Biosynthesis of paf-acether. Paf-acether but not leukotriene C4 production is impaired in cultured macrophages.
ABSTRACT: After adherence for 24 or 48 h mouse peritoneal macrophages, upon a zymosan challenge, synthesized 114 +/- 55 and 82 +/- 31 pmol of paf-acether (paf)/mg of protein respectively, as compared with 513 +/- 195 pmol of paf/mg of protein in 2 h-adherent macrophages (means +/- S.D., n = 10). By contrast, 24 h- and 48 h-adherent macrophages exposed to zymosan produced more leukotriene C4 (2.7 +/- 1.1 and 1.4 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg of protein respectively, n = 5) than did 2 h-adherent macrophages (0.5 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg of protein, n = 5). Paf production was not altered when 2 h- and 24 h-adherent cells were cultured and/or stimulated in the presence of 5 microM-indomethacin, 10 microM-nordihydroguaiaretic acid or 100 microM-BW755C as compared with untreated cells. These results indirectly exclude the regulation of paf production by arachidonic acid metabolites. We investigated the efficiency of the enzymic steps which govern paf synthesis. We showed that the anabolic process was not impaired since (1) the amounts of alkylacylglycerophosphocholine and lyso-paf were similar in 2 h-, 24 h- and 48 h-adherent macrophages; (2) adding synthetic lyso-paf or acetyl-CoA to intact cells did not increase paf production in zymosan-stimulated 24 h- and 48 h-adherent macrophages; (3) the basal level of acetyltransferase was comparable in 2 h-, 24 h- and 48 h-adherent macrophages and in all cases was increased by 2-3 times upon zymosan challenge. We also showed that impaired paf production in 24 h- and 48 h-cultured macrophages was not due to the nature of the stimulus used to induce its synthesis.
Project description:Antigen stimulation of cultured bone-marrow-derived mast cells sensitized with specific monoclonal IgE induced cell degranulation and paf-acether (paf; 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) biosynthesis via the deacylation/acetylation (remodelling) pathway. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 20-100 ng/ml) triggered only acetyltransferase activation, without concomitant lyso-paf (1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and paf formation. A low concentration of PMA (5 ng/ml) potentiated antigen-induced degranulation, acetyltransferase activation and paf formation by about 30% but did not change the level of lyso-paf formation. Stimulation of mast cells with antigen increased intracellular Ca2+ from 61 to 269 nM, whereas no modification of Ca2+ influx was observed when cells were pretreated with PMA (5 ng/ml) before antigen challenge. Gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection revealed that the composition of paf formed by cells stimulated by antigen alone was similar to that of paf formed by PMA-primed antigen-stimulated cells; 84 +/- 8% and 79 +/- 2% (means +/- S.E.M., n = 3) of molecules respectively bore the C16:0 alkyl chain moiety, with the remainder bearing essentially C18:0 molecules. Overnight treatment of mast cells with PMA (200 ng/ml) caused disappearance of protein kinase C (PKC) from both cytosol and membranes. When such cells were stimulated further with antigen, they failed to degranulate, and acetyltransferase activation, paf production and lyso-paf production were decreased by 33 +/- 11%, 57 +/- 4% and 96 +/- 3% respectively (n = 3 or 5). The PKC inhibitors chlorpromazine and staurosporine inhibited to a significant extent both cell degranulation and all steps leading to paf biosynthesis. Our data suggest that PKC-dependent mechanisms are operational during cell degranulation and contribute only in part to paf biosynthesis. The PKC-dependent signal directly generated by PMA or diacylglycerol is not sufficient to trigger the full cell response, which is obtained only through receptor-operated antigen challenge.
Project description:The role of Ca2+ in the activation of the enzyme lyso-(platelet-activating factor): acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase was studied in rat peritoneal macrophages in response to complement-coated zymosan particles and ionophore A23187. By using Ca2+-containing buffers, a threshold concentration of extracellular Ca2+ above 1 microM was found to be necessary to observe the activation of the enzyme in response to zymosan. By contrast, a significant role of intracellular Ca2+ in this process could be ruled out, since the putative intracellular calcium-transport antagonist TMB-8 [8-(NN-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate] did not inhibit the activation of the acetyltransferase induced by zymosan in the presence of extracellular Ca+. The link between acetyltransferase activation and extracellular Ca2+ transport was studied by measuring Ca2+ uptake in response to the stimuli. Zymosan particles induced a rapid increment in cell-associated Ca2+ which correlated well with the extent of acetyltransferase activation (r = 0.91) and with the release of platelet-activating factor (r = 0.95) in response to different doses of zymosan. Cellular Ca2+ efflux in response to zymosan particles was also measured and found to be increased, as compared with controls, when the activation of the acetyltransferase declined. In short, the data suggest that the entry of extracellular Ca2+ into the cell is a crucial event in the activation of acetyltransferase and, thereby, in the formation of platelet-activating factor in rat peritoneal macrophages.
Project description:In the present study we have investigated the effect of changes in the concentration of cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) on the deacetylation-reacylation of PAF-acether (alkylacetylglycerophosphocholine, alkylacetyl-GPC) by rabbit platelets. Washed platelets were incubated with alkyl[3H]acetyl-GPC ([3H]acetyl-PAF) or [3H]alkylacetyl-GPC ([3H]alkyl-PAF) and [Ca2+]i was subsequently elevated by the addition of the ionophore A23187 or thrombin. The catabolism of PAF-acether was studied by measuring the release of [3H]acetate or the formation of [3H]alkylacyl-GPC. The ionophore inhibited the release of [3H]acetate and the formation of [3H]alkylacyl-GPC with no accumulation of lyso-[3H]PAF, indicating that the deacetylation of PAF-acether was blocked. The effect of ionophore on the deacetylation of PAF-acether was parallel with the increase of [Ca2+]i and could be reversed by the addition of EGTA. In contrast with the prolonged inhibition evoked by ionophore, thrombin, which induced a transient elevation of [Ca2+]i, merely delayed the deacetylation of PAF-acether. Since intact platelets failed to convert exogenous lyso-PAF, the effect of Ca2+ on its acylation was investigated by using platelet homogenates. These experiments showed that the acylation of lyso-PAF was inhibited by the exogenously added Ca2+, with a maximum effect at 1 mM. When the formation of endogenous lyso-PAF from the labelled pool of alkylacyl-GPC was examined, a prolonged increase in the concentration of lyso-PAF with a parallel and equally prolonged decrease in the cellular level of alkylacyl-GPC were observed after the addition of ionophore to intact platelets. The addition of EGTA reversed the effect of ionophore, thus permitting reacylation of lyso-PAF. In contrast, only a transient change in the level of lyso-PAF and alkylacyl-GPC was evoked by the addition of thrombin. Therefore we conclude that the inhibitory effect of Ca2+ on the deacetylation-reacylation of PAF-acether may have an important role in the regulation of its biosynthesis.
Project description:Theophylline and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (MIX), compounds that block eicosanoid formation and modulate phospholipase A2 activity, inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the formation of both leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) in response to ionophore A23187. Theophylline and MIX lacked any inhibitory effect on acetyl-CoA: lyso-PAF acetyltransferase activity, which is the rate-limiting step for PAF biosynthesis in PMN. The effect of theophylline and MIX on PAF formation could be reversed by incubating the cells in the presence of 1-10 microM exogenous lyso-PAF. Incubation of PMN homogenates in the presence of unsaturated non-esterified fatty acids resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of the acetyltransferase. This effect was linked to the presence of a free carboxyl group, since both arachidonic acid methyl ester and palmitoyl-arachidonoyl phosphatidylcholine lacked inhibitory activity. This inhibitory effect was also dependent on the number of double bonds, since arachidonic acid (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) displayed maximal effect. Kinetic analysis showed that the effect of arachidonic acid was consistent with competitive inhibition, with a Ki value of about 19 microM. Oxidative metabolites of arachidonic acid showed a lesser inhibitory effect with the following order of potency: arachidonic acid greater than 15-HETE (15-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid) greater than LTB4 greater than 5-HETE (5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid) greater than lipoxin A4. Examination of enzymes involved in CoA-dependent acylation revealed a low activity of both arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase and arachidonoyl-CoA: lyso-PAF arachidonoyltransferase. These data indicate a strong influence on PAF biosynthesis of the products of the phospholipase A2 reaction, with lyso-PAF disposal being a critical event for PAF formation, and unsaturated fatty acids acting as feed-back inhibitors. The conversion of arachidonic acid via oxidative metabolism into less active inhibitors of acetyl-CoA:lyso-PAF acetyltransferase seems to be an additional mechanism of modulation of this enzyme activity, linked to the function of lipoxygenases. Finally, the enzyme activities involved in arachidonoyl-CoA-dependent acylation of lyso-PAF show a low efficiency in capturing arachidonic acid.
Project description:1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent inducer of inflammation, and we have shown that this latter effect is mediated through endothelial cell (EC) PAF synthesis. Since the phospholipid remodelling pathway enzymes (CoA-independent transacylase, CoA-IT; phospholipase A2, PLA2; and lyso-PAF acetyltransferase, lyso-PAF-AT) may participate in PAF synthesis, we assessed their contribution to VEGF-induced PAF synthesis in bovine aortic EC (BAEC) and human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC). 2. VEGF enhanced BAEC and HUVEC PAF synthesis by up to 28 and 4 fold above basal levels respectively. 3. A pretreatment with a CoA-IT and lyso-PAF-AT inhibitor (Sanguinarin; 500 nM) blocked VEGF-induced PAF synthesis by 95%, a specific CoA-IT inhibitor (SKF45905; 10 - 50 microM) was without effect, confirming the crucial role of the PLA2 and lyso-PAF-AT. 4. Treatment with secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) inhibitors which have been shown to inhibit both groups IIA and V sPLA2 (SB203347; 10 microM and LY311727; 100 microM) blocked EC PAF synthesis by up to 90%, whereas selective inhibition of group IIA sPLA2 (LY311727; 1 microM) had no significant effect. 5. RT - PCR and Western blot analyses demonstrated the presence of group V sPLA2 whereas group IIA sPLA2 was undetected in EC. 6. Treatment with cytosolic and calcium-independent PLA2 inhibitors (Arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone, Bromoenol lactone, Methyl arachydonyl fluorophosphate, up to 50 microM) did not prevent but rather potentiated the VEGF effect on EC PAF synthesis. 7. These results provide evidence that with VEGF activation of EC cells, the group V sPLA2 provides substrate for EC PAF formation.
Project description:Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent pro-inflammatory phospholipid mediator. In response to extracellular stimuli, PAF is rapidly biosynthesized by lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAFAT). Previously, we identified two types of lyso-PAFATs: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT)1, mostly expressed in the lungs where it produces PAF and dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine essential for respiration, and LPCAT2, which biosynthesizes PAF and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the inflammatory cells. Under inflammatory conditions, LPCAT2, but not LPCAT1, is activated and upregulated to produce PAF. Thus, it is important to develop inhibitors specific for LPCAT2 in order to ameliorate PAF-related inflammatory diseases. Here, we report the first identification of LPCAT2-specific inhibitors, N-phenylmaleimide derivatives, selected from a 174,000-compound library using fluorescence-based high-throughput screening followed by the evaluation of the effects on LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 activities, cell viability, and cellular PAF production. Selected compounds competed with acetyl-CoA for the inhibition of LPCAT2 lyso-PAFAT activity and suppressed PAF biosynthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with a calcium ionophore. These compounds had low inhibitory effects on LPCAT1 activity, indicating that adverse effects on respiratory functions may be avoided. The identified compounds and their derivatives will contribute to the development of novel drugs for PAF-related diseases and facilitate the analysis of LPCAT2 functions in phospholipid metabolism in vivo.
Project description:The biosynthesis of leukotrienes (LT) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) involves the release of their respective precursors, arachidonic acid (AA) and lyso-PAF by the group IVA PLA2 (cPLA2alpha). This paper aims at characterizing the inhibitory properties of the cPLA2alpha inhibitor pyrrophenone on eicosanoids and PAF in human neutrophils (PMN).Freshly isolated human PMN were activated with physiological and pharmacological agents (fMLP, PAF, exogenous AA, A23187 and thapsigargin) in presence and absence of the cPLA2alpha inhibitor pyrrophenone and biosynthesis of LT, PAF, and PGE2 was measured.Pyrrophenone potently inhibited LT, PGE2 and PAF biosynthesis in PMN with IC50s in the range of 1-20 nM. These inhibitory effects of pyrrophenone were specific (the consequence of substrate deprivation), as shown by the reversal of inhibition by exogenous AA and lyso-PAF. Comparative assessment of pyrrophenone, methyl-arachidonoyl-fluoro-phosphonate (MAFP) and arachidonoyl-trifluoromethylketone (AACOCF3) demonstrated that pyrrophenone was more specific and 100-fold more potent than MAFP and AACOCF3 for the inhibition of LT biosynthesis in A23187-activated PMN. The inhibitory effect of pyrrophenone on LT biosynthesis was reversible as LT biosynthesis was recovered when pyrrophenone-treated PMN were washed with autologous plasma. No alteration of phospholipase D (PLD) activity in fMLP-activated PMN was observed with up to 10 microM pyrrophenone, suggesting that the cPLA2alpha inhibitor does not directly inhibit PLD.Pyrrophenone is a more potent and specific cPLA2alpha inhibitor than MAFP and AACOCF3 and represents an excellent pharmacological tool to investigate the biosynthesis and the biological roles of eicosanoids and PAF.
Project description:Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a proinflammatory lipid mediator, plays a crucial role in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. Therefore, the inhibition of endothelium inflammation by nutraceuticals, such as PAF inhibitors, is a promising alternative for preventing cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a new functional yogurt enriched with PAF inhibitors of natural origin from olive oil by-products on PAF metabolism. Ninety-two apparently healthy, but mainly overweight volunteers (35-65 years) were randomly allocated into three groups by block-randomization. The activities of PAF's biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes were measured, specifically two isoforms of acetyl-CoA:lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (LPCATs), cytidine 5'-diphospho-choline:1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT) and two isoforms of platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase in leucocytes (PAF-AH) and plasma (lipoprotein associated phospholipase-A<sub>2</sub>, LpPLA<sub>2</sub>). The intake of the enriched yogurt resulted in reduced PAF-CPT and LpPLA<sub>2</sub> activities. No difference was observed in the activities of the two isoforms of lyso PAF-AT. In conclusion, intake of yogurt enriched in PAF inhibitors could favorably modulate PAF biosynthetic and catabolic pathways.
Project description:The metabolism of platelet-activating factor (PAF; identified as AGEPC: 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and lyso-PAF (lyso-GEPC: 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) was investigated in cultured rat Kupffer cells. The rat Kupffer cells accumulated [3H]AGEPC and deacetylated this compound to the corresponding [3H]lyso-GEPC, which was the major metabolic product of [3H]AGEPC. [3H]Lyso-GEPC was distributed primarily in the supernatant fraction of incubated cells throughout the experimental interval. Only a very small portion of the [3H]lyso-GEPC was further converted to 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (alkylacyl-GPC), indicating that this acylation process was not particularly active in these cells. When [3H]lyso-GEPC was incubated with Kupffer cells, the conversion of lyso-GEPC to AGEPC via the acetyltransferase reaction increased up to 30 min and declined thereafter. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) had a substantial influence on both the cellular uptake and the metabolism of [3H]AGEPC. An increase in the BSA concentration in the incubation media reduced the cellular uptake of [3H]AGEPC and the subsequent formation of lyso-GEPC. The results of this study suggest that the hepatic Kupffer cells play an important role in the metabolism of PAF. Moreover, these results infer that the regulation of the PAF level in certain hepatic pathophysiological situations may be a consequence of the production and subsequent metabolism of this potent lipid autacoid in the Kupffer cells of the liver.
Project description:The biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF), a phospholipid autocoid with potent ulcerogenic properties that is produced in secretory exocrine glands by physiological secretagogues, was assessed in microsomal preparations of glandular gastric mucosa. For this purpose, 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PAF):acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (EC 126.96.36.199); the enzymes of the 'de novo' pathway: 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (alkyl-lyso-GP):acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (alkylacetyl-G):CDP-choline cholinephosphotransferase (EC 188.8.131.52); and some enzymes involved in the catabolism of PAF and lyso-PAF were assayed. Only the enzymes of the 'de novo' pathway and small amounts of PAF acetylhydrolase, phospholipase A2 and a lysophospholipase D acting on either lipids could be detected in the gastric preparations, whereas lyso-PAF:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase activity was undetectable. The specific activity of alkyl-lyso-GP:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase in the gastric mucosa was about one-tenth of that found in spleen microsomes and its apparent Km for acetyl-CoA was 454 microM compared with 277 microM in spleen microsomes. Glandular mucosa homogenates contained preformed PAF at a concentration of 2.7 +/- 0.7 ng equivalents of PAF (hexadecyl)/mg of protein. When gastric microsomes were incubated with micromolar concentrations of fatty acids (arachidonic, palmitic and oleic) prior to the assay of dithiothreitol (DTT)-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase, a dose-dependent reduction in the formation of PAF was observed, arachidonic acid being the most potent inhibitor, followed by linoleic acid (only tested on spleen microsomes) and oleic acid. By contrast, 1,2-diolein and phosphatidylcholine (dipalmitoyl) showed no or little effect. These results indicate that glandular gastric mucosa can produce PAF through the 'de novo' pathway, and that fatty acids, especially unsaturated, can reduce that synthesis by modulating the expression of DTT-insensitive cholinephosphotransferase.