Evidence that glutathione S-transferases B1B1 and B2B2 are the products of separate genes and that their expression in human liver is subject to inter-individual variation. Molecular relationships between the B1 and B2 subunits and other Alpha class glutathione S-transferases.
ABSTRACT: The Alpha class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in human liver are composed of polypeptides of Mr 25,900. These enzymes are dimeric, and two immunochemically distinct subunits, B1 and B2, have been described that combine to form GSTs B1B1, B1B2 and B2B2 [Stockman, Beckett & Hayes (1985) Biochem. J. 227, 457-465]. Gradient affinity elution from GSH-Sepharose has been used to resolve the three Alpha class GSTs, and this method has been applied to demonstrate marked inter-individual differences in the hepatic content of GSTs B1B1, B1B2 and B2B2. The B1 and B2 subunits can be resolved by reverse-phase h.p.l.c., and their elution positions suggest that they are equivalent to the alpha chi and alpha y h.p.l.c. peaks described by Ketterer and his colleagues [Ostlund Farrants, Meyer, Coles, Southan, Aitken, Johnson & Ketterer (1987) Biochem. J. 245, 423-428]. The B1 and B2 subunits have now been cleaved with CNBr and the fragments subjected to automated amino acid sequence analysis. The sequence data show that B1 and B2 subunits do not arise from post-translational modification, as had been previously believed for the hepatic Alpha class GSTs, but are instead the products of separate genes; B1 and B2 subunits were found to contain different amino acid residues at positions 88, 110, 111, 112, 116, 124 and 127. The relationship between the B1 and B2 subunits and the cloned GTH1 and GTH2 cDNA sequences [Rhoads, Zarlengo & Tu (1987) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 145, 474-481] is discussed.
Project description:The basic glutathione S-transferases in human liver are composed of at least two immunochemically distinct polypeptides, designated B1 and B2. These subunits exist as homodimers, but can hybridize to form the B1B2 heterodimer [Stockman, Beckett & Hayes (1985) Biochem. J. 227, 457-465]. Although these basic glutathione S-transferases possess similar catalytic properties, the B2 subunit exhibits significantly greater selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase activity than subunit B1. The use of the ligands haematin, tributyltin acetate and Bromosulphophthalein as inhibitors of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-GSH-conjugating activity clearly discriminate between the B1 and B2 subunits and should help facilitate their identification. Peptide mapping experiments showed that B1 and B2 are structurally distinct, but related, subunits; subunit B1 yielded 43 tryptic peptides, seven of which were unique, whereas subunit B2 yielded 40 tryptic peptides, four of which were unique.
Project description:A number of studies have been conducted to explore the association between the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) TaqIB polymorphism and risk of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to clarify the issue based on all the data available.Eligible studies were retrieved by searching PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. We calculated the crude odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to assess the association between the TaqIB polymorphism and risk of MI.We included 13 studies involving 8733 MI cases and 8573 controls in the meta-analysis. The pooled results from all included studies showed decreased MI risk in the analysis of the B2B2 versus B1B1 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.91), dominant (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.77-0.99), and recessive genetic models (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.78-0.91). The frequency of the B2B2 genotype in MI patients was lower (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.81-0.94). However, there was no significant association in the B1B2 versus B1B1 analysis (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81-1.05) and no significant difference for the B1B1 genotype (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.98-1.11) and B1B2 genotype (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.97-1.08). Cumulative analysis confirmed these results.Our results suggest that the B2B2 genotype of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism is a protective factor against the development of MI.
Project description:Introduction: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a key regulating enzyme in the lipid metabolism pathway, and its gene polymorphism may be a candidate for modulating the metabolic responses to dietary intervention. We thus examined whether the effects of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism on metabolic profiles were modified by dietary plant oils. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of data collected during a randomized triple-blind cross over trial. A total of 95 patients with type 2 diabetes and 73 non-diabetes individuals completed a 9-weekof the intake of sesame, canola and sesame-canola oils. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each intervention period for biochemical analysis. Genotyping was done using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: In diabetes patients, B1B1 homozygotes of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism compared with B2 carriers (B1B2 + B2B2) had significantly lower diastolic blood pressure, apoB and apoB: apoA-1,and higher Lp(a) after the intake of sesame-canola oil, as well as lower insulin and HOMA-IR after the intake of sesame oil. There was also a significant effect of genotype on adjusted changes of apoB, apoB: apoA-1, insulin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI. A significant genotype-dietary oils combined effects were observed for diastolic blood pressure, and LDL: HDL, TC: HDL and TG: HDL ratios in diabetes patients. No independent or combined effects of dietary oils and genotypes on outcomes were found in healthy people. Conclusion: There was a modulatory effect of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism on some metabolic traits in response to plant oils in patients with diabetes. Taken together, the intake of sesame-canola and canola oils showed more favorable effects in diabetes patients with B1B1 genotype. Future investigations are needed to confirm these results.
Project description:The ontogeny of rat liver glutathione S-transferase (EC 22.214.171.124) (GSTs) during foetal and postnatal development was investigated. The GSTs are dimers, the subunits of which belong to three multigene families, Alpha (subunits 1, 2, 8 and 10), Mu (subunits 3, 4, 6, 9 and 11) and Pi (subunit 7) [Mannervik, Alin, Guthenberg, Jennsson, Tahir, Warholm & Jörnvall (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 7202-7206; Kispert, Meyer, Lalor, Coles & Ketterer (1989) Biochem. J. 260, 789-793]. There is considerable structural homology within each gene family, with the result that whereas reverse-phase h.p.l.c. successfully differentiates individual subunits, immunocytochemical and Northern-blotting analyses may only differentiate families. Enzymic activity, h.p.l.c. and Northern blotting indicated that expression of GST increased from very low levels at 12 days of foetal growth to substantial amounts at day 21. At birth, GST concentrations underwent a dramatic decline and remained low until 5-10 days post partum, after which they increased to adult levels. During the period under study, GST subunits underwent differential expression. The Mu family had a lower level of expression than the Alpha family, and, within the Alpha family, subunit 1 was more dominant in the adult than the foetus. Subunit 2 is the major form in the foetus. Most noteworthy were subunits 7 and 10, which were prominent in the foetus, but present at low levels post partum. Immunocytochemical analysis of the 17-day foetal and newborn rat livers showed marked differences in the distribution of GSTs in hepatocytes. In the 17-day foetal liver Pi greater than Alpha greater than Mu whereas in the newborns Alpha greater than Mu much greater than Pi. Erythropoietic cells were not stained for any of the three GST families. Steady-state mRNA concentrations in the foetus correlated with the relative transcription of the Alpha, Mu and Pi class genes. However, in those genes expressed post partum, namely the Alpha and Mu class, low transcriptional activity was associated with high concentrations of mRNA. This suggests that there is a switch from transcriptional control to post-transcriptional control at birth. GST 7-7 appears to be regulated predominantly by transcription throughout the period of liver development under observation.
Project description:The purification of a hybrid glutathione S-transferase (B1 B2) from human liver is described. This enzyme has an isoelectric point of 8.75 and the B1 and B2 subunits are distinguishable immunologically and are ionically distinct. Hybridization experiments demonstrated that B1 B1 and B2 B2 could be resolved by CM-cellulose chromatography and have pI values of 8.9 and 8.4 respectively. Transferase B1 B2, and the two homodimers from which it is formed, are electrophoretically and immunochemically distinct from the neutral enzyme (transferase mu) and two acidic enzymes (transferases rho and lambda). Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis demonstrated that B1 and B2 both have an Mr of 26 000, whereas, in contrast, transferase mu comprises subunits of Mr 27 000 and transferases rho and lambda both comprise subunits of Mr 24 500. Antisera raised against B1 or B2 monomers did not cross-react with the neutral or acidic glutathione S-transferases. The identity of transferase B1 B2 with glutathione S-transferase delta prepared by the method of Kamisaka, Habig, Ketley, Arias & Jakoby [(1975) Eur. J. Biochem. 60, 153-161] has been demonstrated, as well as its relationship to other previously described transferases.
Project description:Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many genetic and environmental risk factors including atherogenic dyslipidemia contribute towards the development of CAD. Functionally relevant mutations in the dyslipidemia-related genes and enzymes involved in the reverse cholesterol transport system are associated with CAD and contribute to increased susceptibility of myocardial infarction (MI).Blood samples from 990 angiographically confirmed Saudi CAD patients with at least one event of myocardial infarction were collected between 2012 and 2014. A total of 618 Saudi controls with no history or family history of CAD participated in the study. Four polymorphisms, rs2230806, rs2066715 (ABCA1), rs5882, and rs708272 (CETP), were genotyped using TaqMan Assay.CETP rs5882 (OR = 1.45, P < 0.005) and ABCA1 rs2230806 (OR = 1.42, P = 0.017) polymorphisms were associated with increased risk of CAD. However, rs708272 polymorphism showed protective effect (B1 vs. B2: OR = 0.80, P = 0.003 and B2B2 vs. B1B1: OR = 0.68, P = 0.012) while the ABCA1 variant rs2066715 was not associated.This study is the first to report the association of these polymorphisms with CAD in the population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The rs5882 polymorphism (CETP) showed a significant association and therefore could be a promising marker for CAD risk estimation while the rs708272 polymorphism had a protective effect from CAD.
Project description:The GSH-binding site of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes was studied by investigating their substrate-specificity for three series of GSH analogues; further, a model of the interactions of GSH with the G-site is proposed. Twelve glycyl-modified GSH analogues, four ester derivatives of GSH and three cysteinyl-modified GSH analogues were synthesized and tested with purified forms of rat liver GST (1-1, 2-2, 3-3 and 4-4). The glycyl analogues exhibited spontaneous chemical reaction rates with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene comparable with the GSH rate. In contrast, the enzymic rates (Vmax.) differed greatly, from less than 1 up to 140 mumol/min per mg; apparently, a reaction mechanism is followed that is very sensitive to substitutions at the glycyl domain. No correlation exists between the chemical rates and Vmax. values for the analogues. Analogues of GSH in which L-cysteine was replaced by D-cysteine, L-homocysteine or L-penicillamine showed little or no capacity to replace GSH as co-substrate for the GSTs. GSH monomethyl and monoethyl esters showed Vmax. values greater than the Vmax. measured with GSH: the Vmax. for the monoethyl ester of GSH and GST 3-3 was 5-fold that for GSH. The data obtained in this and previous studies [Adang, Brussee, Meyer, Coles, Ketterer, van der Gen & Mulder (1988) Biochem. J. 255, 721-724; Adang, Meyer, Brussee, van der Gen, Ketterer & Mulder (1989) Biochem. J. 264, 759-764] allow a model of the interactions of GSH in the G-site in GSTs to be postulated. The gamma-glutamyl site is the main binding determinant: the alpha-carboxylate group is obligatory, whereas shifting of the amino group and shortening of the peptide backbone only decreased kcat./Km. Furthermore, the GSTs appear to be very critical with respect to a correct orientation of the thiol group of the GSH analogue. The glycyl site is the least restrictive domain in the G-site of GSTs: amino acid analogues all showed Km values between 0.2 and 0.6 mM (that for GSH is 0.2-0.3 mM), but large differences in Vmax. exist. The glycyl carboxylate group is not essential for substrate recognition, since decarboxy analogues and ester derivatives showed high activities. The possible mechanisms for an increased Vmax. in some analogues are briefly discussed.
Project description:A purification scheme is described for a glutathione S-transferase (GST) from human liver that catalyses the conjugation of 1-menaphthyl sulphate (MS) with GSH; the method devised results in an approx. 500-fold increase in specific activity towards MS. The human enzyme which metabolizes MS is a homodimer comprising subunits of M(r) 25,100, and immunochemical experiments have shown it to be a member of the class-Theta GSTs. Automated Edman degradation of this enzyme has confirmed that it is a Theta-class GST bu the amino acid sequence obtained differs from that of GST theta described previously [Meyer, Coles, Pemble, Gilmore, Fraser & Ketterer (1991) Biochem. J. 274, 409-414]. We have therefore designated the enzyme that catalyses the conjugation of MS with GSH GST T2-2* (in the absence of complete amino acid sequence data, the T1 and T2 subunits are provisionally designated T1* and T2*); the evidence which indicates that GST theta (which should possibly now be called GST T1-1*) and GST T2-2* represent distinct isoenzymes is discussed.
Project description:The biosynthesis of the basement-membrane glycoprotein laminin in the mouse teratocarcinoma cell line PFHR9 was studied by immunoelectron microscopy and pulse-chase experiments using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. By immunoelectron microscopy, most of the protein was found to be aggregated on the outer cell surface. Cytoplasmic stainings were rare and were located next to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Sequential immunoprecipitations of cell extracts with a monoclonal antibody (4C12) sensitive to the laminin native conformation and with a polyclonal antibody enables laminin, the B1 subunit and a 410 kDa molecule to be distinguished. Most of the laminin is of the A(B1B2) type, and the 410 kDa molecule appears to be a B1B2 heterodimer. The assembly of laminin from subunits is completed in less than 1 h, and B chains are incorporated via the formation of the B heterodimers. The B2 and A chains are not found as free forms, so their levels appear to be the rate-limiting factors for the assembly of the dimers and laminin respectively. The formation of an uncross-linked A(B1B2) complex as a short-lived intermediate in the biosynthetic process is possible. Together with immunoelectron microscopy, the present study suggests that the protein is rapidly exported after assembly to accumulate on the outer side of the cell membrane. The biosynthesis of laminin in the PFHR9 cell line appears to be similar to that in other matrix-producing cell lines.
Project description:A murine transcription factor, PEBP2, is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta. There are two genes in the mouse genome, PEBP2 alpha A and PEBP2 alpha B, which encode the alpha subunit. Two types of the alpha B cDNA clones, alpha B1 and alpha B2, were isolated from mouse fibroblasts and characterized. They were found to represent 3.8- and 7.9-kb transcripts, respectively. The 3.8-kb RNA encodes the previously described alpha B protein referred to as alpha B1, while the 7.9-kb RNA encodes a 387-amino-acid protein, termed alpha B2, which is identical to alpha B1 except that it has an internal deletion of 64 amino acid residues. Both alpha B1 and alpha B2 associate with PEBP2 beta and form a heterodimer. The alpha B2/beta complex binds to the PEBP2 binding site two- to threefold more strongly than the alpha B1/beta complex does. alpha B1 stimulates transcription through the PEBP2 site about 40-fold, while alpha B2 is only about 25 to 45% as active as alpha B1. Transactivation domain is located downstream of the 128-amino-acid runt homology region, referred to as the Runt domain. Mouse chromosome mapping studies revealed that alpha A, alpha B, and beta genes are mapped to chromosomes 17, 16, and 8, respectively. The last two genes are syntenic with the human AML1 on chromosome 21q22 and PEBP2 beta/CBF beta on 16q22 detected at the breakpoints of characteristic chromosome translocations of the two different subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia. These results suggest that previously described chimeric gene products, AML1/MTG8(ETO) and AML1-EAP generated by t(8;21) and t(3;21), respectively, lack the transactivation domain of AML1.