Regulation by insulin of glucose metabolism in mammary gland of anaesthetized lactating rats. Stimulation of phosphofructokinase-1 by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
ABSTRACT: The effect of insulin on glucose metabolism in mammary gland was studied by the euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic-clamp technique. Measurement of metabolite concentrations and enzyme activities in the mammary gland suggests two sites of action of insulin: phosphofructokinase-1 and acetyl-coA carboxylase. The increase in phosphofructokinase-1 activity could be linked to the 2-fold increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration, since no change in maximal activity and in sensitivity of the enzyme toward fructose 6-phosphate was detected in vitro.
Project description:1. Oral administration of triacylglycerol (triolein) to starved/chow-refed lactating rats suppressed the lipogenic switch-on in the mammary gland in vivo. 2. A time-course study revealed that triolein, administered at 30 min after the onset of refeeding, had no influence on lipogenic rate in the mammary gland between 30 and 60 min, but markedly decreased it between 60 and 90 min. Glucose uptake by the mammary gland (arteriovenous difference) increased by 30 min of refeeding, as did lactate production. Between 30 and 90 min glucose uptake remained high in the control animals, but glucose uptake and net C3-unit uptake were decreased in the triolein-loaded animals by 90 min. 3. Triolein increased [glucose 6-phosphate] in the gland and simultaneously decreased [fructose 1,6-bisphosphate], indicative of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. This cross-over occurred at 60 min, i.e. immediately before the inhibition of lipogenesis, and by 90 min had reached 'starved' values. 4. Triolein had no effect on plasma [insulin] nor on whole-blood [glucose], [lactate] or [3-hydroxybutyrate]; a small increase in [acetoacetate] was observed. 5. Infusion of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, Triton WR1339, abolished the suppression of mammary-gland lipogenesis by triolein and the increase in the [glucose 6-phosphate]/[fructose 1,6-bisphosphate] ratio, suggesting a direct influence of dietary lipid on mammary-gland glucose utilization and phosphofructokinase activity.
Project description:Depression of carbohydrate digestion by oral administration of acarbose, a glucosidase inhibitor, led to a 75% inhibition of the re-activation of lipogenesis in vivo in the mammary gland of 18 h-starved lactating rats refed with 5 g of chow diet. Rates of [1-14C]glucose incorporation in vitro into lipid and CO2 in mammary-gland acini isolated from refed animals were elevated compared with acini from starved rats, but acarbose treatment completely prevented this stimulation. Gastric intubation of glucose led to a large stimulation of lipogenesis in the mammary gland of starved lactating rats, similar to that induced by refeeding with chow diet; this was dependent on the amount of glucose given and the time elapsed between glucose administration and injection of 3H2O for the measurement of lipogenesis. The switch-on of lipogenesis in the mammary gland of starved lactating rats, by refeeding or by intubation of glucose, was associated with a decrease in the ratio of [glucose 6-phosphate]/[fructose 1,6-bisphosphate] in the gland, indicative of an increase in phosphofructokinase activity. A time-course study revealed that the ratio decreased rapidly over the first 30 min of chow refeeding, after which a large surge in lipogenesis was seen. Acarbose, given 25 min after the onset of refeeding, led to a stepwise increase in the ratio, in parallel with the observed decrease in lipogenic activity. It is concluded that the control of lipogenesis in the mammary gland is closely linked to the availability of dietary carbohydrate. An important site of regulation of lipogenesis in the gland appears to be at the level of phosphofructokinase. A possible role of insulin in the regulation of phosphofructokinase activity, and the acute modulation of insulin-sensitivity in the gland during the starved-refed transition, are discussed.
Project description:The fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) content and intracellular concentration of lactating mammary gland was measured in fed, starved and re-fed rats. There was little or no change on starvation, and about 1.5-fold rise on re-feeding, contrasting with estimated glycolytic changes of about 10-fold. The 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK-1) activity of mammary extracts was highly sensitive to added Fru-2,6-P2 under all conditions examined, and appeared to approach saturation at physiological concentrations of this effector. The activity of mammary PFK-1 measured under optimal and 'physiological' conditions suggested that this enzyme operates in vivo at about 24% of maximal rate, and is likely to be an important rate-limiting factor in mammary glycolysis.
Project description:Starvation for 6h and 24h caused an 80% and 95% decrease in the rate of mammary-gland lipogenesis respectively in conscious lactating rats. 2. Plasma insulin concentrations decreased and circulating ketone-body concentrations increased with the length of starvation. 3. The inhibition of lipogenesis after 24h starvation was accompanied by increased concentrations of glucose, glucose 6-phosphate and citrate in the mammary gland. Qualitatively similar changes were observed after 6h starvation. 4. Infusion of insulin at physiological concentrations caused a 100% increase in the rate of lipogenesis in fed animals and partially reversed the inhibition of lipogenesis caused by starvation. 5. Infusion of insulin tended to reverse the changes seen in intracellular metabolite concentrations. 4. Infusion of glucagon into fed rats caused no change in the rates of lipogenesis in mammary gland, liver or white adipose tissue. 7. It is concluded that (a) insulin acts physiologically to regulate lipogenesis in the mammary gland, (b) hexokinase and phosphofructokinase are important regulatory enzymes in the short-term control of lipogenesis in the mammary gland, which are under the influence of insulin, and (c) the unresponsiveness of mammary-gland lipogenesis in vivo to infusions of glucagon is consistent with an adaptive mechanism which diverts substrate towards the lactating mammary gland and away from other tissues.
Project description:1. Alterations in phosphofructokinase properties can be reproducibly seen in tissue extracts prepared and rapidly assayed after exposure of rat adipocytes to hormones. 2. Noradrenaline, corticotropin or isoprenaline (isoproterenol; beta-adrenergic agonist) decreased the activity measured with high fructose 6-phosphate concentrations (3--6 mM), but increased activity measured with lower concentrations of this substrate (0.3--0.9 mM). Noradrenaline decreased the Vmax. and the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate that gave half the Vmax.. 3. Insulin opposed the actions of noradrenaline and itself increased phosphofructokinase activity. 4. The effect of noradrenaline appeared to be exerted through a beta- rather than an alpha-type of adrenoceptor. 5. The effects of noradrenaline to decrease phosphofructokinase activity at high [fructose 6-phosphate] and to increase activity at low [fructose 6-phosphate] could be rapidly reversed in cells by addition of the beta-blocker propranolol. 6. The effect of noradrenaline seen at low [fructose 6-phosphate] could be abolished by homogenization of cells in buffer containing albumin or reversed by brief incubation of tissue extracts with albumin, suggesting that this effect of the hormone is due to the association of some ligand with the enzyme.
Project description:AIMS:Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent vasoconstrictor implicated in both hypertension and insulin resistance. Insulin dilates the vasculature in skeletal muscle to increase microvascular blood flow and enhance glucose disposal. In the present study, we investigated whether acute AngII infusion interferes with insulin's microvascular and metabolic actions in skeletal muscle. METHODS AND RESULTS:Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats received a systemic infusion of either saline, AngII, insulin (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp), or insulin (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) plus AngII. A final, separate group of rats received an acute local infusion of AngII into a single hindleg during systemic insulin (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) infusion. In all animals' systemic metabolic effects, central haemodynamics, femoral artery blood flow, microvascular blood flow, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake (isotopic glucose) were monitored. Systemic AngII infusion increased blood pressure, decreased heart rate, and markedly increased circulating glucose and insulin concentrations. Systemic infusion of AngII during hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp inhibited insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output and insulin-stimulated microvascular blood flow in skeletal muscle but did not alter insulin's effects on the femoral artery or muscle glucose uptake. Local AngII infusion did not alter blood pressure, heart rate, or circulating glucose and insulin. However, local AngII inhibited insulin-stimulated microvascular blood flow, and this was accompanied by reduced skeletal muscle glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS:Acute infusion of AngII significantly alters basal haemodynamic and metabolic homeostasis in rats. Both local and systemic AngII infusion attenuated insulin's microvascular actions in skeletal muscle, but only local AngII infusion led to reduced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. While increased local, tissue production of AngII may be a factor that couples microvascular insulin resistance and hypertension, additional studies are needed to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for these vascular defects.
Project description:1. Attempts were made to define the role of phosphofructokinase in glycolytic control and the factors regulating the concentration of l-glycerol 3-phosphate in rat epididymal fat pads incubated in vitro. 2. Glycolysis rates were altered by anoxia or by additions of insulin, adrenaline or both to the incubation medium, and the changes in rate were related to changes in the steady-state concentrations of hexose phosphates, adenine nucleotides, l-glycerol 3-phosphate and citrate in the whole tissue. Measurements were also made of the lactate/pyruvate concentration ratio in the medium after incubation. 3. The mass-action ratios of phosphofructokinase, calculated from the whole-tissue concentrations of products and substrates, were less than 0.1% of the value of the ratio at pH7.4 at equilibrium. 4. Only in the presence of adrenaline could the observed stimulation of glycolytic flux be related to a possible activation of phosphofructokinase since, in this situation, the concentration of one substrate, fructose 6-phosphate, was not altered and the concentration of the other, ATP, was decreased. Increased glycolytic flux in the presence of insulin may be explained by an observed increase in the concentration of the substrate, fructose 6-phosphate. Under anaerobic conditions, glycolytic flux was decreased but this did not appear to be the result of inhibition of phosphofructokinase, since the concentrations of both substrates, fructose 6-phosphate and ATP, were decreased. The changes in glycolytic flux with insulin and anoxia may be secondary to changes in the rate of glucose uptake. 5. Changes in l-glycerol 3-phosphate concentration appear to be related both to changes in the concentration of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and to changes in the NADH/NAD(+) concentration ratio in the cytoplasm. They do not seem to be related directly to alterations in glycolytic rate.
Project description:A fructose diphosphatase-phosphofructokinase substrate cycle has been reconstructed in vitro to provide a system that recycles fructose 6-phosphate and hydrolyses ATP to ADP and P(i). The concerted actions of glucose phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase, aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase catalysed the loss of (3)H from [5-(3)H,U-(14)C]glucose 6-phosphate. This was used as the basis of a method for the estimation of the fructose diphosphatase-phosphofructokinase substrate cycle. For the reconstructed cycle, the rate of decrease of the (3)H/(14)C ratio in [5-(3)H,U-(14)C]hexose 6-phosphate was proportional to the rate of fructose 6-phosphate substrate cycling. A detailed theoretical treatment of this relationship is developed, which enables the rate of substrate cycling to be determined in vivo.
Project description:1. The enzymes phosphofructokinase (EC 184.108.40.206), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11), phosphoglucomutase (EC 18.104.22.168), ATP-citrate lyase (EC 22.214.171.124), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 126.96.36.199) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (EC 188.8.131.52) were assayed in rabbit mammary glands at various stages of the pregnancy-lactation cycle. 2. The activities of all enzymes were low during pregnancy and, with the exception of phosphofructokinase, in non-pregnant animals. Two- to ten-fold increases in enzyme activities occurred over the first 20 days of lactation. Although milk yield was considerably decreased, the enzyme activities remained elevated in late lactation (45 days after parturition). 3. These findings are discussed in relation to mammary-gland metabolism and compared with similar observations previously made on ruminants and other small mammals.
Project description:1. The enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, ATP-citrate lyase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase have been assayed in rat mammary glands in various stages of involution after hypophysectomy and weaning. 2. After hypophysectomy all seven enzymes decline in activity over a 12-16hr. period but the extent of the decline varies, with acetyl-CoA carboxylase becoming almost totally inactive, ATP-citrate lyase and phosphofructokinase showing a large decrease, and the remaining enzymes a less marked decline. 3. Within 24hr. of removing the litter a change in the pattern of enzyme activity is found very similar to that after hypophysectomy. 4. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to the endocrine control of mammary gland metabolism and the mechanisms of involution.