Selective use of H4 acetylation sites in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: The acetylation of specific lysine residues in the histone H4 may play a role in regulating various genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Grunstein (1990) Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 6, 643-678]. The detailed consideration of this possibility has been hampered by the lack of information on the frequency with which different H4 lysine residues are acetylated in yeast. In this paper, we use Western blotting from acid/urea/Triton gels and immunostaining with antisera specific for H4 molecules acetylated at particular lysine residues to show that 70-80% of H4 molecules in S. cerevisiae contain one or more acetylated lysines, and that lysines-5, -8, -12 and -16 are acetylated in an ordered, non-random fashion. The monoacetylated isoform (H4Ac1) is acetylated predominantly at lysine-16 (rarely at lysine-12), H4Ac2 is acetylated at lysine-16 and at either lysine-12 or at -8, while lysine-5 is acetylated frequently only in H4Ac3 and in H4Ac4.
Project description:The pattern of histone H4 acetylation in different genomic regions has been investigated by immunoprecipitating oligonucleosomes from a human lymphoblastoid cell line with antibodies to H4 acetylated at lysines 5, 8, 12 or 16. DNA from antibody-bound or unbound chromatin was assayed by slot blotting. Pol I and pol II transcribed genes located in euchromatin were shown to have levels of H4 acetylation at lysines 5, 8 and 12 equivalent to those in input chromatin, but to be slightly enriched in H4 acetylated at lysine 16. In no case did the acetylation level correlate with actual or potential transcriptional activity. All acetylated histone H4 isoforms were depleted in non-coding, simple repeat DNA in heterochromatin, though the extent of depletion varied with the type of heterochromatin and with the isoform. Two single copy genes that map within or adjacent to blocks of paracentric heterochromatin are depleted in H4 acetylated at lysines 5, 8 and 12, but not 16. Consensus sequences of repetitive elements of the Alu family (SINES, enriched in R bands) were associated with H4 that was more highly acetylated at all four lysines than input chromatin, while H4 associated with Kpn I elements (LINES, enriched in G bands) was significantly underacetylated.
Project description:The bromodomain is an approximately 110 amino acid module found in histone acetyltransferases and the ATPase component of certain nucleosome remodelling complexes. We report the crystal structure at 1.9 A resolution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gcn5p bromodomain complexed with a peptide corresponding to residues 15-29 of histone H4 acetylated at the zeta-N of lysine 16. We show that this bromodomain preferentially binds to peptides containing an N:-acetyl lysine residue. Only residues 16-19 of the acetylated peptide interact with the bromodomain. The primary interaction is the N:-acetyl lysine binding in a cleft with the specificity provided by the interaction of the amide nitrogen of a conserved asparagine with the oxygen of the acetyl carbonyl group. A network of water-mediated H-bonds with protein main chain carbonyl groups at the base of the cleft contributes to the binding. Additional side chain binding occurs on a shallow depression that is hydrophobic at one end and can accommodate charge interactions at the other. These findings suggest that the Gcn5p bromodomain may discriminate between different acetylated lysine residues depending on the context in which they are displayed.
Project description:Changes in acetylation of histone H4 are a common hallmark of cancer cells. In leukemia cells, histone H4 is characterized by loss of K16 mono-acetylation. Bromodomain proteins specifically recognize acetylated lysines and have been used as a target for anti cancer drug, JQ1 and iBET. Although acetylation and de-acetylation of histone H4 have been shown to have big impact in cancer cells, little attention has been focused on histone H4-acetylation at a genome level. To uncover potential epigenetic role of hyper-acetylated histone H4 at a genome-wide level in cancer cell, we generated a novel monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing histone H4 with at least two acetylated lysine residues (H4K5ac+K8ac). At the genome-wide level, hyper-acetylated histone H4 is associated with promoter and regulatory element (active enhancer, eRNA and super enhancer). We show that diacetylation at K5 and K8 of histone H4 co-localizes H3K27ac and BRD2 in the majority of active enhancer and promoters. However BRD2 has a stronger association with H4K5acK8ac. Furthermore we identified two specific chromatin states, which separately contain either H3K27ac or acetylated histone H4. Although JQ1 led to global reduction of BRD2 binding on the chromatin, only local changes of histone H4 multi-acetylation were observed upon BET inhibition by JQ1 Overall design: ChIP-Seq of H4K5acK8ac and BRD2 in H23 NSCLC cell line treated with 500 nM JQ1 for 24h
Project description:Post-translational modification of proteins by lysine acetylation plays important regulatory roles in living cells. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used unicellular eukaryotic model organism in biomedical research. S. cerevisiae contains several evolutionary conserved lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. However, only a few dozen acetylation sites in S. cerevisiae are known, presenting a major obstacle for further understanding the regulatory roles of acetylation in this organism. Here we use high resolution mass spectrometry to identify about 4000 lysine acetylation sites in S. cerevisiae. Acetylated proteins are implicated in the regulation of diverse cytoplasmic and nuclear processes including chromatin organization, mitochondrial metabolism, and protein synthesis. Bioinformatic analysis of yeast acetylation sites shows that acetylated lysines are significantly more conserved compared with nonacetylated lysines. A large fraction of the conserved acetylation sites are present on proteins involved in cellular metabolism, protein synthesis, and protein folding. Furthermore, quantification of the Rpd3-regulated acetylation sites identified several previously known, as well as new putative substrates of this deacetylase. Rpd3 deficiency increased acetylation of the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase) complex subunit Sgf73 on K33. This acetylation site is located within a critical regulatory domain in Sgf73 that interacts with Ubp8 and is involved in the activation of the Ubp8-containing histone H2B deubiquitylase complex. Our data provides the first global survey of acetylation in budding yeast, and suggests a wide-ranging regulatory scope of this modification. The provided dataset may serve as an important resource for the functional analysis of lysine acetylation in eukaryotes.
Project description:The histone code hypothesis holds that covalent posttranslational modifications of histone tails are interpreted by the cell to yield a rich combinatorial transcriptional output. This hypothesis has been the subject of active debate in the literature. Here, we investigated the combinatorial complexity of the acetylation code at the four lysine residues of the histone H4 tail in budding yeast. We constructed yeast strains carrying all 15 possible combinations of mutations among lysines 5, 8, 12, and 16 to arginine in the histone H4 tail, mimicking positively charged, unacetylated lysine states, and characterized the resulting genome-wide changes in gene expression by using DNA microarrays. Only the lysine 16 mutation had specific transcriptional consequences independent of the mutational state of the other lysines (affecting approximately 100 genes). In contrast, for lysines 5, 8, and 12, expression changes were due to nonspecific, cumulative effects seen as increased transcription correlating with an increase in the total number of mutations (affecting approximately 1,200 genes). Thus, acetylation of histone H4 is interpreted by two mechanisms: a specific mechanism for lysine 16 and a nonspecific, cumulative mechanism for lysines 5, 8, and 12.
Project description:We assessed the genomic distribution of H4-acetylated chromatin by ChIP using SNP chips and an antibody specific to four acetylated lysine residues of H4. Keywords: Comparative genomic hybridization Overall design: Triplicate Affymetrix 10K ax13339 SNP chips were hybridized to DNA extracted from myoblasts and myotubes. One replicate set was hybridized to total DNA extracted from myoblasts. Another replicate set was hybridized to DNA extracted from myotubes after CHiPping with H4-acetylated chromatin. The final replicate set was hybridized to DNA extracted from myoblasts after CHiPping with H4-acetylated chromatin.
Project description:Brd4 is a member of the bromodomains and extra terminal domain (BET) family of proteins that recognize acetylated chromatin structures through their bromodomains and act as transcriptional activators. Brd4 functions as an associated factor and positive regulator of P-TEFb, a Cdk9-cyclin T heterodimer that stimulates transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II. Here, the crystal structures of the two bromodomains of Brd4 (BD1 and BD2) were determined at 1.5 and 1.2 A resolution, respectively. Complex formation of BD1 with a histone H3 tail polypeptide encompassing residues 12-19 showed binding of the Nzeta-acetylated lysine 14 to the conserved asparagine 140 of Brd4. In contrast, in BD2 the N-terminal linker sequence was found to interact with the binding site for acetylated lysines of the adjacent molecule to form continuous strings in the crystal lattice. This assembly shows for the first time a different binding ligand than acetylated lysine indicating that also other sequence compositions may be able to form similar interaction networks. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed best binding of BD1 to H3 and of BD2 to H4 acetylated lysine sequences, suggesting alternating histone recognition specificities. Intriguingly, an acetylated lysine motif from cyclin T1 bound similarly well to BD2. Whereas the structure of Brd2 BD1 suggested its dimer formation, both Brd4 bromodomains appeared monomeric in solution as shown by size exclusion chromatography and mutational analyses.
Project description:The aspirin esterase activity of human plasma is due to butyrylcholinesterase and albumin. Our goal was to identify the amino acid residues involved in the aspirin esterase activity of albumin. Fatty acid-free human albumin and human plasma were treated with aspirin for 5 min-24 h. Acetylated residues were identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. Treatment with 0.3 mM aspirin resulted in acetylation of Lys-199, Lys-402, Lys-519, and Lys-545. Treatment with 20 mM aspirin resulted in acetylation of 26 lysines. There was no acetylation of Tyr-411, under any conditions. Acetylated lysine was stable for at least 21 days at pH 7.4, 37 degrees C. Albumin acetylated by aspirin had reduced esterase activity with beta-naphthyl acetate as shown on gels stained for esterase activity. It was concluded that the aspirin esterase activity of albumin is a pseudo-esterase activity in which aspirin stably acetylates lysines and releases salicylate.
Project description:We examined global changes in the acetylation of histones in mouse oocytes during meiosis. Immunocytochemistry with specific antibodies against various acetylated lysine residues on histones H3 and H4 showed that acetylation of all the lysines decreased to undetectable or negligible levels in the oocytes during meiosis, whereas most of these lysines were acetylated during mitosis in preimplantation embryos and somatic cells. When the somatic cell nuclei were transferred into enucleated oocytes, the acetylation of lysines decreased markedly. This type of deacetylation was inhibited by trichostatin A, a specific inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), thereby indicating that HDAC is able to deacetylate histones during meiosis but not during mitosis. Meiosis-specific deacetylation may be a consequence of the accessibility of HDAC1 to the chromosome, because HDAC1 colocalized with the chromosome during meiosis but not during mitosis. As histone acetylation is thought to play a role in propagating the gene expression pattern to the descendent generation during mitosis, and the gene expression pattern of differentiated oocytes is reprogrammed during meiosis to allow the initiation of a new program by totipotent zygotes of the next generation, our results suggest that the oocyte cytoplasm initializes a program of gene expression by deacetylating histones.
Project description:BACKGROUND:N?-Acetylation of lysine residues, a frequently occurring post-translational modification, plays important functions in regulating physiology and metabolism. However, the information of global overview of protein acetylome under nitrogen-starvation/resupply in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves was limited. And the full function of lysine acetylated proteins of tea plants in nitrogen absorption and assimilation remains unclear. RESULTS:Here, we performed the global review of lysine acetylome in tea leaves under nitrogen (N)-starvation/resupply, using peptide prefractionation, immunoaffinity enrichment, and coupling with high sensitive LC-MS/MS combined with affinity purification analysis. Altogether, 2229 lysine acetylation sites on 1286 proteins were identified, of which 16 conserved motifs in E*KacK, Kac*K, Kac*R, Kac*HK, Kac*N, Kac*S, Kac*T, Kac*D, were extracted from 2180 acetylated peptides. Approximately, 36.76% of the acetylated lysines were located in the regions of ordered secondary structures. The most of the identified lysine acetylation proteins were located in the chloroplast (39%) and cytoplasm (29%). The largest group of acetylated proteins consisted of many enzymes, such as ATP synthase, ribosomal proteins and malate dehydrogenase [NADP], which were related to metabolism (38%) in the biological process. These acetylated proteins were mainly enriched in three primary protein complexes of photosynthesis: photosystem I, photosystem II and the cytochrome b6/f complex. And some acetylated proteins related to glycolysis and secondary metabolite biosynthesis were increased/decreased under N-resupply. Moreover, the PPI (protein-protein interaction) analysis revealed that the diverse interactions of identified acetylated proteins mainly involved in photosynthesis and ribosome. CONCLUSION:The results suggested that lysine acetylated proteins might play regulating roles in metabolic process in tea leaves. The critical regulatory roles mainly involved in diverse aspects of metabolic processes, especially in photosynthesis, glycolysis and secondary metabolism. A lot of proteins related to the photosynthesis and glycolysis were found to be acetylated, including LHCA1, LHCA3, LHCB6, psaE, psaD, psaN, GAPDH, PEPC, ENL and petC. And some proteins related to flavonoids were also found to be acetylated, including PAL, DFR, naringenin 3-dioxygenase and CHI. The provided data may serve as important resources for exploring the physiological, biochemical, and genetic role of lysine acetylation in tea plants. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008931.