G-protein from Medicago sativa: functional association to photoreceptors.
ABSTRACT: G-protein subunits were characterized from Medicago sativa (alfalfa) seedlings. Crude membranes and GTP-Sepharose-purified fractions were electrophoresed on SDS/polyacrylamide gels and analysed by Western blotting with 9193 (anti-alpha common) and AS/7 (anti-alpha t, anti-alpha i1 and anti-alpha i2) polyclonal antibodies. These procedures led to the identification of a specific polypeptide band of about 43 kDa. Another polypeptide reacting with the SW/1 (anti-beta) antibody, of about 37 kDa, was also detected. The 43 kDa polypeptide bound specifically [alpha-32P]GTP by a photoaffinity reaction and was ADP-ribosylated by activated cholera toxin, but not by pertussis toxin. Irradiation of etiolated Medicago sativa protoplast preparations at 660 nm for 1 min produced a maximal increase in the guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[35S])-binding rate. After this period of irradiation, the binding rate tended to decrease. The effect of a red-light (660 nm) pulse on the binding rate was reversed when it was immediately followed by a period of far-red (> 730 nm) illumination. These results may suggest that activation of GTP[S]-binding rate was a consequence of conversion of phytochrome Pr into the Ptr form.
Project description:A cDNA encoding the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein in rice (RGA1) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and then isolated by Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of RGA1 bearing a His tag was approx. 49 kDa. Immunoblot analysis using anti-RGA1 revealed that the RGA1 protein is most abundant in seedling leaves and least abundant in mature roots. It exists at particularly high levels in the immature embryo after pellicle extrusion. In addition, the RGA1 antiserum exhibited a difference in binding affinity for Galpha proteins from monocots (maize and rice) and dicots (Arabidopsis, pea, soya bean and tomato); whereas it cross-reacted with Galpha proteins of monocots, it did not with those of dicot plants. When bound to guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate (GTP[S]), the RGA1 protein was partially protected from tryptic proteolysis. In the presence of GTP[S], trypsin cleaved the RGA1 protein into four fragments 24, 14, 11 and 5 kDa in size. When RGA1 was bound to GDP, only the 5 kDa polypeptide was seen on SDS/PAGE after trypsin digestion. Photoaffinity labelling with [alpha-32P]GTP and a GTP[S]-binding assay revealed that RGA1 incorporated 32P and showed specific binding to a guanine nucleotide. Guanidine binding of RGA1 was affected by the concentration of MgCl2 (maximum at 2 mM). The rate of guanine nucleotide binding of RGA1 (kon,GTP[S]=0.0141+/-0.0014 min-1) and, at steady state, the kcat value for GTP hydrolysis (0.0075+/-0.0001 min-1) were very low even at 2 mM MgCl2. The binding affinity for the nucleotides examined was in the order GTP-S- >/= GTP > GDP > CTP > ATP >/= dTTP.
Project description:As a first step in determining the molecular mechanism of membrane fusion stimulated by GTP in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), we have looked for GTP-binding proteins. Rough microsomes from rat liver were treated for the release of ribosomes, and the membrane proteins were separated by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The polypeptides were then blotted on to nitrocellulose sheets and incubated with [alpha-32P]GTP [Bhullar & Haslam (1987) Biochem. J. 245, 617-620]. A doublet of polypeptides (23 and 24 kDa) was detected in the presence of 2 microM-MgCl2. Binding of [alpha-32P]GTP was blocked by 1-5 mM-EDTA, 10-10,000 nM-GTP or 10 microM-GDP. Either guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate or guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate at 100 nM completely inhibited binding, but ATP, CTP or UTP at 10 mciroM did not. Pretreatment of microsomes by mild trypsin treatment (0.5-10 micrograms of trypsin/ml, concentrations known not to affect microsomal permeability) led to inhibition of [alpha-32P]GTP binding, suggesting a cytosolic membrane orientation for the GTP-binding proteins. Two-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis revealed the 23 and 24 kDa [alpha-32P]GTP-binding proteins to have similar acid isoelectric points. [alpha-32P]GTP binding occurred to similar proteins of rough microsomes from rat liver, rat prostate and dog pancreas, as well as to a 23 kDa protein of rough microsomes from frog liver, but occurred to distinctly different proteins in a rat liver plasma-membrane-enriched fraction. Thus [alpha-32P]GTP binding has been demonstrated to two low-molecular-mass (approx. 21 kDa) proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of several varied cell types.
Project description:As assessed both by cholera-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation and by immunoblotting with an anti-peptide antiserum raised against the C-terminal decapeptide of forms of Gs alpha (the alpha subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein), rat glioma C6 BU1 cells express two forms of Gs alpha: a major 44 kDa form and a much less prevalent 42 kDa form. We examined the effects of guanine nucleotides on the interaction of the 44 kDa form with the plasma membrane. Incubation of membranes of C6 BU1 cells with poorly hydrolysed analogues of GTP, but not with analogues of either ATP or GDP, caused the release of this Gs alpha from the membrane fraction. Release of Gs alpha was observed within 5 min, and continued throughout the incubation period. After treatment with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate for 60 min, some 75% of this polypeptide had been released from its site of membrane attachment. These experiments demonstrate that Gs alpha need not remain associated invariantly with the plasma membrane.
Project description:The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, bacterial community, and PAH-degrading bacteria were monitored in aged PAH-contaminated soil (Neuves-Maisons [NM] soil; with a mean of 1,915 mg of 16 PAHs.kg(-1) of soil dry weight) and in the same soil previously treated by thermal desorption (TD soil; with a mean of 106 mg of 16 PAHs.kg(-1) of soil dry weight). This study was conducted in situ for 2 years using experimental plots of the two soils. NM soil was colonized by spontaneous vegetation (NM-SV), planted with Medicago sativa (NM-Ms), or left as bare soil (NM-BS), and the TD soil was planted with Medicago sativa (TD-Ms). The bacterial community density, structure, and diversity were estimated by real-time PCR quantification of the 16S rRNA gene copy number, temporal thermal gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting, and band sequencing, respectively. The density of the bacterial community increased the first year during stabilization of the system and stayed constant in the NM soil, while it continued to increase in the TD soil during the second year. The bacterial community structure diverged among all the plot types after 2 years on site. In the NM-BS plots, the bacterial community was represented mainly by Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The presence of vegetation (NM-SV and NM-Ms) in the NM soil favored the development of a wider range of bacterial phyla (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi) that, for the most part, were not closely related to known bacterial representatives. Moreover, under the influence of the same plant, the bacterial community that developed in the TD-Ms was represented by different bacterial species (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) than that in the NM-Ms. During the 2 years of monitoring, the PAH concentration did not evolve significantly. The abundance of gram-negative (GN) and gram-positive (GP) PAH-degrading bacteria was estimated by real-time PCR quantification of specific functional genes encoding the alpha subunit of PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD(alpha)). The percentage of the PAH-RHD(alpha) GN bacterial genes relative to 16S rRNA gene density decreased with time in all the plots. The GP PAH-RHD(alpha) bacterial gene proportion decreased in the NM-BS plots but stayed constant or increased under vegetation influence (NM-SV, NM-Ms, and TD-Ms).
Project description:Rat adipose tissue possesses two Bordetella pertussis toxin (PTX) substrates and, in the same 39-41 kDa molecular mass range, positive immunoreactivity has also been reported with antibodies against the alpha subunit of Go, the major brain GTP-binding protein (G-protein). In this study, the presence of the brain Go alpha subunit at 39 kDa in adipocytes was reassessed, since direct correspondence between PTX substrates and Go alpha immunoreactivity has not yet been clearly established. On resolutive SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the PTX substrates of human adipocytes were compared with the three PTX substrates found in brain. No ADP-ribosylated substrate at the level of the 39 kDa brain Go alpha could be detected in adipocyte membranes. Immunoblotting of human adipocyte membranes stained with our anti-Go alpha antibodies confirmed the presence of a positive immunoreactivity in this tissue, but the apparent molecular mass of the immunoreactive polypeptide in adipocytes was higher than that found in nervous tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that the brain Go alpha subunit is not present in adipose tissue. They also suggest the existence of a G-protein in adipocytes which is immunologically related to Go alpha but having a slightly higher molecular mass.
Project description:NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells express a major 45 kDa substrate for cholera toxin and a 40 kDa substrate(s) for pertussis toxin when ADP-ribosylation is performed in the presence of GTP. In the absence of exogenous GTP, however, cholera toxin was shown to catalyse incorporation of radioactivity into a 40 kDa protein as well as into the 45 kDa polypeptide. In membranes of cells which had been pretreated in vivo with pertussis toxin, the 40 kDa band was no longer a substrate for either pertussis or cholera toxin in vitro, whereas in membranes from cholera-toxin-pretreated cells the 40 kDa band was still a substrate for fresh cholera toxin in vitro and for pertussis toxin. In this cell line, opioid peptides have been shown to inhibit adenylate cyclase exclusively by interacting with Gi (inhibitory G-protein) and with no other pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein. Opioid agonists, but not antagonists, promoted the cholera-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation of the 40 kDa polypeptide, hence demonstrating that this cholera-toxin substrate was indeed the alpha-subunit of Gi. These results demonstrate that Gi can be a substrate for either cholera or pertussis toxin under appropriate conditions.
Project description:The rab3A gene product is a 25 kDa guanine-nucleotide-binding protein which is expressed at high levels in neural tissue and has about 30% sequence similarity to ras. Purified p25rab3A has been used as substrate to examine its kinetics of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, and to study the effects of Mg2+ on these processes. p25rab3A binds GDP and GTP similarly well, with nanomolar affinity. Mg2+ increases the affinity between p25rab3A and guanine nucleotides by 3- and 7-fold for GTP and GDP respectively, primarily by drastically decreasing the nucleotide off-rates. The Mg2+ binding affinity to p25rab3A. [alpha 32P]GDP was determined to be about 4 microns using entrapment of [alpha-32P]GDP as a measure of Mg2+ binding. At a Mg2+ concentration of 11 mM. GTPase activity was rate-limited by the GDP off-rate. Surprisingly, at a Mg2+ concentration of 80 nM. GTPase activity was comparable with that in the presence of excess Mg2+. In this case, kcat. was rate-limiting. At Mg2+ concentrations below 10 nM there was no detectable GTPase activity, indicating that Mg2+ is required for the GTPase activity of p25rab3A.
Project description:The first steps in insulin action are binding of insulin to its receptor and activation of the insulin receptor kinase. As there is indirect evidence that further signal transduction might involve a guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein), we studied whether insulin modulates GTP binding to plasma membrane proteins of fat cells and skeletal muscle. We found that insulin rapidly increased (30 s) binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) in a dose dependent manner (0.03-2.0 nM). This effect was not altered by pertussis toxin, but it was abolished by cholera toxin treatment of fat cells. Scatchard analysis of the binding data showed that the increased GTP[S] binding is due to a decrease in the Kd for GTP from 100 nM to 50 nM. Furthermore, binding of GTP to these plasma membranes inhibited both the binding of 125I-insulin to the insulin receptor and the stimulation of the insulin receptor kinase, suggesting a feedback interaction between the insulin-stimulated GTP-binding site and the insulin receptor. In order to identify this insulin-stimulated GTP-binding site, plasma membranes were labelled with the photoreactive GTP analogue [alpha-32P]GTP gamma-azidoanilide. We found that insulin selectively stimulated GTP binding to a 40 kDa protein. In conclusion, in plasma membranes of fat cells and skeletal muscle, the insulin receptor interacts with a 40 kDa GTP-binding site. We speculate that this 40 kDa GTP-binding site might be a G-protein which is involved in insulin signal transmission.
Project description:Treatment of rat pituitary GH(4)C(1) cell membranes with calpain, a calcium-activated cysteine protease, increased adenylate cyclase activity, and this activity was inhibited by a calpain inhibitor, leupeptin. Calpain treatment potentiated the activity of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]), but did not attenuate MnCl(2) action on adenylate cyclase, suggesting that calpain acted at the G-protein level, rather than directly on adenylate cyclase. This calpain stimulation of adenylate cyclase was inhibited by an antibody raised against the C-terminal portion of G(s)alpha, but not by anti-G(i)2alpha or anti-Gbeta antibodies. Furthermore, it was shown that G(s)alpha is more susceptible to calpain-mediated proteolysis than G(i)2alpha or Gbeta. Therefore the stimulatory effect of calpain on adenylate cyclase is due to the cleavage of G(s)alpha in GH(4)C(1) cell membranes. Proteolysis of G(s)alpha by micro-calpain involved sequential cleavages at two sites, resulting in the generation of a 39 kDa fragment first, and then a 20 kDa fragment, from the C-terminus. Treatment of GH(4)C(1) cell membranes with cholera toxin increased the rate of cleavage. Cholera toxin treatment of intact GH(4)C(1) cells induced the translocation of calpain from the cytosol to the membranes, a hallmark of calpain activation. In addition, treatment of intact GH(4)C(1) cells with a calpain-specific inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Leu-leucinal, blocked the increased cAMP production and the down-regulation of G(s)alpha, which were produced by cholera toxin or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. These results suggest that calpain sustains adenylate cyclase in an active form through the cleavage of G(s)alpha to an active G(s)alpha fragment. This is a novel calpain-dependent activation mechanism of G(s)alpha and, thus, of adenylate cyclase in rat pituitary cells.
Project description:Noradrenaline (NA) stimulated the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from the [3H]AA-labelled rabbit platelets via alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, since the effect of NA was inhibited by yohimbine. The stimulatory effect of NA in digitonin-permeabilized platelets was completely dependent on the simultaneous presence of GTP and Ca2+. The NA- and thrombin-stimulated releases of AA were markedly decreased by the prior ADP-ribosylation of the permeabilized platelets with pertussis toxin. Antiserum directed against the pig brain Go (a GTP-binding protein of unknown function), recognizing both alpha 39 and beta 35,36 subunits, but not alpha 41, of pig brain, reacted with 41 kDa and 40 kDa bands, with not one of 39 kDa, in rabbit platelet membranes. Anti-Go antiserum inhibited guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate-, A1F4(-)-, NA- and thrombin-stimulated AA releases in the membranes. Although the effect of thrombin was inhibited by low concentrations of anti-Go antiserum, high concentrations of the antiserum was needed for inhibition of the NA effect. Antiserum directed against the pig brain G1 (inhibitory G-protein), recognizing both alpha 41 and beta 35,36 subunits, but not alpha 39, of pig brain, reacted with the 41 kDa band in platelets. Anti-G1 antiserum inhibited only the effect of NA. Reconstitution of the platelet membranes ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin with Go, not Gi, purified from pig brain restored the thrombin-stimulated release of AA. In contrast, reconstitution of those membranes with Gi, not Go, restored the NA-stimulated release of AA. These results indicate that different GTP-binding proteins, Gi- and Go-like proteins, may be involved in the mechanism of signal transduction from alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and thrombin receptors to phospholipase A2 in rabbit platelets.