9-cis-retinoic acid is a natural antagonist for the retinoic acid receptor response pathway.
ABSTRACT: The pleiotropic activities of retinoids are mediated by two types of nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) transcriptionally activates RARs, but not RXRs, whereas its natural stereoisomer, 9-cis-RA, is the ligand for RXRs. Here, we demonstrate that 9-cis-RA did not transcriptionally activate RARs, whereas in the presence of all-trans-RA the transactivation of RARs was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by 9-cis-RA. RAR homodimer complexes were destabilized in vitro in the presence of 9-cis-RA. This suggests that 9-cis-RA may be a natural antagonist of all-trans-RA for binding to RAR complexes. The levels of 9-cis-RA may determine by which pathway the transcription of retinoid-responsive genes is modulated.
Project description:Thymocytes can be induced to undergo apoptotic cell death by activation through the T-cell receptor (TCR). This process requires macromolecular synthesis and has been shown to be inhibited by retinoic acids (RAs). Two groups of nuclear receptors for RAs have been identified: retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). All-trans-RA is the high-affinity ligand for RARs, and 9-cis-RA additionally binds to RXRs with high affinity. Because 9-cis-RA is much more potent in inhibiting TCR-mediated death than all-trans-RA, it was suggested that RXRs participate in the process. In the present study various synthetic retinoid analogues were used to address this question further. The results presented suggest that the inhibitory effect of RAs on activation-induced death of thymocytes is mediated via RARalpha, because (1) it can be reproduced by various RARalpha analogues both in vitro and in vivo, (2) the effect of RAs can be inhibited by the addition of an RARalpha antagonist, (3) CD4+CD8+thymocytes, which die on TCR stimulation, express RARalpha. Stimulation of RARgamma, in contrast, enhances the activation-induced death of thymocytes and inhibits its prevention by RARalpha stimulation. RXR co-stimulation suspends this inhibitory effect of RARgamma and permits the preventive function of RARalpha on activation-induced death. Our results suggest a complex interaction between the various isoforms of retinoid receptors and demonstrate that low (physiological) concentrations of all-trans-RA do not affect the activation-induced death of thymocytes because the RARalpha-mediated inhibitory and the RARgamma-mediated enhancing pathways are in balance, whereas if 9-cis-RA is formed, additional stimulation of RXRs permits the inhibitory action of RARalpha.
Project description:Mesangial cells play an active role in the inflammatory response to glomerular injury. We have studied in cultured human mesangial cells (CHMC) several effects of 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cRA), an activator of both retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). 9-cRA inhibited foetal calf serum-induced CHMC proliferation. It also prevented CHMC death induced by the inflammatory mediator H(2)O(2). This preventive effect was not due to any increase in H(2)O(2) catabolism and it persisted even when both catalase and glutathione synthesis were inhibited. Finally, 9-cRA diminished monocyte adhesion to FCS-stimulated CHMC. Interestingly, the retinoid also inhibited in FCS-stimulated cells the protein expression of two mesangial adhesion molecules, fibronectin and osteopontin, but it did not modify the protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1. All major RARs and RXRs isotypes were expressed in CHMC regardless of the presence or absence of 9-cRA. Transcripts to RAR-alpha, RAR-beta and RXR-alpha increased after incubation with 9-cRA whereas RXR-gamma was inhibited, suggesting a major role for RARs and RXRs in 9-cRA-anti-inflammatory effects. 9-cRA was toxic only at 50 microM (a concentration 50 - 5000 times higher than required for the effects above). Cell death occurred by apoptosis, whose onset was associated with a pronounced increase in catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, being more effectively induced by all-trans retinoic acid. Modulation of the oxidant/antioxidant balance failed to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that mesangial cells might be a target for the treatment of inflammatory glomerulopathies with 9-cRA.
Project description:Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) ?, ?, and ? heterodimerize with Retinoid X receptors (RXR) ?, ?, and ? and bind the cis-acting response elements known as RAREs to execute the biological functions of retinoic acid during mammalian development. RAR? mediates the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of retinoids in certain tissues and cancer cells, such as melanoma and neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, ablation of RAR? enhanced the tumor incidence of Ras transformed keratinocytes and was associated with resistance to retinoid mediated growth arrest and apoptosis. We used microarray analysis to identify genes, which upon 8 or 24 hr of treatment with all-trans retinoic acid display differential expression in RAR? knockout (RAR?KO) murine embryonic stem cells relative to CCE WT cells. We demonstrate that following RA treatment the majority of inducible transcripts are present at lower levels in RAR?KO ES cells compared to WT ES cells. Murine embryonic stem cells (WT and RAR?KO) were treated with either all-trans retinoic acid (up to 24 hr) or with vehicle control (EtOH).
Project description:The diverse biological actions of retinoic acid (RA) are mediated by RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Modulation of transcription by RARs/RXRs is achieved through two activation functions, ligand-independent AF-1 and ligand-dependent AF-2, located in the A/B and E domains, respectively. While the coregulatory proteins that interact with the E domain are well studied, the A/B domain-interacting partners and their influence(s) on the function of RARs are poorly understood. Acinus-S' is an ubiquitous nuclear protein that has been implicated in inducing apoptotic chromatin condensation and regulating mRNA processing. Our data demonstrate that Acinus-S' can specifically repress ligand-independent and ligand-dependent expression of a DR5 RA response element(RARE)-dependent reporter gene and several endogenous RAR-regulated genes in a dose-dependent and gene-specific manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that Acinus-S' associates with RAREs within the promoters of endogenous genes independent of RA treatment. Furthermore, the C-terminal end of Acinus-S' and the B domain of RARbeta interact independently of ligand, and the C-terminal end of Acinus-S' is sufficient for the repression of RAR-regulated gene expression. Finally, histone deacetylase activity only partially accounts for the repressive effect of Acinus-S' on RAR-dependent gene expression. These findings identify Acinus-S' as a novel RAR-interacting protein that regulates the expression of a subset of RAR-regulated genes through direct binding to the N-terminal B domains of RARs.
Project description:Retinoid X receptors (RXRs), along with retinoic acid (RA) receptors (RARs), mediate the effects of RA on gene expression. Three subtypes of RXRs (alpha, beta, and gamma) which bind to and are activated by the 9-cis stereoisomer of RA have been characterized. They activate gene transcription by binding to specific sites on DNA as homodimers or as heterodimers with RARs and other related nuclear receptors, including the vitamin D receptor, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Two additional RXR subtypes (delta and epsilon) isolated from zebra fish cDNA libraries are described here; although both subtypes form DNA-binding heterodimers with RARs and TR, neither binds 9-cis RA, and both are transcriptionally inactive on RXR response elements. In cotransfection studies with TR, the delta subtype was found to function in a dominant negative manner, while the epsilon subtype had a slight stimulatory effect on thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent transcriptional activity. The discovery of these two novel receptors in zebra fish expands the functional repertoire of RXRs to include ligand-independent and dominant negative modulation of type II receptor function.
Project description:Retinoic acid (RA) signaling regulates multiple aspects of vertebrate embryonic development and tissue patterning, in part through the local availability of nuclear hormone receptors called retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid receptors (RXRs). RAR/RXR heterodimers transduce the RA signal, and loss-of-function studies in mice have demonstrated requirements for distinct receptor combinations at different stages of embryogenesis. However, the tissue-specific functions of each receptor and their individual contributions to RA signaling in vivo are only partially understood. Here we use morpholino oligonucleotides to deplete the four known zebrafish RARs (raraa, rarab, rarga, and rargb). We show that while all four are required for anterior-posterior patterning of rhombomeres in the hindbrain, there are unique requirements for rarga in the cranial mesoderm for hindbrain patterning, and rarab in lateral plate mesoderm for specification of the pectoral fins. In addition, the alpha subclass (raraa, rarab) is RA inducible, and of these only raraa expression is RA-dependent, suggesting that these receptors establish a region of particularly high RA signaling through positive-feedback. These studies reveal novel tissue-specific roles for RARs in controlling the competence and sensitivity of cells to respond to RA.
Project description:Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and bind to RA response elements (RAREs) in the regulatory regions of their target genes. Although previous studies on limited sets of RA-regulated genes have defined canonical RAREs as direct repeats of the consensus RGKTCA separated by 1, 2, or 5 nucleotides (DR1, DR2, DR5), we show that in mouse embryoid bodies or F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, RARs occupy a large repertoire of sites with DR0, DR8, and IR0 (inverted repeat 0) elements. Recombinant RAR-RXR binds these non-canonical spacings in vitro with comparable affinities to DR2 and DR5. Most DR8 elements comprise three half-sites with DR2 and DR0 spacings. This specific half-site organization constitutes a previously unrecognized but frequent signature of RAR binding elements. In functional assays, DR8 and IR0 elements act as independent RAREs, whereas DR0 does not. Our results reveal an unexpected diversity in the spacing and topology of binding elements for the RAR-RXR heterodimer. The differential ability of RAR-RXR bound to DR0 compared to DR2, DR5, and DR8 to mediate RA-dependent transcriptional activation indicates that half-site spacing allosterically regulates RAR function.
Project description:Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are retinoic acid (RA)-inducible enhancer factors belonging to the superfamily of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors. We have previously characterized two human RAR (hRAR-alpha and hRAR-beta) cDNAs and have recently cloned their murine cognates (mRAR-alpha and mRAR-beta) together with a third RAR (mRAR-gamma) whose RNA was detected predominantly in skin, a well-known target for RA. mRAR-gamma cDNA was used here to clone its human counterpart (hRAR-gamma) from a T47D breast cancer cell cDNA library. Using a transient transfection assay in HeLa cells and a reporter gene harboring a synthetic RA responsive element, we demonstrate that hRAR-gamma cDNA indeed encodes a RA-inducible transcriptional trans-activator. Interestingly, comparisons of the amino acid sequences of all six human and mouse RARs indicate that the interspecies conservation of a given member of the RAR subfamily (either alpha, beta, or gamma) is much higher than the conservation of all three receptors within a given species. These observations indicate that RAR-alpha, -beta, and -gamma may perform specific functions. We show also that hRAR-gamma RNA is the predominant RAR RNA species in human skin, which suggests that hRAR-gamma mediates some of the retinoid effects in this tissue.
Project description:Retinoids have been shown to serve promising therapeutic agents for human cancers, e.g. the treatment of neuroblastoma. Synthetic retinoids, specific for particular retinoic acid (RA) receptors, are tested as new therapy strategies. In the present study, application of recombinant retinoic acid (RA) lowers retinoblastoma (RB) cell viability and induces apoptosis in RB cell lines. Combined treatment of RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) increases the pro-apoptotic effect of RA in the RB cells lines WERI-Rb1, Y-79, RB355, RBL-30 and RBL-15, indicating an additive effect. We could show that in WERI-Rb1 cells RA/BMP-4 mediated cell death is at least partially caspase-dependent, whereby RA and BMP-4 additively increased (i) Apaf-1 mRNA levels, (ii) caspase-9 cleavage activity and (iii) the number of activated, cleaved caspase-3 positive cells. Compared to single application of RA and BMP-4, combined RA/BMP-4 treatment significantly augments mRNA levels of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) RAR? and RARß and the retinoic X receptor (RXR) RXR? suggesting an interaction in the induction of these RA receptor subtypes in WERI-Rb1 cells. Agonist studies revealed that both, RARs and RXRs are involved in RA/BMP-4 mediated apoptosis in WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma cells. Employing specific RAR subtype antagonists and a RXRß and RXR? knockdown, we proved that RA/BMP-4 apoptosis signaling in WERI-Rb1 cells requires the RA receptor subtypes RAR?, RARß, RXRß and RXR?. Deciphering signaling mechanisms underlying apoptosis induction of RA and BMP-4 in WERI-Rb1 cells, our study provides useful starting-points for future retinoid-based therapy strategies in retinoblastoma.
Project description:Mechanisms regulating CYP4F genes remain under investigation, although characterization of CYP4F regulatory modalities would facilitate the discovery of new drug targets. This present study shows that all-trans- and 9-cis-retinoic acids can inhibit CYP4F11 expression in human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells. Transrepression of many genes by retinoic acids is mediated by interactions between retinoid receptors and the activator protein 1 (AP-1) complex. Proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 1beta, which can activate the AP-1 complex, induce CYP4F11 transcription in HaCaT cells. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-specific inhibitor 1,9-pyrazoloanthrone (SP600125) blocked the induction of CYP4F11 by both cytokines, indicating involvement of the JNK pathway. Furthermore, TNF-alpha failed to induce CYP4F11 transcription when HaCaT cells were preincubated with retinoic acids. Retinoic acids are ligands for the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). The RXR agonist 6-(1(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)cyclopropyl) nicotinic acid (LG268) greatly induced CYP4F11 transcription, whereas the RAR agonist 4-(2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-propenyl)benzoic acid (TTNPB) markedly inhibited CYP4F11 transcription, indicating that down-regulation of CYP4F11 transcription by retinoic acid is mediated by RARs and may also be related to ligand competition for RXRs. Thus, the CYP4F11 gene is positively regulated by multiple signaling pathways in HaCaT keratinocytes, including RXR and JNK signaling pathways.