Characterization of the autophosphorylation of chicken gizzard caldesmon.
ABSTRACT: Caldesmon, an actin- and calmodulin-binding protein of smooth muscle, is a protein serine/threonine kinase capable of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation [Scott-Woo & Walsh (1988) Biochem. J. 252, 463-472]. Phosphorylation nullifies the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of smooth-muscle myosin [Ngai & Walsh (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 417-425]. We have characterized the kinase activity of caldesmon of chicken gizzard smooth muscle. Autophosphorylation requires Ca2+/calmodulin, but is unaffected by other second messengers (Ca2+/phospholipid/diacylglycerol, cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP), and is inhibited by the calmodulin antagonists chlorpromazine and compound 48/80, with 50% inhibition at 39.8 microM and 12.0 ng/ml respectively. Half-maximal activation of autophosphorylation occurs at 60-80 nM-Ca2+ and 0.14 microM-calmodulin, and maximal activity at 0.14-0.18 microM-Ca2+ and 1 microM-calmodulin; activation is gradually lost at higher Ca2+ and calmodulin concentrations. Autophosphorylation is pH-dependent, with maximal activity over the range pH 7-9, and requires free Mg2+ in addition to the MgATP2- substrate. The Km for ATP is 15.6 +/- 4.1 microM (mean +/- S.D., n = 4), and kinase activity is inhibited by increasing ionic strength [half-maximal inhibition at I = 0.094 +/- 0.009 M (mean +/- S.D., n = 4)]. Autophosphorylation does not affect the rate of hydrolysis of caldesmon (free or bound to calmodulin) by alpha-chymotrypsin. However, a slight difference in peptides generated from phospho- and dephospho-forms of caldesmon is observed. The binding of phospho- or dephospho-caldesmon to F-actin protects the protein against chymotryptic digestion, but does not alter the pattern of peptide generation. Characterization of proteolytic fragments of caldesmon generated by alpha-chymotrypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease enables localization of the phosphorylation sites and the kinase active site within the caldesmon molecule.
Project description:Caldesmon, a major actin- and calmodulin-binding protein of smooth muscle, has been implicated in regulation of the contractile state of smooth muscle. The isolated protein can be phosphorylated by a co-purifying Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and phosphorylation blocks inhibition of the actomyosin ATPase by caldesmon [Ngai & Walsh (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 417-425]. We have examined the phosphorylation of caldesmon in more detail. Several lines of evidence indicate that caldesmon itself is a kinase and the reaction is an intermolecular autophosphorylation: (1) caldesmon (141 kDa) and a 93 kDa proteolytic fragment of caldesmon can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography: both retain caldesmon kinase activity, which is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent; (2) chymotryptic digestion of caldesmon generates a Ca2+/calmodulin-independent form of caldesmon kinase; (3) caldesmon purified to electrophoretic homogeneity retains caldesmon kinase activity, and elution of enzymic activity from a fast-performance-liquid-chromatography ion-exchange column correlates with caldesmon of Mr 141,000; (4) caldesmon is photoaffinity-labelled with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP; labelling is inhibited by ATP, GTP and CTP, indicating a lack of nucleotide specificity; (5) caldesmon binds tightly to Affi-Gel Blue resin, which recognizes proteins having a dinucleotide fold. Autophosphorylation of caldesmon occurs predominantly on serine residues (83.3%), with some threonine (16.7%) and no tyrosine phosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is site-specific: 98% of the phosphate incorporated is recovered in a 26 kDa chymotryptic peptide. Complete tryptic/chymotryptic digestion of this phosphopeptide followed by h.p.l.c. indicates three major phosphorylation sites. Caldesmon exhibits a high degree of substrate specificity: apart from autophosphorylation, brain synapsin I is the only good substrate among many potential substrates examined. These observations indicate that caldesmon may regulate its own function (inhibition of the actomyosin ATPase) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation. Furthermore, caldesmon may regulate other cellular processes, e.g. neurotransmitter release, through the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of other proteins such as synapsin I.
Project description:Caldesmon is a major calmodulin- and actin-binding protein of smooth muscle which interacts with calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent manner or with actin in a Ca2+-independent manner. Isolated caldesmon is capable of inhibiting the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase of smooth-muscle myosin, suggesting a possible physiological role for caldesmon in regulating the contractile state of smooth-muscle. Caldesmon can be phosphorylated in vitro by a co-purifying Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and dephosphorylated by a protein phosphatase, both of which are present in smooth muscle. We investigated further the phosphorylation of caldesmon and the effects which phosphorylation has on the functional properties of the protein. The kinetics of caldesmon phosphorylation were similar whether the caldesmon substrate was free or bound to actin, actin/tropomyosin or thin filaments. Caldesmon containing endogenous kinase activity was rapidly phosphorylated (to approx. 1 mol of Pi/mol of caldesmon in 5 min) when reconstituted with actin, myosin, tropomyosin, calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase in the presence of Ca2+ and MgATP2-. Under conditions in which unphosphorylated caldesmon showed substantial inhibition of the actin-activated myosin Mg2+-ATPase, no inhibition was observed with phosphorylated caldesmon. This was the case whether caldesmon was phosphorylated before addition to the actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase system, or phosphorylation was allowed to take place during the ATPase reaction. Binding studies revealed maximal binding of 1 mol of unphosphorylated caldesmon/9.5 mol of actin and 1 mol of phosphorylated caldesmon/11.7 mol of actin. All the bound phosphorylated caldesmon could be released by Ca2+/calmodulin, with half-maximal release at 0.11 microM-Ca2+, whereas only 62% of the bound unphosphorylated caldesmon could be removed, with half-maximal release at 0.16 microM-Ca2+. However, under conditions in which inhibition of actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity by non-phosphorylated but not by phosphorylated caldesmon was observed, both forms of caldesmon would remain bound to the thin filament. These observations suggest a possible mechanism whereby caldesmon phosphorylation may prevent its inhibitory action on the actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase.
Project description:We measured the concentration of calmodulin required to reverse inhibition by caldesmon of actin-activated myosin MgATPase activity, in a model smooth-muscle thin-filament system, reconstituted in vitro from purified vascular smooth-muscle actin, tropomyosin and caldesmon. At 37 degrees C in buffer containing 120 mM-KCl, 4 microM-Ca2+-calmodulin produced a half-maximal reversal of caldesmon inhibition, but more than 300 microM-Ca2+-calmodulin was necessary at 25 degrees C in buffer containing 60 mM-KCl. The binding affinity (K) of caldesmon for Ca2+-calmodulin was measured by a fluorescence-polarization method: K = 2.7 x 10(6) M-1 at 25 degrees C (60 mM-KCl); K = 1.4 x 10(6) M-1 at 37 degrees C in 70 mM-KCl-containing buffer; K = 0.35 x 10(6) M-1 at 37 degrees C in 120 mM-KCl- containing buffer (pH 7.0). At 37 degrees C/120 mM-KCl, but not at 25 degrees C/60 mM-KCl, Ca2+-calmodulin bound to caldesmon bound to actin-tropomyosin (K = 2.9 x 10(6) M-1). Ca2+ regulation in this system does not depend on a simple competition between Ca2+-calmodulin and actin for binding to caldesmon. Under conditions (37 degrees C/120 mM-KCl) where physiologically realistic concentrations of calmodulin can Ca2+-regulate synthetic thin filaments, Ca2+-calmodulin reverses caldesmon inhibition of actomyosin ATPase by forming a non-inhibited complex of Ca2+-calmodulin-caldesmon-(actin-tropomyosin).
Project description:Chicken gizzard smooth muscle contains two major calmodulin-binding proteins: caldesmon (11.1 microM; Mr 141 000) and myosin light-chain kinase (4.6 microM; Mr 136 000), both of which are associated with the contractile apparatus. The amino acid composition of caldesmon is distinct from that of myosin light-chain kinase and is characterized by a very high glutamic acid content (25.5%), high contents of lysine (13.6%) and arginine (10.3%), and a low aromatic amino acid content (2.4%). Caldesmon lacked myosin light-chain kinase and phosphatase activities and did not compete with either myosin light-chain kinase or cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (both calmodulin-dependent enzymes) for available calmodulin, suggesting that calmodulin may have distinct binding sites for caldesmon on the one hand and myosin light-chain kinase and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase on the other. Consistent with the lack of effect of caldesmon on myosin phosphorylation, caldesmon did not affect the assembly or disassembly of myosin filaments in vitro. As previously shown [Ngai & Walsh (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 13656-13659], caldesmon can be reversibly phosphorylated. The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of caldesmon were further characterized and the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent caldesmon kinase was purified; kinase activity correlated with a protein of subunit Mr 93 000. Caldesmon was not a substrate of myosin light-chain kinase or phosphorylase kinase, both calmodulin-activated protein kinases.
Project description:The relationship of the kinase which co-purifies with caldesmon to Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II) was investigated by studying the phosphorylation of bovine brain synapsin I, as well-characterized substrate of CaM-kinase II. Synapsin I is a very good substrate (Km = 90 nM) of the co-purifying kinase, which phosphorylates two sites in synapsin I, both of which are distinct from the single site phosphorylated by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphorylation of synapsin I is Ca2(+)- and calmodulin-dependent: half-maximal activation occurs at 0.13 microM-Ca2+ and maximal activity at 0.4 microM-Ca2+. Phosphorylation of the co-purifying kinase slightly enhances the rate, but does not alter the stoichiometry, of subsequent synapsin I phosphorylation; it does, however, circumvent the requirement for Ca2+ and calmodulin. The properties of this kinase therefore closely resemble those of CaM-kinase II, and we conclude that it is probably a smooth-muscle isoenzyme of CaM-kinase II.
Project description:Recently published data [Vorotnikov & Gusev (1990) FEBS Lett. 277, 134-136] indicate that smooth muscle caldesmon interacts with a mixture of soybean phospholipids (azolectin). Continuing this investigation, we found that duck gizzard caldesmon interacts more tightly with acidic (phosphatidylserine) than with neutral (phosphatidylcholine) phospholipids. A high concentration of Ca2+ (50 microM) decreased the interaction of caldesmon with phosphatidylserine. Among chymotryptic peptides of caldesmon, only those having molecular masses of 45, 40, 23, 22 and 20 kDa were able to specifically interact with phospholipids. These peptides, derived from the C-terminal part of caldesmon, contained the sites phosphorylated by Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, and phosphorylation catalysed by this enzyme decreased the affinity of these peptides for phospholipids. In the presence of Ca2+, calmodulin competed with phospholipids for the interaction with the caldesmon peptides. The C-terminal part of caldesmon contains three peptides with a primary structure similar to that of the calmodulin- and phospholipid-binding site of neuromodulin. These sites may be involved in the interaction of caldesmon with calmodulin and phospholipids.
Project description:Interaction of five tryptic fragments of calmodulin with caldesmon and calponin was analysed by native gel electrophoresis. In the presence of Ca2+ intact calmodulin interacts with caldesmon and calponin with apparent Kd values equal to 0.23 and 1.3 microM respectively. The interaction was abolished in the absence of Ca2+. Two large tryptic fragments of calmodulin obtained in the presence of Ca2+ (TR1C, residues 1-77, and TR2C, residues 78-148) interact with caldesmon with apparent Kd values of 11.9 and 4.6 microM. Affinity of TR2C to calponin (Kd 3.8 microM) was comparable with that of native calmodulin and was much higher than the corresponding value for TR1C (Kd 41 microM). The short C-terminal tryptic peptide of calmodulin obtained in the presence of EGTA (TR3E, residues 107-148) interacts with caldesmon and calponin with Kd values of 23.9 and 12.1 microM, whereas the large N-terminal peptide TR1E (residues 1-106) interacts with both caldesmon and calponin with a very low affinity (Kd 60 microM). Thus although both N- and C-terminal domains of calmodulin are involved in the interaction with caldesmon and calponin, the C-terminal part of calmodulin (residues 78-148) is of special importance and has the highest contribution for caldesmon and calponin binding.
Project description:Ca2(+)-regulated native thin filaments were extracted from sheep aorta smooth muscle. The caldesmon content determined by quantitative gel electrophoresis was 0.06 caldesmon molecule/actin monomer (1 caldesmon molecule per 16.3 actin monomers). Dissociation of caldesmon and tropomyosin from the thin filament and the depolymerization of actin was measured by sedimenting diluted thin filaments. Actin critical concentration was 0.05 microM at 10.1 and 0.13 at 10.05 compared with 0.5 microM for pure F-actin. Tropomyosin was tightly bound, with half-maximal dissociation at less than 0.3 microM thin filaments (actin monomer) under all conditions. Caldesmon dissociation was independent of tropomyosin and not co-operative. The concentration of thin filaments where 50% of the caldesmon was dissociated (CD50) ranged from 0.2 microM (actin monomer) at 10.03 to 8 microM at 10.16 in a 5 mM-MgCl2, pH 7.1, buffer. Mg2+, 25 mM at constant I, increased CD50 4-fold. CD50 was 4-fold greater at 10(-4) M-Ca2+ than at 10(-9) M-Ca2+. Aorta heavy meromyosin (HMM).ADP.Pi complex (2.5 microM excess over thin filaments) strongly antagonized caldesmon dissociation, but skeletal-muscle HMM.ADP.Pi did not. The behaviour of caldesmon in native thin filaments was indistinguishable from caldesmon in reconstituted synthetic thin filaments. The variability of Ca2(+)-sensitivity with conditions observed in thin filament preparations was shown to be related to dissociation of regulatory caldesmon from the thin filament.
Project description:Caldesmon phosphatase was identified in chicken gizzard smooth muscle by using as substrates caldesmon phosphorylated at different sites by protein kinase C, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cdc2 kinase. Most (approximately 90%) of the phosphatase activity was recovered in the cytosolic fraction. Gel filtration after (NH4)2SO4 fractionation of the cytosolic fraction revealed a single major peak of phosphatase activity which coeluted with calponin phosphatase [Winder, Pato and Walsh (1992) Biochem. J. 286, 197-203] and myosin LC20 phosphatase. Further purification of caldesmon phosphatase was achieved by sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-Sephacel, omega-amino-octyl-agarose, aminopropyl-agarose and thiophosphorylated myosin LC20-Sepharose. A single peak of caldesmon phosphatase activity was detected at each step of the purification. The purified phosphatase was identified as SMP-I [Pato and Adelstein (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 6535-6538] by subunit composition (three subunits, of 60, 55 and 38 kDa) and Western blotting using antibodies against the holoenzyme which recognize all three subunits and antibodies specific for the 38 kDa catalytic subunit. SMP-I is a type 2A protein phosphatase [Pato, Adelstein, Crouch, Safer, Ingebritsen and Cohen (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 132, 283-287; Winder et al. (1992), cited above]. Consistent with the conclusion that SMP-I is the major caldesmon phosphatase of smooth muscle, purified SMP-I from turkey gizzard dephosphorylated all three phosphorylated forms of caldesmon, whereas SMP-II, -III and -IV were relatively ineffective. Kinetic analysis of dephosphorylation by chicken gizzard SMP-I of the three phosphorylated caldesmon species and calponin phosphorylated by protein kinase C indicates that calponin is a significantly better substrate of SMP-I than are any of the three phosphorylated forms of caldesmon. We therefore suggest that caldesmon phosphorylation in vivo can be maintained after kinase inactivation due to slow dephosphorylation by SMP-I, whereas calponin and myosin are rapidly dephosphorylated by SMP-I and SMP-III/SMP-IV respectively. This may have important functional consequences in terms of the contractile properties of smooth muscle.
Project description:1. We have investigated the ability of bovine brain S.100, and of three related proteins from sheep aorta smooth muscle, to confer Ca(2+)-sensitivity on thin filaments reconstituted from smooth-muscle actin, tropomyosin and caldesmon. 2. At 37 degrees C in pH 7.0 buffer containing 120 mM-KCl, approximately stoichiometric amounts of S.100 reversed caldesmon's inhibition of the activation of myosin MgATPase by smooth-muscle actin-tropomyosin. The [S.100] which reversed by 50% the inhibition by caldesmon (the E.C.50) was 2.5 microM when [caldesmon] = 2-3 microM in the assay mixture. When [KCl] was decreased to 70 mM, E.C.50 = 11.5 microM; at 25 degrees C in 70 mM-KCl, up to 20 microM-S.100 had no effect. When skeletal-muscle actin rather than smooth-muscle actin was used to reconstitute thin filaments, 20 microM-S.100 did reverse inhibition by caldesmon, at 25 degrees C in buffer containing 70 mM-KCl. This dependence on conditions is also characteristic of the calmodulin-caldesmon interaction. 3. These results suggested that S.100 or a related protein might interact with caldesmon in smooth muscle. We therefore attempted to prepare such a protein from sheep aorta. Three proteins were purified: an Mr-17,000 protein (yield 16 mg/kg), an abundant Mr-11,000 protein (yield 48 mg/kg), and an Mr-9000 protein (yield 4 mg/kg). Neither of the last two low-Mr proteins had any effect on activation of myosin MgATPase by reconstituted thin filaments. The protein of Mr 17,000 had Ca(2+)-sensitizing activity, and behaved exactly like brain calmodulin in the assay system.