Glycogenolytic effect of pancreastatin in isolated rat hepatocytes is mediated by a cyclic-AMP-independent Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism.
ABSTRACT: We have studied the effect of pig pancreastatin on glucose and lactate production in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Pancreastatin stimulated the rate of glucose output, whereas, in contrast with glucagon, it failed to modify the rate of lactate production. The effective concentration of pancreastatin was in the range 0.1-100 nM, with half-maximal rate close to 1 nM. The ability of pancreastatin to increase glucose output was abolished by chelation of the calcium in the medium. By itself, pancreastatin did not increase cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and had no influence on cAMP levels in glucagon-stimulated hepatocytes. Our results point out a possible role of pancreastatin in glycogenolysis. This appears to be mediated by a cAMP-independent Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism.
Project description:We describe here the stimulation by pancreastatin of 1,2-diacylglycerol production and protein kinase C activity in liver plasma membrane and isolated hepatocytes. The dose-dependency for the stimulation of both processes was similar to the recently described pattern of glucose output and cytosolic Ca2+ transients produced by pancreastatin. The time course of diacylglycerol production at 30 degrees C showed a rapid increase within 5 min, reaching a maximum at 10 min. Protein kinase C from hepatocytes was dependent on Ca2+ and phosphatidylserine. Neither the pancreastatin-stimulated diacylglycerol production nor the activation of protein kinase C was affected by pretreatment with pertussis toxin. However, the presence of GTP partially inhibited this pancreastatin stimulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol in a dose-dependent manner, although GTP alone stimulates diacylglycerol accumulation. This inhibitory effect of GTP on pancreastatin stimulation of diacylglycerol synthesis was completely abolished by the pretreatment with pertussis toxin. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that pancreastatin stimulates the formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol by a pertussis-toxin-independent mechanism, which may be responsible for the pancreastatin activation of protein kinase C.
Project description:Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, loaded with the Ca2+ probe Fluo-3, responded to homologous pancreastatin with a sudden increase in free cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) as well as glucose release. Addition of rat pancreastatin (0.1 microM) to hepatocytes resulted in an increase in [Ca2+]i from 150 nM to 700 nM, which declined back to nearly basal values within 2-3 min. Half-maximal and maximal effects were observed at 0.3 and 100 nM pancreastatin respectively. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by vasopressin and noradrenaline was very similar in extent (from 150 to 800 nM) to that produced by pancreastatin. Neither the alpha 1-adrenergic blocker prazosin nor the vasopressin antagonist V1 modified the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by pancreastatin. Pig pancreastatin and its 33-49 C-terminal fragment produced about 65 and 75% of the effect of homologous pancreastatin respectively. Glucose production correlated with changes in [Ca2+]i in the same order of potency: vasopressin > rat pancreastatin > pig 33-49 pancreastatin > pig 1-49 pancreastatin. The effect of pancreastatin on [Ca2+]i was decreased by 50% when Ca2+ was omitted from the medium, and totally abolished when hepatocytes were depleted of internal Ca2+ stores by preincubation without Ca2+ and with 2 mM EGTA. When hepatocytes were preincubated for 5 min with PMA, the effects of ATP and noradrenaline were prevented, and those of vasopressin and pancreastatin remained unchanged. The pretreatment of hepatocytes with pertussis toxin diminished the response to pancreastatin and vasopressin. These results suggest that pancreastatin is a new Ca(2+)-mobilizing glycogenolytic hormone acting through a specific receptor which may involve both pertussis-toxin-sensitive and -insensitive GTP-binding regulatory proteins.
Project description:Dysregulated glucagon drives hyperfunction in hepatic glucose output, which is the main cause of persistent hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Berberine (Zhang et al., 2010) has been used as a hypoglycemic agent, yet the mechanism by which BBR inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains incompletely understood. In this study, we treated diabetic mice with BBR, tested blood glucose levels, and then performed insulin, glucose lactate, and glucagon tolerance tests. Intracellular cAMP levels in hepatocytes were determined by ELISA, hepatic gluconeogenetic genes were assayed by RT-qPCR, and the phosphorylation of CREB, which is the transcriptional factor controlling the expression of gluconeogenetic genes, was detected by western blot. BBR reduced blood glucose levels, improved insulin and glucose tolerance, and suppressed lactate- and glucagon-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis in ob/ob and STZ-induced diabetic mice. Importantly, BBR blunted glucagon-induced glucose production and gluconeogenic gene expression in hepatocytes, presumably through reducing cAMP, which resulted in the phosphorylation of CREB. By utilizing a cAMP analogue, adenylate cyclase (AC), to activate cAMP synthetase, and an inhibitor of the cAMP degradative enzyme, phosphodiesterase (PDE), we revealed that BBR accelerates intracellular cAMP degradation. BBR reduces the intracellular cAMP level by activating PDE, thus blocking activation of downstream CREB and eventually downregulating gluconeogenic genes to restrain hepatic glucose production.
Project description:We have studied the relationship between the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on glycogen metabolism and its effect on glycolysis, in rat hepatocyte suspensions. Although 10 nM glucagon or 10 microM adrenaline increased glycogen degradation by more than 120%, 10 nM EGF increased glycogenolysis by less than 20% in hepatocytes incubated in glucose-free medium. Both glucagon and adrenaline increased phosphorylase a activity by more than 130%; EGF increased this activity by about 30%. Under basal conditions, 65% of the glucosyl residues were released as free glucose and about 30% ended up as C3 molecules (lactate and pyruvate). Both glucagon and adrenaline decreased the proportion of glucosyl units that rendered glycolysis end-products (to 2% for glucagon and 6% for adrenaline) and increased the proportion that ended up as free glucose (to 94% and 88% of the glucosyl residues for glucagon and adrenaline respectively). EGF increased the production of both free glucose and lactate+pyruvate, but the proportion of glucosyl residues that ended up as free glucose or glycolysis end-products was unchanged. In glycogen-depleted hepatocytes incubated in the presence of 25 mM glucose, EGF affected neither glycogen deposition nor glycolysis. EGF increased cytosolic free Ca2+, and neomycin decreased both the Ca2+ signal and the glycogenolytic effect. In conclusion, our results indicate that the effect of EGF on glycolysis is secondary to the Ca(2+)-mediated stimulation of glycogenolysis in rat hepatocyte suspensions.
Project description:1. The effects of changes in the cytoplasmic [NADH]/[NAD+] ratio on the efficacy of glucagon to alter rates of metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes were examined. 2. Under reduced conditions (with 10mM-lactate), 10nM-glucagon stimulated both gluconeogenesis and urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes from 48h-starved rats; under oxidized conditions (with 10mM-pyruvate), 10nM-glucagon had no effect on either of these rates. 3. The ability of glucagon to alter the concentration of 3':5'-cyclic AMP and the rates of glucose output, glycogen breakdown and glycolysis in cells from fed rats were each affected by a change in the extracellular [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratio; minimal effects of glucagon occurred at low [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratios. 4. Dose-response curves for glucagon-mediated changes in cyclic AMP concentration and glucose output indicated that under oxidized conditions the ability of glucagon to alter each parameter was decreased without affecting the concentration of hormone at which half-maximal effects occurred. 5. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (0.05 mM) significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of pyruvate on glucagon-stimulated glucose output. 6. For exogenously added cyclic [3H]AMP(0.1 mM), oxidized conditions decreased the stimulatory effect on glucose output as well as the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP attained, but did not alter the amount of cyclic [3H]AMP taken up. 7. The effects of lactate, pyruvate, NAD+ and NADH on cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activities of rat hepatocytes were examined. 8. NADH (0.01--1 MM) inhibited the low-Km enzyme, particularly that which was associated with the plasma membrane. 9. The inhibition of membrane-bound cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase by NADH was specific, reversible and resulted in a decrease in the maximal velocity of the enzyme. 10. It is proposed that regulation of the membrane-bound low-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase by nicotinamide nucleotides provides the molecular basis for the effect of redox state on the hormonal control of hepatocyte metabolism by glucagon.
Project description:During cycles of fasting and feeding, liver function is regulated by both transcriptional and post-translational events. Regulated protein degradation has recently emerged as a key mechanism to control abundance of specific hepatic proteins under different nutritional conditions. As glucagon signaling through cAMP and PKA is central to glucose output during fasting, we hypothesized that this signaling pathway may also regulate ubiquitin ligases in the fasted state. Here we show that fasting stimuli promote expression of the short isoform of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4l in primary mouse hepatocytes. Nedd4l-short mRNA and NEDD4L (short isoform) protein accumulate in glucagon-treated primary mouse hepatocytes and in liver tissues during fasting. We identified a functional cAMP response element in the alternate Nedd4l-short promoter; mutation of this element blunts cAMP-induced expression of a Nedd4l reporter construct. CREB occupies the endogenous Nedd4l locus near this element. CREB and its co-activator CRTC2, both activated by fasting stimuli, contribute to glucagon-stimulated Nedd4l-short expression in primary hepatocytes. siRNA-mediated Nedd4l depletion in primary hepatocytes did not affect gluconeogenic gene expression, glucose output or glycogen synthesis. Our findings reveal a new mechanism of Nedd4l transcriptional regulation in liver cells.
Project description:The influence of the inflammatory mediators interleukin 1 beta (IL1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) on the glucagon-induced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) and on glucose formation via gluconeogenesis was investigated in cultured rat hepatocytes. Gene expression was monitored by determination of mRNA levels and of enzyme activity. Glucose formation was estimated with newly synthesized radioactive glucose derived from a radiolabelled lactate precursor. Glucagon (0.1 or 1 nM) induced PCK mRNA transiently to a maximum 2 h after its application. In the presence of recombinant human (rh) IL1 beta or rhTNF alpha the increase in PCK mRNA levels was totally inhibited at 0.1 nM glucagon, whereas at 1 nM glucagon the maximal increase was inhibited by only 25%. Glucagon (0.1 or 1 nM) induced PCK activity to a maximum after 4 h (4-fold and 6-fold over prestimulatory activity respectively). In the presence of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha the maximal increase was inhibited by approx. 50%. Addition of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha 2 h after glucagon, at the maximal glucagon-induced PCK mRNA levels, accelerated the decay of PCK mRNA. Glucagon (1 or 10 nM) [corrected] increased glucose formation from lactate by 1.3-fold and 1.7-fold respectively over unstimulated rates. In the presence of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha this increase in glucose formation was inhibited by 60-90%. At 0.1 nM, glucagon doubled the intracellular cAMP concentration. This increase was prevented by rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha. At 1 nM, glucagon increased cAMP concentrations by 10-fold. In the presence of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha this increase was inhibited by 70%. From the results it is suggested that rhIL1 beta and rhTNF alpha prevented glucagon-stimulated PCK gene expression and gluconeogenesis at least in part by inhibition of the glucagon-stimulated increase in cAMP concentrations.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Enhanced glucagon signaling and hepatic glucose production (HGP) can account for hyperglycemia in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the enhanced HGP in these patients are not fully understood. Here, we identify Pur? as a positive regulator of HGP and study its molecular mechanisms in the regulation of HGP both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS:Adenovirus-mediated knockdown or overexpression of Pur? was performed in either primary hepatocytes or the livers of db/db mice. Glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and HGP were determined by glucose, insulin, and lactate tolerance tests, respectively. Pur?/ADCY6 protein levels, glucagon signaling (p-CREB/CREB), and insulin signaling (p-Akt/Akt) were measured by immunoblotting. Gene expression was measured by RNA-seq and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to study the interaction between Pur? and the Adcy6 promoter. RESULTS:Pur? was abnormally elevated in obese mice and was also increased under fasting conditions or via the glucagon signaling pathway, which promoted HGP by increasing Adcy6 expression. Liver-specific knockdown of Pur? in db/db mice significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by suppressing the glucagon/ADCY6/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Consistent with this observation, the knockdown of Pur? also inhibited glucose production in isolated primary hepatocytes by inhibiting the glucagon/ADCY6/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, whereas the overexpression of Pur? promoted glucose production by activating this signaling pathway. Mechanistically, Pur? directly binds to the promoter of the Adcy6 gene and thereby promotes its transcription. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, these results illustrate a new model in which Pur? functions to regulate the glucagon/ADCY6/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway to help maintain glucose homeostasis.
Project description:Serum neurokinin A, chromogranin A, serotonin, and pancreastatin reflect tumor burden in neuroendocrine tumors. We sought to determine whether their levels correlate with survival in surgically managed small bowel (SBNETs) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs).Clinical data were collected with Institutional Review Board approval for patients undergoing surgery at one center. Progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival were from the time of surgery. Event times were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Preoperative and postoperative laboratory values were tested for correlation with outcomes. A multivariate Cox model adjusted for confounders.Included were 98 SBNETs and 78 PNETs. Median follow-up was 3.8 years; 62 % had metastatic disease. SBNETs had lower median PFS than PNETs (2.0 vs. 5.6 years; p < 0.01). Median OS was 10.5 years for PNETs and was not reached for SBNETs. Preoperative neurokinin A did not correlate with PFS or OS. Preoperative serotonin correlated with PFS but not OS. Higher levels of preoperative chromogranin A and pancreastatin showed significant correlation with worse PFS and OS (p < 0.05). After multivariate adjustment for confounders, preoperative and postoperative pancreastatin remained independently predictive of worse PFS and OS (p < 0.05). Whether pancreastatin normalized postoperatively further discriminated outcomes. Median PFS was 1.7 years in patients with elevated preoperative pancreastatin versus 6.5 years in patients with normal levels (p < 0.001).Higher pancreastatin levels are significantly associated with worse PFS and OS in SBNETs and PNETs. This effect is independent of age, primary tumor site, and presence of nodal or metastatic disease. Pancreastatin provides valuable prognostic information and identifies surgical patients at high risk of recurrence who could benefit most from novel therapies.
Project description:Glucagon regulates glucose homeostasis by controlling glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Exaggerated and dysregulated glucagon secretion can exacerbate hyperglycemia contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, it is important to understand how glucagon receptor (GCGR) activity and signaling is controlled in hepatocytes. To better understand this, we sought to identify proteins that interact with the GCGR to affect ligand-dependent receptor activation. A Flag-tagged human GCGR was recombinantly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and GCGR complexes were isolated by affinity purification (AP). Complexes were then analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS), and protein-GCGR interactions were validated by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and Western blot. This was followed by studies in primary hepatocytes to assess the effects of each interactor on glucagon-dependent glucose production and intracellular cAMP accumulation, and then in immortalized CHO and liver cell lines to further examine cell signaling. Thirty-three unique interactors were identified from the AP-MS screening of GCGR expressing CHO cells in both glucagon liganded and unliganded states. These studies revealed a particularly robust interaction between GCGR and 5 proteins, further validated by Co-IP, Western blot and qPCR. Overexpression of selected interactors in mouse hepatocytes indicated that two interactors, LDLR and TMED2, significantly enhanced glucagon-stimulated glucose production, while YWHAB inhibited glucose production. This was mirrored with glucagon-stimulated cAMP production, with LDLR and TMED2 enhancing and YWHAB inhibiting cAMP accumulation. To further link these interactors to glucose production, key gluconeogenic genes were assessed. Both LDLR and TMED2 stimulated while YWHAB inhibited PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression. In the present study, we have probed the GCGR interactome and found three novel GCGR interactors that control glucagon-stimulated glucose production by modulating cAMP accumulation and genes that control gluconeogenesis. These interactors may be useful targets to control glucose homeostasis in T2D.