Identification of the haem-binding subunit of cytochrome b-245.
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome b-245 from neutrophil plasma membranes contains two types of subunit with apparent molecular masses from gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS of 23 kDa and 76-92 kDa. Radiation-inactivation analysis revealed a single-exponential decay process for the visible absorption of the haem chromophore in the membrane, corresponding to a molecular mass of 21 +/- 5 kDa for the haem-containing polypeptide chain. Sedimentation equilibrium of the cytochrome solubilized by the detergent Triton N101 showed that the protein was polydisperse, with a molecular mass of approx. 350 kDa for the smallest detectable species. In another detergent, n-octyl beta-O-glucopyranoside (octyl glucoside), the molecular mass of the haem-containing particle was found to be 20-30 kDa. Thus the quaternary structure of the protein breaks down in this detergent. The haem group is inferred to be attached to the smaller subunit.
Project description:The low potential cytochrome b (b-245) of the microbicidal oxidase of phagocytic cells has been purified from neutrophils from patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Cells were homogenized in the presence of proteinase inhibitors and centrifuged to remove the cytoplasm. The pellets containing membranes, granules and other organelles (15 mg/ml) were then washed with buffered sodium cholate (5 mg/ml). Residual pellets were subsequently solubilized with the non-ionic detergent Triton N 101 (10 mg/ml) which extracted about 60% of the cytochrome b. About 10% of the cytochrome b was of mitochondrial origin which was removed on a column of n-amino-octyl-Sepharose that did not adsorb cytochrome b-245. Cytochrome b-245 was chromatographed on a column of heparin-agarose and eluted with NaCl to give a peak specific content of 11-16 nmol of cytochrome b-245/mg of protein, representing a 140-200-fold purification with a recovery of 15%. This technique results in the purification of approx. 100-150 nmol of highly purified cytochrome b-245 from (3-5) X 10(11) cells within 4 days. The most purified material gave a broad band with an apparent Mr of between 68 000 and 78 000 on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but gel filtration indicated an aggregated form of the protein in Triton N101 . Purified protein (14 nmol of haem/mg of protein) did not contain FAD or FMN and had no NADPH-dependent O2--generating activity.
Project description:Geobacter sulfurreducens is capable of anaerobic respiration with Fe(III) as a terminal electron acceptor via a membrane-bound Fe(III) reductase activity associated with a large molecular mass cytochrome c. This cytochrome was purified by detergent extraction of the membrane fraction, Q-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography, preparative electrophoresis, and MonoQ ion-exchange chromatography. Spectrophotometric analysis of the purified cytochrome reveals a c-type haem, with no evidence of haem a, haem b or sirohaem. The cytochrome has an M(r) of 89000 as determined by denaturing PAGE, and has an isoelectric point of 5.2 as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing. Dithionite-reduced cytochrome can donate electrons to Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid and synthetic ferrihydrite, thus demonstrating that the cytochrome has redox and thermodynamic properties required for reduction of Fe(III). Analysis using cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the reduced cytochrome can catalytically transfer electrons to ferrihydrite, further demonstrating its ability to be an electron transport mediator in anaerobic Fe(III) respiration. Sequence analysis of a cloned chromosomal DNA fragment revealed a 2307 bp open reading frame (ferA) encoding a 768 amino acid protein corresponding to the 89 kDa cytochrome. The deduced amino acid sequence (FerA) translated from the open reading frame contained 12 putative haem-binding motifs, as well as a hydrophobic N-terminal membrane anchor sequence, a lipid-attachment site and an ATP/GTP-binding site. FerA displayed 20% or less identity with amino acid sequences of other known cytochromes, although it does share some features with characterized polyhaem cytochromes c.
Project description:Bax is a Bcl-2-family protein with pro-apoptotic activity that can form channels in lipid membranes. The protein has been shown to trigger cytochrome c release from mitochondria both in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant human Bax isolated in the presence of detergent was found to be present as an oligomer with an apparent molecular mass of approx. 160000 Da on gel filtration. When Bax was isolated in the absence of detergent the purified protein was monomeric with an apparent molecular mass of 22000 Da. Bax oligomers formed channels in liposomes and triggered cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria, whereas monomeric Bax was inactive in both respects. Incubation of the monomeric Bax with 2% octyl glucoside induced formation of oligomers that displayed channel-forming activity in liposomes and triggered cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Triton X-100, Nonidet P-40 and n-dedecyl maltoside also activated monomeric Bax, whereas CHAPS had no activating effect. In cytosolic extracts from mouse liver, Bax migrated at a molecular mass of 24000 Da on gel filtration, whereas after incubation of the cytosol with 2% octyl glucoside Bax migrated at approximately 140000 Da. These results show that oligomeric Bax possesses channel-forming activity whereas monomeric Bax has no such activity.
Project description:We describe the detailed biochemical characterization of CYP74C3 (cytochrome P450 subfamily 74C3), a recombinant plant cytochrome P450 enzyme with HPL (hydroperoxide lyase) activity from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic). Steady-state kinetic parameters, substrate and product specificities, RZ (Reinheitszahl or purity index), molar absorption coefficient, haem content, and new ligands for an HPL are reported. We show on the basis of gel filtration, sedimentation velocity (sedimentation coefficient distribution) and sedimentation equilibrium (molecular mass) analyses that CYP74C3 has low enzyme activity as a detergent-free, water-soluble, monomer. The enzyme activity can be completely restored by re-activation with detergent micelles, but not detergent monomers. Corresponding changes in the spin state equilibrium, and probably co-ordination of the haem iron, are novel for cytochrome P450 enzymes and suggest that detergent micelles have a subtle effect on protein conformation, rather than substrate presentation, which is sufficient to improve substrate binding and catalytic-centre activity by an order of magnitude. The kcat/K(m) of up to 1.6x10(8) M(-1) x s(-1) is among the highest recorded, which is remarkable for an enzyme whose reaction mechanism involves the scission of a C-C bond. We carried out both kinetic and biophysical studies to demonstrate that this effect is a result of the formation of a complex between a protein monomer and a single detergent micelle. Association with a detergent micelle rather than oligomeric state represents a new mechanism of activation for membrane-associated cytochrome P450 enzymes. Highly concentrated and monodispersed samples of detergent-free CYP74C3 protein may be well suited for the purposes of crystallization and structural resolution of the first plant cytochrome P450 enzyme.
Project description:Storage and buffering of iron is achieved by a class of proteins, the ferritins, widely distributed throughout the living kingdoms. All ferritins have in common their three-dimensional structure and their ability to store large amounts of iron in their central cavity. However, eukaryotic ferritins from plants and animals and bacterioferritins have no sequence similarity, and besides non-haem iron bacterioferritins contain haem residues whereas eukaryotic ferritins do not. In this paper we report the first purification and characterization of a bacterioferritin from a cyanobacterium. It has a molecular mass of 400 kDa and is built up from 19 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence shows 73% identity with that of the Escherichia coli bacterioferritin subunit. It contains 2300 atoms of iron and 1500 molecules of phosphate per ferritin molecule and 0.25 haem residue per subunit; the alpha-peak of the cytochrome has its maximum at 559 nm. In contrast with what is known for eukaryotic ferritins, we found that bacterioferritin from Synechocystis is not inducible by iron under the conditions that we have tested and that it has a constant concentration whatever the iron status of the cells, even at very low iron concentration. Bacterioferritin from Synechocystis P.C.C. 6803 is fully assembled in vivo and it is shown by labelling with 59Fe that it is able to load iron in vitro as well as in vivo. Bacterioferritin from Synechocystis is shown to have an iron-buffering function while the bulk of cellular iron is found associated with a pool of low-molecular-mass electronegative molecules. The role of Synechocystis bacterioferritin in iron metabolism is discussed.
Project description:Nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been successfully expressed in Pseudomonas putida. The purified recombinant enzyme contains haem c but no haem d1. Nonetheless, like the holoenzyme from Ps. aeruginosa, it is a stable dimer (molecular mass 120 kDa), and electron transfer to oxidized azurin is biphasic and follows bimolecular kinetics (k1 = 1.5 x 10(5) and k2 = 2.2 x 10(4) M-1.s-1). Unlike the chemically produced apoenzyme, recombinant nitrite reductase containing only haem c is water-soluble, stable at neutral pH and can be quantitatively reconstituted with haem d1, yielding a holoenzyme with the same properties as that expressed by Ps. aeruginosa (namely optical and c.d. spectra, molecular mass, cytochrome c551 oxidase activity and CO-binding kinetics).
Project description:The NADPH oxidase of phagocytic cells is important for the efficient killing and digestion of ingested microbes. A very unusual low-potential cytochrome b (b-245) is the only redox molecule to have been identified in this system. The FAD-containing flavoprotein that binds NADPH and transfers electrons to the cytochrome has eluded identification for three decades. We show here that the haem/FAD ratio in the membranes does not change significantly on activation of this oxidase, indicating that the FAD is present in the membranes from the outset and not recruited from the cytosol. The FAD content of membranes from cells of patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) lacking the cytochrome b was roughly one-quarter of that in normal subjects and in autosomal recessive CGD patients lacking the cytosolic protein p47-phox. Similar low amounts of FAD were present in uninduced promyelocytic (HL60) cells, suggesting that the low amount of FAD in cells from X-CGD patients was probably unrelated to this oxidase system. Cytochrome b-245 appears to bind both the haem and FAD, in a molar ratio of 2:1. The e.p.r. signal of the purified cytochrome was weak and had an asymmetric g(z) peak at g = 3.31. The purified cytochrome could be partially reflavinated (about 20%) in the presence of lipid. Amino acid sequence homology was detected between the beta-subunit of this cytochrome b and the ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) family of reductases in the putative NADPH- and FAD-binding sites. 32P-labelled 2-azido-NADP was used as a photoaffinity label for the NADPH-binding site. Labelling that was competed off with NADP was observed in the region of the beta-subunit of the cytochrome. No labelling was seen in this region in X-CGD in three subjects in whom this cytochrome was missing and in a third in whom it was present but bore a Pro-His transposition in the putative NADPH-binding site. These studies indicate that cytochrome b-245 is a flavocytochrome, the first described in higher eukaryotic cells, bearing the complete electron-transporting apparatus of the NADPH oxidase.
Project description:The cytochrome c nitrite reductase (cNiR) isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a membrane-bound complex formed of NrfA and NrfH subunits. The catalytic subunit NrfA is a soluble pentahaem cytochrome c that forms a physiological dimer of about 120 kDa. The electron-donor subunit NrfH is a membrane-anchored tetrahaem cytochrome c of about 18 kDa molecular weight and belongs to the NapC/NirT family of quinol dehydrogenases, for which no structures are known. Crystals of the native cNiR membrane complex, solubilized with dodecylmaltoside detergent (DDM), were obtained using PEG 4K as precipitant. Anomalous diffraction data were measured at the Swiss Light Source to 2.3 A resolution. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 79.5, b = 256.7, c = 578.2 A. Molecular-replacement and MAD methods were combined to solve the structure. The data presented reveal that D. vulgaris cNiR contains one NrfH subunit per NrfA dimer.
Project description:When grown in aerated shaking culture, Bacillus subtilis expresses two different haem A-containing terminal oxidases: cytochrome aa3-quinol oxidase and cytochrome caa3 oxidase. This paper describes a high-yield conventional procedure for purifying the two haem A-containing oxidases from the same aerobic culture of Bacillus subtilis. Yields of close to 40% of the total haem A are achieved and about 6 mg of each of the purified oxidases is obtained from 4 litres of liquid culture. Both of the purified enzymes have two subunits, with apparent molecular masses of 71.6 kDa and 34.3 kDa for the cytochrome caa3 oxidase, and 67.6 kDa and 37.2 kDa for aa3-quinol oxidase. These features are in agreement with the sequence data for the corresponding structural genes in the aa3 and caa3 operons of B. subtilis. Some spectral and enzymic features of the two purified oxidases are reported that are consistent with the inclusion of both of these enzymes as members of the cytochrome oxidase superfamily.
Project description:Monospecific polyclonal rabbit antibodies to a purified form of haem oxygenase of chick liver, showing sequence similarity to mammalian haem oxygenase-1, were raised and used to study characteristics of the oxygenase. The antibodies inhibited activity of the purified oxygenase, but not other enzyme components (NADPH:cytochrome reductase and biliverdin reductase) of the standard assay mixture of haem oxygenase. In addition, the antibodies inhibited activity of haem oxygenase in microsomes (microsomal fractions) from Cd(2+)-treated chick liver, spleen, testis and brain. Western (immuno-) blots of microsomal proteins of selected organs from chick, rat and man, and homogenates of chick-embryo liver-cell cultures, probed with the antibodies, showed a major protein with a molecular mass of 33-34 kDa and a lower-molecular-mass protein (28-29 kDa) of variable intensity. Studies with trypsin and selected proteinase inhibitors established that the smaller peptide was a proteolytic product of the larger. Treatment of chick-embryo liver-cell cultures with CdCl2, a potent inducer of haem oxygenase, increased the degree of proteinase-mediated cleavage of the 33 kDa protein to the lower-molecular-mass form. These results indicate that, under at least some conditions, such cultures should be homogenized in the presence of trypsin inhibitor to prevent proteolytic degradation of the enzyme and allow maximal expression of haem oxygenase activity. The antibodies also reacted with haem oxygenase from spleen, testis and brain of both chicks and rats, and the spleen of humans. A method for quantifying the amount of haem oxygenase protein was developed with use of slot-blots and laser densitometry; linearity was observed from 0 to 5 ng of haem oxygenase protein per slot, and the method was applied to sonicated cultured chick-embryo liver cells treated with Cd2+ (0.3 mM) or iron plus glutethimide. In both cases, increases in enzyme activity were of similar magnitude to increases in amounts of enzyme protein. Approximate amounts of haem oxygenase protein in microsomes of several organs from intact animals could also be estimated by the use of slot-blot-laser densitometry, and the amounts measured were increased by the addition of purified haem oxygenase to the microsomal preparations. Results of these studies indicated that haem oxygenase-1 could be detected in microsomes from all chick or rat organs studied, including testis and brain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)