Deficiency of Na+/K(+)-ATPase and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase in skeletal muscle and cultured muscle cells of myotonic dystrophy patients.
ABSTRACT: Since defective regulation of ion transport could initiate or contribute to the abnormal cellular function in myotonic dystrophy (MyD), Na+/K(+)-ATPase and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase were examined in skeletal muscle and cultured skeletal muscle cells of controls and MyD patients. Na+/K(+)-ATPase was investigated by measuring ouabain binding and the activities of Na+/K(+)-ATPase and K(+)-dependent 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphate (3-O-MFPase). SR Ca(2+)-ATPase was analysed by e.l.i.s.a., Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation and its activities with ATP and 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase (3-O-MFP). In MyD muscle the K(+)-dependent 3-O-MFPase activity and the activity and concentration of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were decreased by 40%. In cultured muscle cells from MyD patients the activities as well as the concentration of both Na+/K(+)-ATPase and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were reduced by about 30-40%. The ouabain-binding constant and the molecular activities, i.e. catalytic-centre activities with ATP or 3-O-MFP, of Na+/K(+)-ATPase and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were similar in muscle as well as in cultured cells from both controls and MyD patients. Thus the decreased activity of both ATPases in MyD muscle is caused by a reduction in the number of their molecules. To check whether the deficiency of ATP-dependent ion pumps is a general feature of the pathology of MyD, we examined erythrocytes from the same patients. In these cells the Ca2+ uptake rate and the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were lower than in controls, but the Ca(2+)-ATPase concentration was normal. Thus the reduced Ca(2+)-ATPase activity is caused by a decrease in the molecular activity of the ion pump. The Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity is also lower in erythrocytes of MyD patients. It is concluded that the observed alterations in ion pumps may contribute to the pathological phenomena in the muscle and other tissues in patients with MyD.
Project description:Green tea polyphenolic catechins exhibit biological activity in a wide variety of cell types. Although reports in the lay and scientific literature suggest therapeutic potential for improving cardiovascular health, the underlying molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. Previous studies have implicated a wide range of molecular targets in cardiac muscle for the major green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), but effects were observed only at micromolar concentrations of unclear clinical relevance. Here, we report that nanomolar concentrations of EGCG significantly enhance contractility of intact murine myocytes by increasing electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content, and ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) channel open probability. Voltage-clamp experiments demonstrate that 10 nM EGCG significantly inhibits the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger. Of importance, other Na(+) and Ca(2+) handling proteins such as Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+)-H(+) exchanger, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase were not affected by EGCG ? 1 ?M. Thus, nanomolar EGCG increases contractility in intact myocytes by coordinately modulating SR Ca(2+) loading, RyR2-mediated Ca(2+) release, and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange. Inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity probably contributes to the positive inotropic effects observed at EGCG concentrations >1 ?M. These newly recognized actions of nanomolar and micromolar EGCG should be considered when the therapeutic and toxicological potential of green tea supplementation is evaluated and may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for improving contractile function in heart failure.
Project description:Despite improvements in the therapy of underlying heart disease, sudden cardiac death is a major cause of death worldwide. Disturbed Na and Ca handling is known to be a major predisposing factor for life-threatening tachyarrhythmias. In cardiomyocytes, many ion channels and transporters, including voltage-gated Na and Ca channels, cardiac ryanodine receptors, Na/Ca-exchanger, and SR Ca-ATPase are involved in this regulation. We have learned a lot about the pathophysiological relevance of disturbed ion channel function from monogenetic disorders. Changes in the gating of a single ion channel and the activity of an ion pump suffice to dramatically increase the propensity for arrhythmias even in structurally normal hearts. Nevertheless, patients with heart failure with acquired dysfunction in many ion channels and transporters exhibit profound dysregulation of Na and Ca handling and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and are especially prone to arrhythmias. A deeper understanding of the underlying arrhythmic principles is mandatory if we are to improve their outcome. This review addresses basic tachyarrhythmic mechanisms, the underlying ionic mechanisms and the consequences for ion homeostasis, and the situation in complex diseases like heart failure.
Project description:People who drink water contaminated with atrazine (ATR) over many years can experience problems with their cardiovascular system. Lycopene (LYC) has been shown to exhibit cardiovascular disease preventive effects. However, chemopreventive potential of LYC against ATR-induced cardiotoxicity remains unclear. To determine the effects of ATR and/or LYC on heart, mice were treated with ATR (50?mg/kg or 200?mg/kg) and/or LYC (5?mg/kg) by intragastric administration for 21 days. Histopathological and biochemical analyses, including analysis of ion concentrations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)), ATPases (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase) activities and the transcription of their subunits, were performed on heart. The results revealed that ATR led to decreased Creative Kinase (CK) activity and increased histological alterations. Furthermore, a significant change in Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) content and the down-regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities and the mRNA expression of their subunits were observed in ATR-exposed mice. Notably, supplementary LYC significantly protected the heart against ATR-induced damage. In conclusion, ATR induced cardiotoxicity by modulating cardiac ATPase activity and the transcription of its subunits, thereby triggering ionic disturbances. However, supplementary LYC significantly combated ATR-induced cardiotoxicity via the regulation of ATPase activity and subunit transcription. Thus, LYC exhibited a significant chemopreventive potential against ATR-induced cardiotoxicity.
Project description:The luminescence of the inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles ZrO(MFP) (MFP=methylfluorescein phosphate) and ZrO(RP) (RP=resorufin phosphate) was modified by addition of different rare earth halides LnCl3 . The resulting composite materials form dispersible nanoparticles that exhibit modified nanoparticle fluorescence depending on the rare earth ion. The resulting chromaticity of the luminescence is further variable by the employment of different solvents for ZrO(MFP)-based composite systems. The strong solvatochromic effect of the MFP chromophore leads to different luminescence chromaticities of the composite materials between green, yellow, and blue in THF, toluene, and dichloromethane, respectively. The luminescence of ZrO(RP)-based composite particles can be modified between the red and blue spectral regions in dependence on the applied reaction temperature. Beside a luminescence shift that is derived from nanoparticle modification by LnCl3 , a strong turn-on effect of ZrO(RP) particles results after contact with different Brønsted acids and bases in combination with a respective chromaticity shift. Both effects enable the potential employment of such particles as highly sensitive optical pH sensors.
Project description:AIM: To investigate the effect of acute insulin administration on the subcellular localization of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoforms in cardiac muscle of healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Membrane fractions were isolated with subcellular fractionation and with cell surface biotinylation technique. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit isoforms were analysed with ouabain binding assay and Western blotting. Enzyme activity was measured using 3-O-methylfluorescein-phosphatase activity. RESULTS: In control rat heart muscle alpha1 isoform of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase resides mainly in the plasma membrane fraction, while alpha2 isoform in the intracellular membrane pool. Diabetes decreased the abundance of alpha1 isoform (25 %, P<0.05) in plasma membrane and alpha2 isoform (50%, P<0.01) in the intracellular membrane fraction. When plasma membrane fractions were isolated by discontinuous sucrose gradients, insulin-stimulated translocation of alpha2- but not alpha1-subunits was detected. Alpha1-subunit translocation was only detectable by cell surface biotinylation technique. After insulin administration protein level of alpha2 increased by 3.3-fold, alpha1 by 1.37-fold and beta1 by 1.51-fold (P<0.02) in the plasma membrane of control, and less than 1.92-fold (P<0.02), 1.19-fold (not significant) and 1.34-fold (P<0.02) in diabetes. The insulin-induced translocation was wortmannin sensitive. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that insulin influences the plasma membrane localization of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoforms in the heart. alpha2 isoform translocation is the most vulnerable to the reduced insulin response in diabetes. alpha1 isoform also translocates in response to insulin treatment in healthy rat. Insulin mediates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha1- and alpha2-subunit translocation to the cardiac muscle plasma membrane via a PI3-kinase-dependent mechanism.
Project description:Ankyrin-B (AnkB) loss-of-function may cause ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in humans. Cardiac myocytes from AnkB heterozygous mice (AnkB(+/-)) show reduced expression and altered localization of Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) and Na/K-ATPase (NKA), key players in regulating [Na](i) and [Ca](i). Here we investigate how AnkB reduction affects cardiac [Na](i), [Ca](i) and SR Ca release. We found reduced NCX and NKA transport function but unaltered [Na](i) and diastolic [Ca](i) in myocytes from AnkB(+/-) vs. wild-type (WT) mice. Ca transients, SR Ca content and fractional SR Ca release were larger in AnkB(+/-) myocytes. The frequency of spontaneous, diastolic Ca sparks (CaSpF) was significantly higher in intact myocytes from AnkB(+/-) vs. WT myocytes (with and without isoproterenol), even when normalized for SR Ca load. However, total ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated SR Ca leak (tetracaine-sensitive) was not different between groups. Thus, in AnkB(+/-) mice SR Ca leak is biased towards more Ca sparks (vs. smaller release events), suggesting more coordinated openings of RyRs in a cluster. This is due to local cytosolic RyR regulation, rather than intrinsic RyR differences, since CaSpF was similar in saponin-permeabilized myocytes from WT and AnkB(+/-) mice. The more coordinated RyRs openings resulted in an increased propensity of pro-arrhythmic Ca waves in AnkB(+/-) myocytes. In conclusion, AnkB reduction alters cardiac Na and Ca transport and enhances the coupled RyR openings, resulting in more frequent Ca sparks and waves although the total SR Ca leak is unaffected. This could enhance the propensity for triggered arrhythmias in AnkB(+/-) mice.
Project description:We have investigated the role of an aprotinin-sensitive protease in regulating Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and Ca2+ uptake (ATP-dependent and Na(+)-dependent) in microsomes of bovine pulmonary vascular smooth muscle during treatment with the O2(-.)-generating system hypoxanthine plus xanthine oxidase. Treatment of the smooth muscle microsomes with the O2(-.)-generating system produced a protease in a gelatin-containing zymogram with an apparent molecular mass of 16 kDa. This 16 kDa proteolytic protein was found to be inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and aprotinin but not by PMSF. Using polyclonal antiserum to aprotinin, we found that it is an ambient antiprotease of the smooth muscle microsomes. Treatment of the microsomes with the O2(-.)-generating system stimulated protease activity tested with a synthetic substrate N-benzoyl-DL-arginine p-nitroanilide and also enhanced Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. It also stimulated ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake. In contrast, Na(+)-dependent Ca2+ uptake was found to be inhibited by the O2(-.)-generating system. Pretreatment of the microsomes with SOD and aprotinin preserved the increase in protease activity, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake. In addition, O2(-.)-caused inhibition of the Na(+)-dependent Ca2+ uptake which was reversed by SOD and aprotinin. Pretreatment with PMSF did not cause any discernible alteration in the protease activity, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and Na(+)-dependent Ca2+ uptake in the microsomes caused by the O2(-.)-generating system. These results suggest that an aprotinin-sensitive protease plays a pivotal role in regulating Ca(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-uptake activities in microsomes of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle under oxidant O2(-.)-triggered conditions.
Project description:The transport function of the Na pump (Na,K-ATPase) in cellular ion homeostasis involves both nucleotide binding reactions in the cytoplasm and alternating aqueous exposure of inward- and outward-facing ion binding sites. An osmotically active, nonpenetrating polymer (poly(ethyleneglycol); PEG) and a modifier of the aqueous viscosity (glycerol) were used to probe the overall and partial enzymatic reactions of membranous Na,K-ATPase from shark salt glands. Both inhibit the steady-state Na,K-ATPase as well as Na-ATPase activity, whereas the K(+)-dependent phosphatase activity is little affected by up to 50% of either. Both Na,K-ATPase and Na-ATPase activities are inversely proportional to the viscosity of glycerol solutions in which the membranes are suspended, in accordance with Kramers' theory for strong coupling of fluctuations at the active site to solvent mobility in the aqueous environment. PEG decreases the affinity for Tl(+) (a congener for K(+)), whereas glycerol increases that for the nucleotides ATP and ADP in the presence of NaCl but has little effect on the affinity for Tl(+). From the dependence on osmotic stress induced by PEG, the aqueous activation volume for the Na,K-ATPase reaction is estimated to be approximately 5-6 nm(3) (i.e., approximately 180 water molecules), approximately half this for Na-ATPase, and essentially zero for p-nitrophenol phosphatase. The change in aqueous hydrated volume associated with the binding of Tl(+) is in the region of 9 nm(3). Analysis of 15 crystal structures of the homologous Ca-ATPase reveals an increase in PEG-inaccessible water space of approximately 22 nm(3) between the E(1)-nucleotide bound forms and the E(2)-thapsigargin forms, showing that the experimental activation volumes for Na,K-ATPase are of a magnitude comparable to the overall change in hydration between the major E(1) and E(2) conformations of the Ca-ATPase.
Project description:Various pharmacological agents designed to modulate plasma membrane ion channels seem to significantly affect intracellular Ca²? signaling when acting on their target receptor. Some agents could also cross-react (modulate channels or receptors beyond their putative target) with intracellular Ca²? transporters. This study investigated the potential of thirty putative modulators of either plasma membrane K?, Na?, or transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to cross-react with intracellular Ca²? release channels [i.e., ryanodine receptors (RyRs)] from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Screening for cross-reactivity of these various agents was performed by measuring the rate of spontaneous Ca²? leak or caffeine-induced Ca²? release from SR microsomes. Four of the agents displayed a strong cross-reactivity and were further evaluated with skeletal RyR (RyR1) reconstituted into planar bilayers. 6,12,19,20,25,26-Hexahydro-5,27:13,18:21,24-trietheno-11,7-metheno-7H-dibenzo [b,n][1,5,12,16]tetraazacyclotricosine-5, 13-diium dibromide (UCL 1684; K? channel antagonist) and lamotrigine (Na? channel antagonist) were found to significantly inhibit the RyR1-mediated caffeine-induced Ca²? release. TRP channel agonists anandamide and (-)menthol were found to inhibit and activate RyR1, respectively. High concentrations of nine other agents produced partial inhibition of RyR1-mediated Ca²? release from SR microsomes. Various pharmacological agents, especially TRP modulators, also inhibited a minor RyR1-independent component of the SR Ca²? leak. Overall, ?43% of the agents selected cross-reacted with RyR1-mediated and/or RyR1-independent Ca²? leak from intracellular stores. Thus, cross-reactivity should be considered when using these classes of pharmacological agents to determine the role of plasmalemmal channels in Ca²? homeostasis.
Project description:1. An ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) preparation obtained from pig brain microsomes by treatment with sodium iodide showed four apparently different ouabain-sensitive activities under various conditions. They were (a) ouabain-sensitive Mg(2+)-stimulated ATPase, (b) K(+)-stimulated ATPase, (c) (Na(+),K(+))-stimulated ATPase and (d) Na(+)-stimulated ATPase activities. 2. These activities showed the same substrate specificity, ATP being preferentially hydrolysed and CTP slightly. AMP was not hydrolysed. 3. These activities were inhibited by low concentration of ouabain. The concentration producing 50% inhibition was 0.1mum for ouabain-sensitive Mg(2+)-stimulated ATPase, 0.2mum for K(+)-stimulated ATPase, 0.1mum for (Na(+),K(+))-stimulated ATPase and 0.003mum for Na(+)-stimulated ATPase activity. 4. The ouabain-sensitive ATPase activities were inactivated by N-ethylmaleimide but the insensitive ATPase activity was not. 5. The three ouabain-sensitive ATPase activities were inhibited about 50% by 1mm-Ca(2+), whereas the ouabain-sensitive Mg(2+)-stimulated ATPase activity was activated by the same concentration of Ca(2+). The preparation was treated with ultrasonics at 20kcyc./sec. The 2min. ultrasonic treatment inactivated the ATPase activities by 50%. 7. The temperature coefficient Q(10) was 6.6 for K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity, 3.7 for (Na(+),K(+))-stimulated ATPase and 2.6 for Na(+)-stimulated ATPase. 8. Organic solvents inactivated the ATPase activities, to which treatment the K(+)-stimulated ATPase was the most resistant. 9. The phosphorylation of the enzyme preparation became less dependent on Na(+) with decreasing pH. This Na(+)-independent phosphorylation at low pH was sensitive to K(+) and hydroxylamine as well as the Na(+)-dependent phosphorylation at neutral pH.