Activation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase by pp60v-src is an indirect effect.
ABSTRACT: 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2) catalyses the synthesis of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), a potent stimulator of glycolysis. In chick-embryo fibroblasts, PFK-2 activity and Fru-2,6-P2 concentration increase upon transformation by Rous sarcoma virus. We show here that the increase in PFK-2 activity required more than 2 h after shifting fibroblasts infected with a thermosensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus from the restrictive to the permissive temperature. Pretreatment of the cells with actinomycin D prevented this increase in PFK-2 activity, suggesting a requirement for RNA synthesis. However, the increase in PFK-2 activity did not correspond to an increase in immunoprecipitable PFK-2. Moreover, the thermostability of PFK-2 and the affinity of this enzyme for its substrate fructose 6-phosphate were increased upon transformation by Rous sarcoma virus. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, prevented the increase in PFK-2 activity brought about by the shift to the permissive temperature. This, together with a comparison of the effects of phorbol esters on PFK-2 activity, suggests that pp60v-src stimulates, via protein kinase C, the transcription of a gene whose products is a distinct PFK-2 isoenzyme or a protein that activates PFK-2.
Project description:1. Peritoneal macrophages were prepared from control, Escherichia coli-treated and triamcinolone acetonide-treated rats. Control and E. coli-treated rats produced resident and activated macrophages respectively. Glycolysis in these cells was studied by the fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) content, lactate release and 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1) and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2) activities. 2. In activated macrophages, lactate release and Fru-2,6-P2 content were increased several-fold compared with those in resident cells. Moreover, the response of these parameters to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in activated macrophages was greater than for resident cells. 3. PFK-2 activity was moderately increased (about 3-fold), but PFK-1 activity was increased 5-fold in activated macrophages compared with resident cells. Partially purified preparations of PFK-1 were sensitive to Fru-2,6-P2, with K0.5 about 0.25 microM in both control and activated cells. However, the Vmax. of PFK-1 from activated cells was increased. In addition, AMP stimulated PFK-1, but the kinetic pattern was different from that described for Fru-2,6-P2. Moreover there was no difference in the stimulation by AMP of PFK-1 from resident and activated cells. 4. Fru-2,6-P2 content and lactate release in macrophages from triamcinolone acetonide-treated rats were decreased in both resident and activated cells. Also, the glucocorticoid inhibited PFK-1 and PFK-2 activities in both resident and activated macrophages. PFK-1 from triamcinolone acetonide-treated rats was not stimulated by Fru-2,6-P2, whereas the effect of AMP was unchanged. The effects of glucocorticoid seem to be specific for phagocytic cells, since the glucocorticoid treatment increased PFK-1 and PFK-2 activities in liver.
Project description:The effect of treatment of rats with bacterial endotoxin on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) metabolism was investigated in isolated liver cells prepared from 18 h-starved animals. The results obtained support the hypothesis that a stimulation of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1) activity and an inhibition of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) may be one mechanism underlying the inhibition of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate by endotoxin. We suggest that the stimulation of PFK-1 and inhibition of Fru-1,6-P2ase activity is the result of a 2-3-fold increase in Fru-2,6-P2. The latter is not due to changes in the total activity or phosphorylation state of the bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2)/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, but appears to be the result of a decrease in the cytosolic concentration of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), an inhibitor of PFK-2 activity. The effect of endotoxin is resistant to the presence of glucagon, which has comparable effects in cells prepared from both control and endotoxin-treated animals. The mechanism by which endotoxin treatment of the rat decreases PEP and gluconeogenesis remains to be established. However, it does not involve alterations in either the total activity or the phosphorylation state of pyruvate kinase, nor does it involve increased flux through this enzyme in the intact cell, which is in fact decreased in this model of septic shock. It is suggested that the decreased flux may result from a lower rate of formation of PEP, suggesting that the prime lesion in sepsis is an inhibition of one or more of the steps leading to PEP formation.
Project description:The roles of Arg-104 and Arg-225 located in the 2-kinase domain of the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2)/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase-2) have been studied by site-directed mutagenesis. In recombinant rat liver PFK-2/FBPase-2, mutation of Arg-225 to Ser increased the Km of PFK-2 for fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6-P) 7-fold at pH 6 and decreased PFK-2 activity at suboptimal substrate concentrations between pH 6 and 9.5. The mutation had no effect on the Vmax of PFK-2 or on the Km of PFK-2 for MgATP. The mutation also increased the Vmax. of FBPase-2 4-fold without changing the Km for Fru-2,6-P2 or IC50 of Fru-6-P. These findings are in agreement with a previous study [Rider and Hue (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 207, 967-972] on the protection by Fru-6-P of the labelling of Arg-225 by phenylglyoxal, and suggest that Arg-225 participates in Fru-6-P binding. In recombinant rat muscle PFK-2/FBPase-2, mutation of Arg-104 to Ser increased the Km for Fru-6-P 60-fold, increased the IC50 of citrate, increased the Vmax. 1.5-3-fold at pH 8.5 and altered the pH profile of PFK-2 activity. It did not affect the Km of PFK-2 for MgATP. The mutation also decreased the Vmax. of FBPase-2 3-fold, increased the Km for Fru-2,6-P2 70-fold and increased the IC50 of Fru-6-P at least 300-fold. Although the dimeric structure was maintained in the mutant, its PFK-2 activity was more sensitive towards inactivation by guanidinium chloride than the wild-type enzyme activity. The findings indicate that Arg-104 is involved in Fru-6-P binding in the PFK-2 domain and that it might also bind citrate. Structural changes resulting from the mutation might be responsible for the changes in kinetic properties of FBPase-2.
Project description:The fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) content and intracellular concentration of lactating mammary gland was measured in fed, starved and re-fed rats. There was little or no change on starvation, and about 1.5-fold rise on re-feeding, contrasting with estimated glycolytic changes of about 10-fold. The 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK-1) activity of mammary extracts was highly sensitive to added Fru-2,6-P2 under all conditions examined, and appeared to approach saturation at physiological concentrations of this effector. The activity of mammary PFK-1 measured under optimal and 'physiological' conditions suggested that this enzyme operates in vivo at about 24% of maximal rate, and is likely to be an important rate-limiting factor in mammary glycolysis.
Project description:The concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and the activity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase are increased after infection of chick-embryo fibroblasts with the Rous sarcoma virus, or with a temperature-sensitive mutant of this virus at the permissive, but not at the non-permissive, temperature. This is observed after transformation by retroviruses carrying either the v-src or v-fps, but not the v-mil and/or v-myc, oncogenes. Comparison of the effects of the Rous sarcoma virus with those of phorbol myristate acetate on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate suggests that both result from the stimulation of a step which is rate-limiting for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activation and which is also controlled by protein kinase C.
Project description:Fru-2,6-P2 (fructose 2,6-bisphosphate) is a signal molecule that controls glycolysis. Since its discovery more than 20 years ago, inroads have been made towards the understanding of the structure-function relationships in PFK-2 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase)/FBPase-2 (fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase), the homodimeric bifunctional enzyme that catalyses the synthesis and degradation of Fru-2,6-P2. The FBPase-2 domain of the enzyme subunit bears sequence, mechanistic and structural similarity to the histidine phosphatase family of enzymes. The PFK-2 domain was originally thought to resemble bacterial PFK-1 (6-phosphofructo-1-kinase), but this proved not to be correct. Molecular modelling of the PFK-2 domain revealed that, instead, it has the same fold as adenylate kinase. This was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. A PFK-2/FBPase-2 sequence in the genome of one prokaryote, the proteobacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, could be the result of horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryote distantly related to all other organisms, possibly a protist. This, together with the presence of PFK-2/FBPase-2 genes in trypanosomatids (albeit with possibly only one of the domains active), indicates that fusion of genes initially coding for separate PFK-2 and FBPase-2 domains might have occurred early in evolution. In the enzyme homodimer, the PFK-2 domains come together in a head-to-head like fashion, whereas the FBPase-2 domains can function as monomers. There are four PFK-2/FBPase-2 isoenzymes in mammals, each coded by a different gene that expresses several isoforms of each isoenzyme. In these genes, regulatory sequences have been identified which account for their long-term control by hormones and tissue-specific transcription factors. One of these, HNF-6 (hepatocyte nuclear factor-6), was discovered in this way. As to short-term control, the liver isoenzyme is phosphorylated at the N-terminus, adjacent to the PFK-2 domain, by PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase), leading to PFK-2 inactivation and FBPase-2 activation. In contrast, the heart isoenzyme is phosphorylated at the C-terminus by several protein kinases in different signalling pathways, resulting in PFK-2 activation.
Project description:Kinetic properties of phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK2) and regulation of glycolysis by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and insulin were investigated in highly glycolytic HT29 colon cancer cells. PFK2 was found to be inhibited by citrate and, to a lesser extent, by phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP, but to be insensitive to inhibition by sn-glycerol phosphate. From these kinetic data, PFK2 from HT29 cells appears different from the liver form, but resembles somewhat the heart isoenzyme. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) levels, glucose consumption and lactate production are increased in a dose-dependent manner in HT29 cells treated with PMA or insulin. The increase in Fru-2,6-P2 can be related to an increase in the Vmax. of PFK2, persisting after the enzyme has been precipitated with poly(ethylene glycol), without change in the Km for fructose 6-phosphate. The most striking effects of PMA and insulin on Fru-2,6-P2 production are observed after long-term treatment (24 h) and are abolished by actinomycin, cycloheximide and puromycin, suggesting that protein synthesis is involved. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and PMA on glucose consumption, lactate production, Fru-2,6-P2 levels and PFK2 activity are additive, and the effect of insulin on Fru-2,6-P2 production is not altered by pre-treatment of the cells with the phorbol ester. This suggests that these effects are exerted by separate mechanisms.
Project description:D-Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase (EC 18.104.22.168) [Fru(1,6)Pase] was isolated from human muscle in an electrophoretically homogeneous form, free of aldolase contamination. The enzyme is inhibited by the substrate [fructose (1,6)-bisphosphate]. Km is 0.77 microM; Kis is 90 microM. The fructose-2,6-bisphosphate [Fru(2,6)P2], a regulator of gluconeogenesis, inhibits human muscle Fru(1,6)Pase with Ki = 0.13 microM. To determine Km, Kis and Ki the integrated method was used. AMP is an allosteric inhibitor of Fru(1,6)Pase. As with other mammalian isoenzymes, the human muscle enzyme is more strongly inhibited by AMP than is the liver isoenzyme [Dzugaj and Kochman (1980) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 614, 407-412]. Both of the inhibitors [AMP and Fru(2,6)P2] act synergistically on human muscle Fru(1,6)Pase. Ki for Fru(2,6)P2 determined in the presence of 0.4 microM AMP was 0.028 microM. The human muscle enzyme, like other mammalian Fru(1,6)Pases, requires Mg2+ for its activity. The Ka for magnesium was 232 microM, and h (Hill coefficient) = 2.0.
Project description:The three-dimensional structure of the complex between fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 22.214.171.124) and the physiological inhibitor beta-D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), an analogue of the substrate (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate), has been refined at 2.6-A resolution to a residual error (R) factor of 0.171. The rms deviations are 0.012 A and 2.88 degrees from ideal geometries of bond lengths and angles, respectively. The Fru-2,6-P2 occupies the active sites of both polypeptides C1 and C2 in the crystallographic asymmetric unit in the space group P3(2)21. The furanose and 6-phosphate of Fru-2,6-P2 are located at the fructose 6-phosphate site established earlier, and the 2-phosphate binds to the OH of Ser-124, the NH3+ of Lys-274, and the backbone NH of Gly-122 and Ser-123. Backbone displacements of 1 A occur for residues from Asp-121 to Asn-125. Model building of substrate alpha-D-Fru-1,6-P2 based on the binding structure of Fru-2,6-P2 in the active site shows interactions of the 1-phosphate with the backbone NH of Ser-123 and Ser-124. In the AMP sites, density peaks attributed to Fru-2,6-P2 are seen in C1 (and C4) but not in C2 (and C3). This minor binding of Fru-2,6-P2 to AMP sites partially explains the synergistic interaction between AMP and Fru-2,6-P2 and the protection of the AMP site from acetylation in the presence of Fru-2,6-P2. In the synergistic interaction between AMP and Fru-2,6-P2, inhibition of catalytic metal binding by the presence of Fru-2,6-P2 at the active site, and propagation of structural changes over some 28 A along beta-strand B3 from residues 121 to 125 in the active site to Lys-112 and Tyr-113 in the AMP site, as well as movement of helices across the interdimeric interfaces, may affect AMP binding and the subsequent R-to-T transition. In addition, occupancy of Fru-2,6-P2 at the AMP sites of C1 and C4 may favor binding of AMP to the remaining unoccupied AMP sites and thus promote the accompanying quaternary conformational changes.
Project description:Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) are believed to be of major importance for hepatic regeneration after liver damage. We have studied the effect of these growth factors on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) levels and the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase) in rat hepatocyte primary cultures. Our results demonstrate that HGF activates the expression of the 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene by increasing the levels of its mRNA. As a consequence of this activation, the amount of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase protein and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity increased, which was reflected by a rise in Fru-2,6-P2 levels. In contrast, TGF-beta decreased the levels of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase mRNA, which led to a decrease in the amount of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase protein and Fru-2,6-P2. The different actions of HGF and TGF-beta on 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression are concomitant with their effect on cell proliferation. Here we show that, in the absence of hormones, primary cultures of hepatocytes express the F-type isoenzyme. In addition, HGF increases the expression of this isoenzyme, and dexamethasone activates the L-type isoform. HGF and TGF-beta were able to inhibit this activation.