutamine by brush-border vesicles prepared from the renal cortex was studied. The transport system had both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent components. The presence of Na+ in the incubation resulted in an 'overshoot' at 30s at which time the rates of transport were approx. 8 times the values obtained in the absence of Na+. Variation of the glutamine concentration showed that the system obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km and Vmax. values for the Na+-dependent system of 0.86 mM and 9.6 nmol/min per mg of protein respectively. Vesicles obtained from chronically acidotic rats showed similar kinetic characteristics. The Km and Vmax. values for the Na+-dependent system were 0.76 mM and 9.6 nmol/min per mg of protein respectively. There was increased uptake of glutamine by vesicles from acidotic rats and this increase was associated with increased activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase in these preparations. Vesicles from acidotic rats, however, showed no increase in glucose transport and no increase in the activity of maltase, another brush-border enzyme.
Project description:Uptake of L-proline, hydroxy-L-proline and 5-oxo-L-proline by luminal-membrane vesicles isolated either from whole cortex or from pars convoluta or pars recta of proximal tubules was studied by a spectrophotometric method. Uptake of L-proline and hydroxy-L-proline by vesicles from whole cortex was mediated by both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent, but electrogenic, processes, whereas transport of 5-oxo-L-proline in these vesicles was strictly Na+-dependent. Eadie-Hofstee analysis of saturation-kinetic data suggested the presence of multiple transport systems in luminal-membrane vesicles from whole renal cortex for the uptake of all these amino acids. Tubular localization of the transport systems was studied by the use of vesicles derived from pars convoluta and from pars recta. In pars recta transport of all three amino acids was strictly dependent on Na+ and occurred via a high-affinity system (half-saturation: 0.1-0.3 mM). Cation-dependent but Na+-unspecific transport of low affinity for L-proline and hydroxy-L-proline was exclusively localized to the pars convoluta, which also contained a Na+-preferring system of intermediate affinity (half-saturation: L-proline, 0.75 mM; hydroxy-L-proline, 1.3 mM). 5-Oxo-L-proline was transported by low-affinity and Na+-dependent systems in both pars convoluta and pars recta. Competition experiments revealed that transport systems for L-proline and hydroxy-L-proline are common, but indicated separate high-affinity transport systems for 5-oxo-L-proline and L-proline in luminal-membrane vesicles from pars recta. The physiological importance of the presence of various neutral amino acid-transport systems in different segments of the proximal tubule is discussed.
Project description:Na+-dependent uptake of 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) into plasma membrane vesicles derived from bovine blood platelets and ATP-dependent 5-HT uptake into storage vesicles in platelet lysates were measured. Na+-dependent uptake was temperature-dependent, inhibited by imipramine and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (apparent Km, 0.12 +/- 0.02 microM; Vmax. 559 +/- 54 pmol/min per mg of protein. Halothane had no effect on Na+-dependent transport of 5-HT in plasma-membrane vesicles. ATP-dependent 5-HT transport into storage granules also exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (apparent Km 0.34 +/- 0.03 microM; Vmax. 34.3 +/- 1.7 pmol/min per mg of protein) and was inhibited by noradrenaline (norepinephrine), but not by imipramine. Exposure of the granules to halothane resulted in a progressive decrease in Vmax. The results demonstrate a possible site for disruption of platelet function by anaesthetics.
Project description:The implantation of a fast growing tumour (Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma) to late pregnant rats resulted in no changes in fetal growth, this possibly being associated with an important increase in the fetal uptake of maternal-derived amino acids [Carbó, López-Soriano and Argilés (1995) Endocrinology 136, 3579-3584]. The present investigation was undertaken to see whether the presence of the tumour induced changes in placental transport systems. For alanine transport, although no changes in affinity (Km) were observed, tumour growth resulted in a 192% increase in Vmax in the Na(+)-independent component. Kinetic analysis of the Na(+)-dependent component resulted in two clearly different components: while the low-affinity and high-capacity component was unaffected by tumour growth, the high-affinity, low-capacity component of the tumour-bearing rats showed an important increase in Vmax. (78%). With regard to leucine transport, tumour burden induced important increases in the Na(+)-independent component, not only in Km (262%) but also in Vmax. (189%). Since elevated tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) concentrations have been reported in this kind of tumour model, we performed the same type of transport experiments in rats chronically treated with TNF, the results obtained showing great similarities with those observed with tumour growth. The Vmax. of Na(+)-independent alanine transport was also increased by the cytokine (104%) while no changes were observed in affinity. TNF treatment also induced an increase in the Vmax. (67%) of the Na(+)-dependent (high-affinity, low-capacity) component while no changes in affinity were observed. Concerning leucine kinetics, TNF treatment, as in the case of tumour growth, also increased Km (155%) and Vmax. (72%) associated with Na(+)-independent transport. Interestingly, treatment with the cytokine increased both the Km (43%) and Vmax. (64%) of the Na(+)-dependent component. The inhibition patterns suggest the existence of more that one Na(+)-dependent transport for alanine although the majority of the amino acid is transported through the A system. The results presented suggest that, during gestation, the mother is able to adapt her placental amino acid transport systems to compensate for the nitrogen drainage associated with tumour growth and thus provide the fetus with enough amino acids to allow its normal growth, and that TNF could be responsible for the triggering of this compensatory mechanism.
Project description:Horse kidney brush border membrane proteins were incorporated into phosphatidylcholine vesicles. Structural analysis of proteoliposomes prepared with various lipid:protein ratios showed that: (a) only a few of the proteins present in the crude brush border extract are integrated, (b) all known membrane hydrolases are integrated, and (c) these proteoliposomes are homogeneous vesicles. Papain solubilization of brush border membrane hydrolases, i.e. aminopeptidase M, neutral alpha-glucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, performed in parallel on native membrane vesicles and proteoliposomes, revealed similar kinetics. Analysis of membrane vesicles and proteoliposomes on sucrose density gradients either without any treatment, or after papain treatment showed that: (a) in proteoliposomes, neutral alpha-glucosidase is associated with radiolabelled phosphatidylcholine, and (b) papain-treated vesicles and proteoliposomes released enzyme activity in the same way. These results suggest that the integration mechanism of brush border membrane proteins may be similar in proteoliposomes and native membrane vesicles. Transport experiments under equilibrium exchange conditions showed that the uptake properties of proteoliposomes are similar to those of brush border membrane vesicles.
Project description:1. The mechanism of the renal transport of L-tryptophan by basolateral and luminal membrane vesicles prepared from either the pars convoluta or the pars recta of the rabbit proximal tubule was studied. The uptake of L-tryptophan by basolateral membrane vesicles from the pars convoluta was found to be an Na(+)-dependent transport event. The Na(+)-conditional influx of the amino acid was stimulated in the presence of an inwardly directed H+ gradient. Lowering the pH without an H+ gradient had no effect, indicating that L-tryptophan is co-transported with H+. 3. On the other hand, no transient accumulation of L-tryptophan was observed in the presence or absence of Na+ in basolateral membrane vesicles from the pars recta. 4. In luminal membrane vesicles from the pars recta, the transient Na(+)-dependent accumulation of L-tryptophan occurred via a dual transport system. In addition, an inwardly directed H+ gradient could drive the uphill transport of L-tryptophan into these vesicles in both the presence and the absence of an Na+ gradient. 5. By contrast, the uptake of L-tryptophan by luminal membrane vesicles from the pars convoluta was a strictly Na(+)-dependent and electrogenic transport process, mediated by a single transport component. 6. Investigation of the coupling ratio in luminal membrane vesicles suggested that 1 Na+:1 L-tryptophan are co-transported in the pars convoluta. In the pars recta, examination of the stoichiometry indicated that approx. 1 H+ and 2 Na+ (high affinity) or 1 Na+ (low affinity) are involved in the uptake of L-tryptophan.