Diurnal patterns of cardiac and hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity in gold-thioglucose-obese mice.
ABSTRACT: The diurnal pattern of the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) was studied in the heart and liver of gold-thioglucose (GTG)-obese mice and age-matched controls. The diurnal pattern of lipogenesis was also measured in the liver. Both lean and obese mice had one main eating period, from 20:00 to 24:00 h. Eating produced no change in serum glucose of control mice but there was a significant rise in serum insulin and triacylglycerols. There was also a 3-fold increase in cardiac PDHC activity and a 3-fold increase in hepatic lipogenesis in the control mice, but little change in hepatic PDHC activity. GTG-obese mice were hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and hypertriglyceridaemic at all times studied, with significant increases in these parameters being seen in response to eating. Eating produced little change in cardiac PDHC activity, but there was a 5-fold increase in hepatic PDHC activity, paralleled by a 10-fold increase in hepatic lipogenesis. Hepatic PDHC activity was significantly higher in GTG-obese mice at all times except 16:00 h. The simultaneous rise of hepatic PDHC activity, lipogenesis and serum triacylglycerols in GTG-obese mice suggests an increased utilization of glucose for lipogenesis. The lack of change in heart PDHC activity in GTG-obese mice over 24 h suggests that a general decrease in PDHC activity may contribute to the development of the glucose intolerance and insulin resistance of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, it appears that a different level of metabolic control allows hepatic PDHC activity of the same obese animals to increase in response to hyperinsulinaemia and contribute to the higher rates of lipogenesis seen in obese mice.
Project description:The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC), a key enzyme complex in the oxidative disposal of glucose, was measured after an oral glucose load in the heart, liver, quadriceps muscle, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of gold-thioglucose (GTG)-obese mice at different stages during the development of obesity and in age-matched controls. Significant responses to the glucose load were seen 30 min post-gavage in heart, WAT and BAT of control mice but no change was observed in quadriceps muscle. The increase in activity of the active form of PDHC (PDHCa) in response to glucose in heart was reduced 2 weeks after the induction of GTG-obesity with no response in 5 or 10 week obese mice. A 2-3-fold increase in the PDHCa response in both WAT and BAT of 2 week obese mice was absent in 5 and 10 week obese animals. Basal PDHCa activity in quadriceps muscle was increased in 2 week obese mice but subsequently returned to control levels as obesity progressed. The glucose load produced no change in the activity of PDHCa in quadriceps muscle of obese mice. These results demonstrate that changes in the capacity for oxidative glucose disposal in different tissues, as indicated by changes in PDHCa activity, may contribute to glucose-intolerance and insulin-resistance in GTG-obese mice and that the response of the PDHC to insulin during the development of obesity varies in different tissues.
Project description:Lipogenic response to feeding was measured in vivo in liver, epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), during the development of obesity in gold-thioglucose (GTG)-injected mice. The fatty acid synthesis after a meal was higher in all tissues of GTG-treated mice on a total-tissue basis, but the magnitude of this increase varied, depending on the tissue and the time after the initiation of obesity. Lipogenesis in BAT from GTG mice was double that of control mice for the first 2 weeks, but subsequently decreased to near control values. In WAT, lipogenesis after feeding was highest 2-4 weeks after GTG injection, and in liver, lipid synthesis in fed obese mice was greatest at 7-12 weeks after the induction of obesity. The post-prandial insulin concentration was increased after 2 weeks of obesity, and serum glucose concentration was higher in fed obese mice after 4 weeks. These results indicate that increased lipogenesis in GTG-injected mice may be due to an increase in insulin concentration after feeding and that insulin resistance (assessed by lipogenic response to insulin release) is apparent in BAT before WAT and liver.
Project description:The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex and PDH kinase were measured in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of 4-week-gold thioglucose (GTG)-obese mice. The proportion of PDH complex in the active dephosphorylated form was 2-fold higher in BAT of post-absorptive obese mice compared with lean controls. This result was consistent with the higher circulating insulin concentration observed in GTG-obese mice. In both obese and lean mice the PDH-complex activity in BAT decreased after 24 h starvation and increased in response to supraphysiological insulin injection, indicating that the PDH complex is insulin-responsive in BAT of GTG-obese mice. There was no difference in the PDH kinase activity of BAT in post-absorptive or insulin-injected lean and obese mice, suggesting that the higher PDH-complex activity in obese mice was not due to decreased PDH kinase activity. There is no evidence for a decreased activity of PDH complex contributing to insulin resistance in BAT of 4-week-GTG-obese mice.
Project description:Evidence from several recent metabolomic studies suggests that increased concentrations of triacylglycerols with shorter (14-16 carbon atoms), saturated fatty acids are associated with insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Although causality cannot be inferred from association studies, patients in whom the primary cause of insulin resistance can be genetically defined offer unique opportunities to address this challenge.We compared metabolite profiles in patients with congenital lipodystrophy or loss-of-function insulin resistance (INSR gene) mutations with healthy controls.The absence of significant differences in triacylglycerol species in the INSR group suggest that changes previously observed in epidemiological studies are not purely a consequence of insulin resistance. The presence of triacylglycerols with lower carbon numbers and high saturation in patients with lipodystrophy suggests that these metabolite changes may be associated with primary adipose tissue dysfunction. The observed pattern of triacylglycerol species is indicative of increased de novo lipogenesis in the liver. To test this we investigated the distribution of these triacylglycerols in lipoprotein fractions using size exclusion chromatography prior to mass spectrometry. This associated these triacylglycerols with very low-density lipoprotein particles, and hence release of triacylglycerols into the blood from the liver. To test further the hepatic origin of these triacylglycerols we induced de novo lipogenesis in the mouse, comparing ob/ob and wild-type mice on a chow or high fat diet, confirming that de novo lipogenesis induced an increase in relatively shorter, more saturated fatty acids.Overall, these studies highlight hepatic de novo lipogenesis in the pathogenesis of metabolic dyslipidaemia in states where energy intake exceeds the capacity of adipose tissue.
Project description:An intragastric load of medium- or long-chain triacylglycerols inhibited lipogenesis in lactating rat mammary gland in vivo by 82 or 89% respectively. This inhibition was reversed partially by insulin administration. Long-chain triacylglycerols inhibited hepatic lipogenesis in vivo but medium-chain triacylglycerols increased it 2-fold. Glucose utilization in vitro by mammary gland acini from triacylglycerol-fed rat was normal.
Project description:Hepatic steatosis is present in insulin-resistant obese rodents and is concomitant with active lipogenesis. Hepatic lipogenesis depends on the insulin-induced activation of the transcription factor SREBP-1c