GTP analogues promote release of the alpha subunit of the guanine nucleotide binding protein, Gi2, from membranes of rat glioma C6 BU1 cells.
ABSTRACT: The major pertussis-toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein of rat glioma C6 BU1 cells corresponded immunologically to Gi2. Antibodies which recognize the alpha subunit of this protein indicated that it has an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa and a pI of 5.7. Incubation of membranes of these cells with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, or other analogues of GTP, caused release of this polypeptide from the membrane in a time-dependent manner. Analogues of GDP or of ATP did not mimic this effect. The GTP analogues similarly caused release of the alpha subunit of Gi2 from membranes of C6 cells in which this G-protein had been inactivated by pretreatment with pertussis toxin. The beta subunit was not released from the membrane under any of these conditions, indicating that the release process was a specific response to the dissociation of the G-protein after binding of the GTP analogue. Similar nucleotide profiles for release of the alpha subunits of forms of Gi were noted for membranes of both the neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15 and of human platelets. These data provide evidence that: (1) pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins, in native membranes, do indeed dissociate into alpha and beta gamma subunits upon activation; (2) the alpha subunit of 'Gi-like' proteins need not always remain in intimate association with the plasma membrane; and (3) the alpha subunit of Gi2 can still dissociate from the beta/gamma subunits after pertussis-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation.
Project description:The predominant guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) of bovine lung membranes, termed GL, has been purified and compared biochemically, immunochemically and functionally with Gi and Go purified from rabbit brain. The purified GL appeared to have a similar subunit structure to Gi and Go, being composed of alpha, beta and possibly gamma subunits. On Coomassie Blue-stained SDS/polyacrylamide gels and immunoblots, the alpha subunit of GL (GL alpha) displayed an intermediate mobility (40 kDa) between those of Gi and Go (Gi alpha and Go alpha). GL alpha was [32P]ADP-ribosylated in the presence of pertussis toxin and [32P]NAD+. Analysis of [32P]ADP-ribosylated alpha subunits by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing showed that GL alpha was distinct from Gi alpha and Go alpha, but very similar to the predominant G-protein in neutrophil membranes. Immunochemical characterization also revealed that GL was distinct from Gi and Go, but was indistinguishable from the G-protein of neutrophils, which has been tentatively identified as Gi2 [Goldsmith, Gierschik, Milligan, Unson, Vinitsky, Maleck & Spiegel (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 14683-14688]. In functional studies, higher Mg2+ concentrations were required for guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate (GTP[35S]) binding to GL than were required for nucleotide binding to Go, whereas Gi showed a Mg2+-dependence similar to that of GL. The kinetics of GTP[35S] binding to GL was quite different from those of Gi and Go; t1/2 values of maximal binding were 30, 15 and 5 min respectively. In contrast, the rate of hydrolysis of [gamma-32P]GTP by GL (t1/2 approximately 1 min) was approx. 4 times faster than that by Gi or Go. These results indicated that the predominant G-protein purified from lung is structurally and functionally distinct from Gi and Go of brain, but structurally indistinguishable from Gi2 of neutrophils.
Project description:Hepatocytes contain the Gi2 and Gi3 forms of the 'Gi-family' of guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins), but not Gi1. The anti-peptide antisera AS7 and I3B were shown to immunoprecipitate Gi2 and Gi3 selectively, and the antiserum CS1 immunoprecipitated the stimulatory G-protein Gs. Treatment of intact, 32P-labelled hepatocytes with one of glucagon, TH-glucagon ([1-N-alpha-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]glucagon), Arg-vasopressin, angiotensin-II, the phorbol ester TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate) and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP elicited a time- and dose-dependent increase in the labelling of the alpha-subunit of immunoprecipitated Gi2 which paralleled the loss of ability of low concentrations of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity ('Gi'-function). The immunoprecipitation of phosphorylated Gi-2 alpha-subunit by the antiserum AS7 was blocked in a dose-dependent fashion by the inclusion of the C-terminal decapeptide of transducin, but not that of Gz (a 'Gi-like' G-protein which lacks the C-terminal cysteine group which is ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin in other members of the Gi family), in the immunoprecipitation assay. No labelling of the alpha-subunits of either Gi3 or Gs was observed. alpha-Gi2 was labelled in the basal state and this did not change over 15 min in the absence of ligand addition. In contrast to the monophasic dose-effect curves seen with vasopressin, angiotensin and TPA, the dose-effect curve for the glucagon-mediated increase in the labelling of alpha-Gi2 was markedly biphasic where the loss of Gi function paralleled the high-affinity component of the labelling of alpha-Gi2 caused by glucagon. TPA, TH-glucagon, angiotensin-II and vasopressin achieved similar maximal increases in the labelling of alpha-Gi2, which was approximately half that found after treatment of hepatocytes with either high glucagon concentrations (1 microM) or 8-bromocyclic AMP. Analysis of the phosphoamino acid content of immunoprecipitated alpha-Gi2 showed the presence of phosphoserine only. Incubation of hepatocyte membranes with [gamma-32P]ATP and purified protein kinase C, but not protein kinase A, led to the incorporation of label into immunoprecipitated alpha-Gi2. This labelling was abolished if membranes were obtained from cells which had received prior treatment with ligands shown to cause the phosphorylation of alpha-Gi2 in intact cells. We suggest that there are two possible sites for the phosphorylation of alpha-Gi2; one for C-kinase and the other for an unidentified kinase whose action is triggered by A-kinase activation.
Project description:Rat 1 fibroblasts which had been transfected to express the human alpha 2C10 adrenoceptor (clone 1C) were further co-transfected with a plasmid containing the hygromycin-B-resistance gene and a plasmid containing a cDNA encoding the alpha-subunit of the rat pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein G(o)1. In clone 3 the receptor was expressed at some 2.2 pmol/mg of membrane protein, and G(o)1 alpha at approx. 100 pmol/mg of membrane protein. The interaction of these two polypeptides and that between the receptor and Gi2 alpha (endogenously expressed at some 50 pmol/mg of membrane protein) were studied. Agonist activation of G(o)1 alpha was observed in membranes of the alpha 2C10-adrenoceptor(+)-G(o)1 alpha+ cells (clone 3), but not in alpha 2C10-adrenoceptor(+)-G(o)alpha-cells (clone 1C), whereas similar agonist-dependent activation of Gi2 alpha was observed in both cell types. alpha 2C10-adrenoceptor activation of G(o)1 alpha and Gi2 alpha in clone-3 membranes was produced with similar agonist-dose-effect curves. These observations indicate that the receptor interacts with equivalent affinity with each of these G-proteins. Agonist-dependent cholera-toxin-catalysed [32P]ADP-ribosylation of G(o)1 alpha was terminated when the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine was added subsequent to agonist-induced initiation of the reaction and release of GDP, demonstrating the conformational requirement for this reaction to be the ternary complex of agonist-occupied receptor and guanine-nucleotide-denuded G-protein.
Project description:Plasmids containing cDNAs encoding either the wild-type guanine-nucleotide-binding protein G(o)1 alpha or the palmitoylation-negative cysteine-3-to-serine (C3S) mutant of G(o)1 alpha were transfected into Rat 1 cells, and clones stably expressing immunoreactivity corresponding to these polypeptides were isolated. Clones C5B (expressing wild-type G(o)1 alpha) and D3 (expressing the mutant form) were selected for detailed study. Immunoprecipitation of whole cell lysates of each clone labelled with either [3H]palmitate or [3H]myristate demonstrated incorporation of [3H]myristate into both wild-type and the C3S mutant of G(o)1 alpha, but that incorporation of hydroxylamine-sensitive [3H]palmitate was restricted to the wild type. When membrane and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared from cells of either the C5B or D3 clones, although immunodetection of wild-type G(o)1 alpha was observed only in the membrane fraction, the C3S mutant was present in both membrane and cytoplasmic fractions. Furthermore, a significant proportion of the C3S G(o)1 alpha immunoreactivity was also detected in the cytoplasmic fraction if immunoprecipitation of recently synthesized G(o)1 alpha was performed from fractions derived from cells pulse-labelled with [35S]Trans label. Pretreatment of cells of both clones C5B and D3 with pertussis toxin led to complete ADP-ribosylation of the cellular population of G(o)1 alpha in both cell types, irrespective of whether the polypeptide was subsequently found in the membrane or cytoplasmic fraction following cellular disruption. By contrast, separation of membrane and cytoplasmic fractions before pertussis-toxin-catalysed [32P]ADP-ribosylation allowed modification only of the membrane-associated G(o)1 alpha (whether wild-type or the C3S mutant). This labelling was decreased substantially by incubation of the membranes with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate. No cytoplasmic G-protein beta subunit was detected immunologically, and the non-membrane-associated C3S G(o)1 alpha from D3 cells migrated as an apparently monomeric 40 kDa protein on a Superose 12 gel-filtration column. Membrane-associated wild-type and C3S G(o)1 alpha appeared to interact with guanine nucleotides with similar affinity, as no alteration in the dose-response curves for guanine-nucleotide-induced maintenance of a stable 37 kDa tryptic fragment was noted for the two forms of G(o)1 alpha. Chemical depalmitoylation of membranes of clone C5B with neutral 1 M hydroxylamine caused a release of some 25-30% of each of G(o)1 alpha, Gi2 alpha and Gq alpha/G11 alpha from the membranes. Equivalent treatment of D3 cells caused an equivalent release of Gi2 alpha and Gq alpha/G11 alpha, but was unable to cause any appreciable release of the CS3 form of G(o)1 alpha, which was membrane-bound.
Project description:Previous studies have established that the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 expresses an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor of the alpha 2A subtype, which is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanisms of alpha 2-adrenergic signal transduction in these cells. [32P]ADP-ribosylation with pertussis toxin and immunoblots using antibodies specific for the Gi alpha-subunits indicated that two distinct Gi-proteins (Gi2 and Gi3) were present in HT29-cell membranes. Treatment of intact cells with pertussis toxin resulted in a time-dependent decrease in the amount of [32P]ADP-ribosylatable Gi2 and Gi3, which coincided with a diminution in the number of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in high-affinity state for agonists and with a progressive loss of ability of UK14304 to inhibit forskolin-stimulated accumulation of cyclic AMP. When membranes were [32P]ADP-ribosylated with cholera toxin in the absence of exogenous added guanine nucleotides, radioactivity was incorporated into a 45 kDa polypeptide representing Gs, as well as into 40-41 kDa polypeptides corresponding to Gi3 and Gi2. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the two GiS under basal conditions was decreased by addition of the alpha 2-antagonist RX821002. It was not significantly affected by addition of clonidine (partial alpha 2-agonist), but was doubled by the addition of UK14304 (full alpha 2-agonist). This effect was blocked by RX821002. Study of adenylate cyclase activity indicated that preincubation of HT29 membranes with the antibody AS/7 (anti-alpha i1/alpha i2), but not with the antibody EC/2 (anti-alpha i3), attenuated the inhibitory effect of UK14304 on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase. These data demonstrate that the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor is coupled to both Gi2 and Gi3, and identify Gi2 as the major mediator of inhibition of adenylate cyclase in HT29 cells.
Project description:Noradrenaline (NA) stimulated the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from the [3H]AA-labelled rabbit platelets via alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, since the effect of NA was inhibited by yohimbine. The stimulatory effect of NA in digitonin-permeabilized platelets was completely dependent on the simultaneous presence of GTP and Ca2+. The NA- and thrombin-stimulated releases of AA were markedly decreased by the prior ADP-ribosylation of the permeabilized platelets with pertussis toxin. Antiserum directed against the pig brain Go (a GTP-binding protein of unknown function), recognizing both alpha 39 and beta 35,36 subunits, but not alpha 41, of pig brain, reacted with 41 kDa and 40 kDa bands, with not one of 39 kDa, in rabbit platelet membranes. Anti-Go antiserum inhibited guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate-, A1F4(-)-, NA- and thrombin-stimulated AA releases in the membranes. Although the effect of thrombin was inhibited by low concentrations of anti-Go antiserum, high concentrations of the antiserum was needed for inhibition of the NA effect. Antiserum directed against the pig brain G1 (inhibitory G-protein), recognizing both alpha 41 and beta 35,36 subunits, but not alpha 39, of pig brain, reacted with the 41 kDa band in platelets. Anti-G1 antiserum inhibited only the effect of NA. Reconstitution of the platelet membranes ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin with Go, not Gi, purified from pig brain restored the thrombin-stimulated release of AA. In contrast, reconstitution of those membranes with Gi, not Go, restored the NA-stimulated release of AA. These results indicate that different GTP-binding proteins, Gi- and Go-like proteins, may be involved in the mechanism of signal transduction from alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and thrombin receptors to phospholipase A2 in rabbit platelets.
Project description:NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells express a major 45 kDa substrate for cholera toxin and a 40 kDa substrate(s) for pertussis toxin when ADP-ribosylation is performed in the presence of GTP. In the absence of exogenous GTP, however, cholera toxin was shown to catalyse incorporation of radioactivity into a 40 kDa protein as well as into the 45 kDa polypeptide. In membranes of cells which had been pretreated in vivo with pertussis toxin, the 40 kDa band was no longer a substrate for either pertussis or cholera toxin in vitro, whereas in membranes from cholera-toxin-pretreated cells the 40 kDa band was still a substrate for fresh cholera toxin in vitro and for pertussis toxin. In this cell line, opioid peptides have been shown to inhibit adenylate cyclase exclusively by interacting with Gi (inhibitory G-protein) and with no other pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein. Opioid agonists, but not antagonists, promoted the cholera-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation of the 40 kDa polypeptide, hence demonstrating that this cholera-toxin substrate was indeed the alpha-subunit of Gi. These results demonstrate that Gi can be a substrate for either cholera or pertussis toxin under appropriate conditions.
Project description:Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta 1) is a potent regulator of DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation. In this study, we investigated whether the growth stimulatory signal of TGF beta 1 is transduced intracellularly by guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins (G-proteins). In plasma membranes from AKR-2B cells, TGF beta 1 increased binding of the radiolabelled, non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate (GTP[35S]), in a dose-dependent manner. Maximal effects occurred between 0.4 and 1.0 nM-TGF beta 1. Specific binding of GTP[35S] occurred with a Kd of 3.2 x 10(-8) M which was not affected by addition of TGF beta 1. Instead, TGF beta 1 increased the number of available binding sites for GTP[35S] from 16.2 +/- 1.2 to 21.6 +/- 2.1 pmol/mg of protein. GTP[35S] binding was both nucleotide- and growth-factor-specific. Only guanine nucleotides were able to compete for binding, and of the growth factors tested (epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2) only TGF beta 1 affected GTP[35S] binding. TGF beta 1 increased GTPase activity, as determined by the release of 32PO4(3-) from GTP gamma[32P], from 116 +/- 5.5 to 175 +/- 4.3 pmol/mg of protein following a 15 min incubation. Pretreatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin inhibited both TGF beta 1-stimulated binding of GTP[35S] as well as TGF beta 1-stimulated GTPase activity. These inhibitory actions of pertussis toxin were associated with toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 41 kDa protein. Furthermore, the stimulatory effects of TGF beta 1 on c-sis mRNA expression were shown to be pertussis-toxin sensitive and could be mimicked by direct activation of G-proteins with AIF4-. These results demonstrate that in AKR-2B cells a pertussis-toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide regulatory protein(s) is coupled to TGF beta 1 receptor binding.
Project description:As assessed both by cholera-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation and by immunoblotting with an anti-peptide antiserum raised against the C-terminal decapeptide of forms of Gs alpha (the alpha subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein), rat glioma C6 BU1 cells express two forms of Gs alpha: a major 44 kDa form and a much less prevalent 42 kDa form. We examined the effects of guanine nucleotides on the interaction of the 44 kDa form with the plasma membrane. Incubation of membranes of C6 BU1 cells with poorly hydrolysed analogues of GTP, but not with analogues of either ATP or GDP, caused the release of this Gs alpha from the membrane fraction. Release of Gs alpha was observed within 5 min, and continued throughout the incubation period. After treatment with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate for 60 min, some 75% of this polypeptide had been released from its site of membrane attachment. These experiments demonstrate that Gs alpha need not remain associated invariantly with the plasma membrane.
Project description:Ontogeny of trimeric GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins) and their subunits in rabbit liver during neonatal development was studied, by using bacterial-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins, immunoblot analysis to quantify the alpha-subunit (alpha s and alpha i) of stimulatory (Gs) and inhibitory (Gi) G-protein and the beta-subunit, and reconstitution assay with cyc- membranes (from Gs-deficient variant of S49 lymphoma cell) to measure Gs activity. Under optimal conditions of ADP-ribosylation, little cholera-toxin substrate (alpha s) was detected in membranes from liver of neonatal animals up to 24 h of age. Thereafter ribosylatable alpha s proteins, i.e. 45 kDa (alpha s-1) and 52 kDa (alpha s-2) proteins, were increasingly evident, reaching maximal levels in membranes from animals aged 4-6 weeks. The concentrations of alpha s-1 and alpha s-2, as determined by immunoblotting, were 6.1 +/- 0.8 and 2.7 +/- 0.4 pmol/mg of protein respectively at birth, and did not change during 0-24 h after birth. Thereafter they gradually increased to maximal levels of 22.1 +/- 1.3 and 10.5 +/- 0.7 pmol/mg of protein for alpha s-1 and alpha s-2 respectively, within 6 weeks. The beta-subunit also showed a similar 3-4-fold increase during the same age span. In contrast, the pertussis-toxin substrate (alpha i) was clearly evident even in membranes from term animals and in all age groups studied. Its developmental pattern, as assessed by ADP-ribosylation, was the same as that determined by immunoblot analysis. The functional activity of Gs in cholate extracts of membranes exhibited similar developmental pattern to that of cholera-toxin-mediated labelling. This activity also paralleled the concentrations of alpha s as measured by immunoblotting. These results suggest differential expression of G-protein subunits in liver during neonatal development.