A distal activation domain is critical in the regulation of the rat androgen receptor gene promoter.
ABSTRACT: The far upstream region of the rat androgen receptor (AR) gene has been cloned, and the nucleotide sequence up to -2656 bp established. Nested deletion mutants of rat AR 5' flanking sequences were ligated to the luciferase reporter gene, and their promoter activities were examined in transfected COS1 cells. Results show a critical cis-acting domain located between positions -960 and -940. Deletion of this cis element resulted in a greater than 90% decrease in the promoter activity. A nuclear protein that specifically binds to this 21-nucleotide sequence was identified by gel mobility shift analysis. The -960/-940 cis element has no identify to the binding sequence of any known transcription factor. Furthermore, the cognate binding protein is present in both rat and human (HeLa) cell nuclear extracts. We conclude that a novel trans-activator interacting at the -960/-940 region plays a critical role in the regulation of AR gene expression.
Project description:We have previously characterized the rat pancreatitis-associated protein I (PAP I) gene by nucleotide sequencing. We describe in this paper its promoter region by analysing the regulatory functions associated with the DNA sequence comprising nt -1253 to + 10 of the gene. That sequence strongly promoted the transcription of the promotorless chloramphenicol acetyltranferase (CAT) gene in cells of pancreatic origin (AR-42J) but not in cells of non-pancreatic origin (Rat 2 and IEC 6). The influence on CAT expression of stepwise 5' deletions in the promoter sequence was monitored in the three cell lines. In pancreatic AR-42J cells, deletion down to position -926 did not affect significantly the expression of the reporter gene. Deletion to nt -685 caused about a 30% decrease in expression. Extending the deletion to nt -444 did not have any additional effect, but a further deletion to nt -180, resulted in a reduction to about 25%. Moreover, deletion from nt -180 to -118 resulted in a further reduction to about one-third of that. Finally, deletion down to nt -61 further reduced activity by a factor of 3, although it remained above background. These results suggest the presence of several positive cis-acting elements in the PAP I promoter. In non-pancreatic cells, CAT expression remained very low when the promoter was deleted down to nt -180. Yet, deletion from -180 to -118 significantly increased CAT expression, suggesting suppression of a negative cis-acting element. Further deletion down to nt -61 decreased CAT activity by a factor of 5. The region between nt -180 and -61 was subjected to footprint analysis. A similar pattern of DNase protection was obtained with AR-42J and Rat 2 nuclear extracts, the only protected region extending from nt -125 to -95. That region was further analysed by inserting the nt -180 to -81 fragment, in both orientations, upstream of thymidine kinase (TK) or simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter-CAT constructs. In all cases CAT expression was increased in pancreatic cells but reduced in Rat 2 cells. These results indicated the presence of cell-specific positive and negative elements within that region.
Project description:Gonadotropin expression is precisely regulated within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis through the complex interaction of neuropeptides, gonadal steroids. and both gonadal- and pituitary-derived peptides. In the anterior pituitary gland, the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) modulates gonadotropin biosynthesis and secretion, acting both alone and in conjunction with GnRH. Steroid hormone feedback also influences gonadotropin expression via both direct and indirect mechanisms. Evidence from nonpituitary tissues suggests that PACAP may be a target for gonadal steroid regulation. In the present study, we show that androgen markedly stimulates rat (r) PACAP promoter-reporter activity in the L?T2 mature mouse gonadotrope cell line. 5'-Serial deletion analysis of reporter constructs identifies 2 regions of androgen responsiveness located at (-915 to -818) and (-308 to -242) of the rPACAP promoter. Androgen receptor (AR) binds directly to DNA cis-elements in each of these regions in vitro. Site-directed mutagenesis of 3 conserved hormone response element half-sites straddling the (-308 to -242) region dramatically blunts androgen-dependent PACAP promoter activity and prevents AR binding at the mutated promoter element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that endogenous AR binds the homologous region on mouse chromatin in L?T2 cells in both the presence and absence of androgen. These data demonstrate that androgen stimulates PACAP gene expression in the pituitary gonadotrope via direct binding of AR to a specific cluster of evolutionarily conserved hormone response elements in the proximal rPACAP gene promoter. Thus, androgen regulation of pituitary PACAP expression may provide an additional layer of control over gonadotropin expression within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.
Project description:Two-component histidine kinases recently have been found in eukaryotic organisms including fungi, slime molds, and plants. We describe the identification of a gene, COS1, from the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans by using a PCR-based screening strategy. The sequence of COS1 indicates that it encodes a homolog of the histidine kinase Nik-1 from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. COS1 is also identical to a gene called CaNIK1 identified in C. albicans by low stringency hybridization using CaSLN1 as a probe [Nagahashi, S., Mio, T., Yamada-Okabe, T., Arisawa, M., Bussey, H. & Yamada-Okabe, H. (1998) Microbiol. 44, 425-432]. We assess the function of COS1/CaNIK1 by constructing a diploid deletion mutant. Mutants lacking both copies of COS1 appear normal when grown as yeast cells; however, they exhibit defective hyphal formation when placed on solid agar media, either in response to nutrient deprivation or serum. In constrast to the Deltanik-1 mutant, the Deltacos1/Deltacos1 mutant does not demonstrate deleterious effects when grown in media of high osmolarity; however both Deltanik-1 and Deltacos1/Deltacos1 mutants show defective hyphal formation. Thus, as predicted for Nik-1, Cos1p may be involved in some aspect of hyphal morphogenesis and may play a role in virulence properties of the organism.
Project description:Simian virus 40 (SV40)-containing DNA was rescued after the fusion of SV40-transformed VLM cells with permissive COS1 monkey cells and cloned, and prototype plasmid clones were characterized. A 2-kilobase mouse DNA fragment fused with the rescued SV40 DNA, and derived from mouse DNA flanking the single insert of SV40 DNA in VLM cells, was sequenced. Insertion of the intact rescued mouse sequence, or two nonoverlapping fragments of it, into wild-type SV40 plasmid DNA suppressed replication of the plasmid in TC7 monkey cells, although the plasmids expressed replication-competent T antigen. Rat cells were transformed with linearized wild-type SV40 plasmid DNA with or without fragments of the mouse DNA in cis. Although all of the rat cell lines expressed approximately equal amounts of T antigen and p53, transformants carrying SV40 DNA linked to either of the same two replication suppressor fragments produced significantly less free SV40 DNA after fusion with permissive cells than those transformed by SV40 DNA without a cellular insert or with a cellular insert lacking suppressor activity. The results suggest that two independent segments of cellular DNA act in cis to suppress SV40 replication in vivo, either as a plasmid or integrated in chromosomal DNA.
Project description:Androgens play an important role in the development and maintenance of male reproductive organs through the androgen receptor (AR). In order to study the mechanism of regulation of AR at the molecular level, a 1571 bp fragment in the 5'-flanking region of the mouse androgen receptor (mAR) gene was isolated and sequenced. Transfection of 5'-deletion constructs cloned into vectors containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene indicated the presence of a promoter in the sequence -146 to +131. These experiments also suggested the presence of a suppressor element. Further characterization indicated that the suppressor is present between -486 to -351. It is functional in the context of the natural AR promoter and the heterologous thymidine kinase promoter. Transfection of a -546/ + 131 construct in which the putative suppressor element (-421 to -448) had been deleted caused increased basal CAT activity suggesting that the suppressor is limited to this 28 bp element in the 5'-flanking region of the mouse AR gene.
Project description:The gene encoding GRP78 has been shown to be constitutively expressed in many cell types and is inducible by the calcium ionophore A23187. To understand the regulation of GRP78 transcription, we analyzed the components that control its basal-level expression. By transfecting deletions into cells, we have identified a 54-nucleotide cis-acting regulatory element important for high basal-level expression and a contiguous 50-nucleotide element for both basal-level expression and A23187 induction. Using DNase footprinting assays with both rat and human GRP78 promoters, we demonstrated that the protein factors present in the HeLa cell nuclear extracts bind to the regulatory regions identified by the deletion studies. This domain contains a palindromic sequence and is highly conserved among GRP genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, chicks, rats, and humans.
Project description:The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (beta-2 AR) modulates metabolic processes in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue in response to catecholamine stimulation. We showed previously that expression of the porcine beta-2 AR gene (ADRB2) is affected by cis-regulatory polymorphisms. These are most likely responsible for the association of ADRB2 with economically relevant muscle-related traits in pigs. The present study focused on characterization of promoter elements involved in basal transcriptional regulation of the porcine ADRB2 in different cell types to aid identification of its cis-regulatory polymorphisms. Based on in silico analysis, luciferase reporter gene assays and gel shift assays were performed using COS-7, HepG2, C2C12, and 3T3-L1 cells. Deletion mapping of the 5´ flanking region (-1324 to +33) of ADRB2 revealed the region between -307 and -269 to be the minimal promoter, including regulatory elements essential for the basal transcriptional activity in all four tested cell types. Directly upstream (-400 to -323) we identified an important enhancer element required for maximal promoter activity. In silico analysis and gel shift assays revealed that this GC-rich element harbors two evolutionarily conserved binding sites of Sp1, a constitutive transcriptional activator. Significant transcriptional activation of the porcine ADRB2 promoter was demonstrated by overexpression of Sp1. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, an important role of Sp1 and of the responsive enhancer element in the regulation of ADRB2 expression. Polymorphisms located in this domain of the porcine ADRB2 promoter represent candidate causal cis-regulatory variants.
Project description:Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters. In a previous communication, evidence was provided that TH mRNA is trafficked to the axon, where it is locally translated. In addition, a 50-bp sequence element in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of TH mRNA was identified that directs TH mRNA to distal axons (i.e., zip-code). In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that local translation of TH plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the axon and/or presynaptic nerve terminal. Toward this end, a targeted deletion of the axonal transport sequence element was developed, using the lentiviral delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and two guide RNA (gRNA) sequences flanking the 50-bp cis-acting regulatory element in rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. Deletion of the axonal transport element reduced TH mRNA levels in the distal axons and reduced the axonal protein levels of TH and TH activity as measured by phosphorylation of SER40 in SCG neurons. Moreover, deletion of the zip-code diminished the axonal levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). Conversely, the local translation of exogenous TH mRNA in the distal axon enhanced TH levels and activity, and elevated axonal NE levels. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence to support the hypothesis that TH mRNA trafficking and local synthesis of TH play an important role in the synthesis of catecholamines in the axon and presynaptic terminal.
Project description:The DNA-binding domains (DBDs) of class I steroid receptors-androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone and mineralocorticoid receptors-recognize a similar cis-element, an inverted repeat of 5'-AGAACA-3' with a 3-nt spacer. However, these receptors regulate transcription programs that are largely receptor-specific. To address the role of the DBD in and of itself in ensuring specificity of androgen receptor (AR) binding to chromatin in vivo, we used SPARKI knock-in mice whose AR DBD has the second zinc finger replaced by that of the glucocorticoid receptor. Comparison of AR-binding events in epididymides and prostates of wild-type (wt) and SPARKI mice revealed that AR achieves selective chromatin binding through a less stringent sequence requirement for the 3'-hexamer. In particular, a T at position 12 in the second hexamer is dispensable for wt AR but mandatory for SPARKI AR binding, and only a G at position 11 is highly conserved among wt AR-preferred response elements. Genome-wide AR-binding events agree with the respective transcriptome profiles, in that attenuated AR binding in SPARKI mouse epididymis correlates with blunted androgen response in vivo. Collectively, AR-selective actions in vivo rely on relaxed rather than increased stringency of cis-elements on chromatin. These elements are, in turn, poorly recognized by other class I steroid receptors.
Project description:Transcription of the c-fos proto-oncogene is rapidly induced in the rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line by a wide variety of stimuli, including polypeptide growth factors, phorbol esters, and calcium ion fluxes. We have mapped the upstream sequence requirements for this activation in PC12 cells by analysis of promoter deletion mutants in a transient expression assay. Two distinct pathways of c-fos induction are defined that differ in their requirement for cis-acting DNA sequences. Calcium activation of c-fos transcription is dependent on a DNA element located approximately 60 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. This region is highly conserved between human, mouse, and chicken c-fos genes and contains a sequence that resembles the consensus for a cyclic AMP response element. The dyad symmetry element at position -300, which is necessary for serum responsiveness of c-fos, appears to be unimportant for calcium activation of the gene. The dyad symmetry element is, however, an essential cis-acting sequence for c-fos inducibility by nerve growth factor, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate. Studies in vivo and in vitro with various mutants of the dyad symmetry element indicate that c-fos activation by polypeptide growth factors and 12-O-tetradecanoyl activation by polypeptide growth factors and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate is mediated by a common transcription factor, and that this factor is identical to the previously described serum response factor. In vitro DNA-binding assays suggest that the quantity of serum response factor-binding activity remains unchanged during c-fos transcriptional activation.