Action of guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate on thrombin-induced activation and Ca2+ mobilization in saponin-permeabilized and intact human platelets.
ABSTRACT: The non-hydrolysable guanine analogues guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]) have been used extensively (as promoters and inhibitors respectively) to probe the importance of G-protein function. We report on the use of GDP[S] in permeabilized and intact platelets. The stimulatory analogue GTP[S] (9-60 microM) induces shape change, aggregation and 5-hydroxy[14C]-tryptamine secretion when added to saponin (12-14 micrograms/ml)-permeabilized platelets, but not to intact platelets. In line with the activation responses in permeabilized cells, GTP[S] induces an increase in [32P]-phosphatidic acid, which is indicative of phospholipase C activity. GDP[S] (greater than 400 microM) totally inhibits GTP[S] (90 microM)-stimulated phospholipase C activity and functional responses in saponized platelets. GDP[S] (1 mM) was also effective at inhibiting low-dose thrombin (0.1 unit/ml)-induced aggregation and secretion responses (without affecting shape change) in permeabilized platelets with inhibition of [32P]-phosphatidic acid formation. At higher doses of thrombin (greater than 0.5 unit/ml), both functional responses and [32P]phosphatidic acid formation are restored in the presence of GDP[S]. Studies on intact cells revealed that GDP[S] was as effective at inhibiting low-dose thrombin-induced functional responses as in the permeabilized cells, but there was no inhibition of [32P]phosphatidic acid formation, indicating that the agent is nonmembrane-penetrating. This reflected the fact that GDP[S] has additional inhibitory sites on the surface of platelets. In Fura-2-loaded cells GDP[S] inhibited thrombin-induced Ca2+ mobilization, as measured by Fura-2 fluorescence, in a dose-dependent manner. In studies with and without Ca2+ present on the outside, the effect of GDP[S] was to block Ca2+ influx. These studies indicate that, although GDP[S] is a valuable tool in studying G-protein function in permeabilized cells, it also has inhibitory activities on the surface of platelets, and one of these has been identified as an effect on the Ca2+-influx channel after agonist stimulation.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that mastoparan, an amphiphilic peptide derived from wasp venom, accelerates guanine nucleotide exchange and GTPase activity of purified GTP-binding proteins. In the present study we have examined the functional consequences of exposure of intact human platelets to mastoparan. Mastoparan promoted rapid (less than or equal to 1 min) dose-dependent increases in 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine and beta-thromboglobulin release from dense-granule and alpha-granule populations respectively. The exocytotic response did not result from a lytic effect of mastoparan and occurred in the complete absence of platelet shape change and aggregation. Liberation of [3H]arachidonate and increases in cytosolic [Ca2+] (detected with fura 2) were not observed in platelets stimulated with mastoparan. Similarly, in platelets preloaded with [3H]inositol during reversible electroporation, mastoparan did not cause the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. Mastoparan-induced secretion was unaffected by preincubation with either the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (10 nM-10 microM) or prostacyclin (PGI2; 100 ng/ml) and was not accompanied by phosphorylation of the 45 kDa protein kinase C substrate or the 20 kDa protein normally associated with platelet activation. The G-protein inhibitor guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]; 1 mM) attenuated the secretion induced by mastoparan in both intact and saponin-permeabilized platelets. Encapsulation of GDP[S] during reversible permeabilization inhibited mastoparan-induced secretion, providing evidence for an intracellular action of GDP[S]. In all these studies thrombin (0.05-0.2 unit/ml) elicited characteristic responses, and thrombin-induced secretion was inhibited by staurosporine, PGI2 and GDP[S]. Mastoparan also increased intra-platelet cyclic AMP in a dose-dependent manner. Mastoparan and PGI2 increased 32P incorporation into a protein of approx. 24 kDa, whereas phosphorylation of a 50 kDa substrate was only seen in PGI2-stimulated platelets. These results indicate that mastoparan promotes secretion by a mechanism which does not involve stimulation of phospholipase C and suggest that the secretory event may result either from a direct fusogenic action of mastoparan and/or from stimulation of the putative exocytosis-linked G-protein, Ge.
Project description:The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) inhibitor pervanadate (vanadyl hydroperoxide) stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation 29-fold more than did thrombin in intact and saponin-permeabilized platelets. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation preceded, or was coincident with, a fall in PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels, production of PtdIns(3,4)P2 and phosphatidic acid, mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, stimulation of protein kinase C-dependent protein phosphorylation, secretion of dense and alpha-granules, increased actin polymerization, shape change and aggregation which required fibrinogen and was mediated by increased surface expression of GPIIb-IIIa. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor RG 50864 totally prevented induction of tyrosine phosphorylation by pervanadate, as well as all other responses measured; in contrast, the inactive structural analogue, tyrphostin #1, had no effect. Dense-granule secretion induced by pervanadate required protein kinase C activity; however, aggregation and alpha-granule secretion were independent of protein kinase C. In saponin-permeabilized platelets pervanadate and thrombin stimulated phospholipase C activity by GTP-independent and GTP-dependent mechanisms respectively. We conclude that PTPases are important regulators of signal transduction in platelets.
Project description:The effect of guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[beta S]), reported to be an antagonist of GTP at the G-protein-binding site, on human platelet activation was examined. GDP[beta S] (0.3-3 mM) had significant inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) secretion induced by thrombin, collagen, the thromboxane mimetic U46619 and 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC8) in intact platelets, as well as in saponin-permeabilized platelets. Similar inhibitory effects in intact platelets were also observed with ATP (over similar concentration ranges) and GDP and GTP (at 2- and 10-fold higher concentrations respectively). All four nucleotides also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in indomethacin-treated platelets under conditions where no 5HT secretion occurred. Inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation and secretion by GDP[beta S] and ATP in intact platelets was accompanied by a reduction in the thrombin-induced rise in intracellular Ca2+ levels and 45 kDa-protein phosphorylation. The results suggest that at least some of the effects of GDP[beta S] may be unrelated to inhibition of G-protein-GTP interaction, but, instead, may be mediated via an extracellular site, common to all the nucleotides tested and perhaps via inhibition of the effects of endogenous/released ADP. The usefulness of GDP[beta S] as a tool in studying G-protein-GTP interactions in platelets is thus questionable.
Project description:One of the earliest actions of thrombin in fibroblasts is stimulation of a phospholipase C (PLC) that hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol. In membranes prepared from WI-38 human lung fibroblasts, thrombin activated an inositol-lipid-specific PLC that hydrolysed [32P]PIP2 and [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP) to [32P]IP3 and [32P]inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (IP2) respectively. Degradation of [32P]phosphatidylinositol was not detected. PLC activation by thrombin was dependent on GTP, and was completely inhibited by a 15-fold excess of the non-hydrolysable GDP analogue guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]). Neither ATP nor cytosol was required. Guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) also stimulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, and this activation was inhibited by GDP[S]. Stimulation of PLC by either thrombin or p[NH]ppG was dependent on Ca2+. Activation by thrombin required Ca2+ concentrations between 1 and 100 nM, whereas stimulation of PLC activity by GTP required concentrations of Ca2+ above 100 nM. Thus the mitogen thrombin increased the sensitivity of PLC to concentrations of free Ca2+ similar to those found in quiescent fibroblasts. Under identical conditions, another mitogen, platelet-derived growth factor, did not stimulate polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis. It is concluded that an early post-receptor effect of thrombin is the activation of a Ca2+- and GTP-dependent membrane-associated PLC that specifically cleaves PIP2 and PIP. This result suggests that the cell-surface receptor for thrombin is coupled to a polyphosphoinositide-specific PLC by a GTP-binding protein that regulates PLC activity by increasing its sensitivity to Ca2+.
Project description:Human platelets containing dense granules labelled with 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine ([14C]5-HT) were permeabilized by exposure to streptolysin O (SLO) in the presence of 4 mM [gamma-32P]ATP. Addition of either 100 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or of Ca2+ (pCa 5) at the same time as SLO induced secretion of dense-granule [14C]5-HT and the phosphorylation of pleckstrin by protein kinase C (PKC). Ca2+ also induced phosphorylation of myosin P-light chains. Guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S], 100 microM) did not stimulate secretion from SLO-permeabilized platelets in the absence of Ca2+ (pCa>9), but greatly potentiated secretion in the presence of low PMA (10 nM) or low Ca2+ (pCa 6). However, GTP[S] did stimulate myosin P-light-chain phosphorylation in the absence of Ca2+, an effect that was associated with morphological changes, including granule centralization. Inhibition of PKC and of pleckstrin phosphorylation by Ro 31-8220 blocked secretion induced by PMA or by GTP[S] and PMA in the absence of Ca2+, but did not prevent the GTP[S]-induced phosphorylation of myosin P-light chains or secretion induced by Ca2+ at pCa 5. When the time period between exposure of platelets to SLO and challenge at pCa>9 with PMA or with GTP[S] and PMA was increased, there were rapid and parallel decreases in the secretion and pleckstrin phosphorylation responses, which were lost after 3-5 min. In contrast, the responsiveness of secretion to Ca2+ (pCa 5) or to GTP[S] and Ca2+ (pCa 6) persisted for at least 10 min after exposure of platelets to SLO, although the ability of pleckstrin to undergo phosphorylation was still lost after 3-5 min. Both PKC and pleckstrin were undetectable within platelets after 5 min exposure to SLO. The results suggest that the loss of responsiveness to PMA or to GTP[S] and PMA is attributable to the leakage of PKC (and possibly pleckstrin) from the platelets, whereas secretion stimulated by Ca2+ or by GTP[S] and Ca2+ utilizes membrane-associated Ca2+- and GTP-binding proteins and occurs independently of PKC activation.
Project description:After human platelets have been rendered permeable to small molecules by high voltage electric discharges, addition of buffered micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ causes an ATP-dependent secretion of dense granule serotonin [Knight & Scrutton (1980) Thromb. Res. 20, 437-446]. In the present study, platelets permeabilized by this technique were found to show an up to 10-fold increase in their sensitivity to Ca2+ after exposure to thrombin. In permeabilized platelets, as in the intact cells, release of serotonin was associated with the Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of 47 000 and 20 000 Da polypeptides (P47 and P20). Thrombin markedly increased the phosphorylation of P47 in the presence of 0.1-1.0 microM-Ca2+ free but had a much smaller effect on phosphorylation of P20. Thrombin also stimulated the formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol in the presence of 0.1 microM-Ca2+ free and was even more effective with 1.0 microM-Ca2+ free, suggesting that receptor-activated hydrolysis of phosphoinositides to 1,2-diacylglycerol was preserved in permeabilized platelets and was potentiated by low intracellular concentrations of Ca2+. The increase in phosphorylation of P47 on addition of thrombin may therefore be accounted for by the stimulatory action of 1,2-diacylglycerol on Ca2+-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. However, in both the presence and absence of thrombin, higher Ca2+ concentrations were required for optimal secretion than for maximal phosphorylation of both P47 and P20, indicating that additional actions of Ca2+ and thrombin, perhaps also mediated by 1,2-diacylglycerol formation, may be involved in the release of serotonin.
Project description:Human gel-filtered platelets aggregate at greater than 20 microM-ganodermic acid S [lanosta-7,9(11),24-triene-3 beta, 15 alpha-diacetoxy-26-oic acid] [Wang, Chen, Shiao & Wang (1989) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 986, 151-160]. This study showed that platelets at less than 20 microM-ganodermic acid S displayed both concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of function, in which the agent potency in response to inducers was ADP-fibrinogen greater than collagen greater than thrombin. The agent caused a biphasic time-dependent effect on platelet phosphoinositide metabolism. The first phase involved the decrease in the pool size of phosphoinositide by 10-20%. The second phase, in which both the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and the decrease of [32P]phosphatidic acid occurred, took place after 30 min. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed a time-dependent morphological change in platelets in the presence of the agent. The cells initially became spiculate discs, then swelled to a 'potato-like' morphology at 60 min. Further studies on the time-dependent inhibition of thrombin response revealed that: (1) the percentage inhibition of cell aggregation was comparable with that occurring with an increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) or the phosphorylation of marker proteins; (2) [32P]Pi-labelled platelets showed the time-dependent inhibition of thrombin-stimulated PIP2 resynthesis as indicated by first-2-min time-course studies of phosphoinositide interconversion; (3) scanning electron microscopy revealed that the aged platelet population showed an increase in the percentage of non-responding cells on prolonged incubation. The results, taken together, enabled one to discuss a possible mechanism for the time-dependent inhibition by ganodermic acid S of platelet response to thrombin.
Project description:The effects of the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin (Tg) and 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (tBuBHQ) were examined by using Ca(2+)-regulatory systems of platelet mixed membranes, saponin-permeabilized and intact platelets. Both agents inhibit Ca(2+)-ATPase activities of platelet mixed membranes, without any effect on the basal Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. Tg is more effective (EC50 = 35 nM) than tBuBHQ (EC50 = 580 nM). The effect of the two inhibitors on 45Ca2+ release from saponin-permeabilized platelets has also been characterized. 45Ca2+ uptake into non-mitochondrial intracellular stores occurs via an ATP-dependent mechanism, and if added at equilibrium the second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3 releases 50% of the accumulated 45Ca2+. Maximally effective concentrations of Tg (1 microM) and tBuBHQ (50 microM) release 77% and 68% of the accumulated 45Ca2+. Addition of Ins(1,4,5)P3 together with either Tg or tBuBHQ resulted in a non-additive release which was the same as with either Tg or tBuBHQ alone, indicating that the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ pool was a subset of the pool that is sensitive to the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitors. Release of 45Ca2+ by either Tg or tBuBHQ was not affected by heparin, which totally blocked Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release, and Tg was found not to affect [32P]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding to its receptor on mixed membranes. Thus both Tg and tBuBHQ release Ca2+ from a pool that totally overlaps the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive pool without affecting Ins(1,4,5)P3 function. In intact indomethacin-treated Fura 2-loaded platelets, Tg and tBuBHQ cause Ca2+ elevation, arising from release from intracellular stores and influx from the outside. Both Tg and tBuBHQ elevated Ca2+ to similar levels, which were less and slower than those observed with thrombin. Addition of thrombin to cells already treated with Tg or tBuBHQ produced further elevation of Ca2+, indicating agonist utilization of a Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor-insensitive pool. In aggregation experiments Tg and tBuBHQ showed different functional effects. In indomethacin-treated cells Tg induces slow aggregation and secretion responses, whereas tBuBHQ only induces shape change. Both agents show synergistic secretory responses with the protein kinase C activator dioctanoylglycerol (DiC8). Tg also showed greater ability than tBuBHQ to release [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) from [3H]AA-labelled platelets. Additionally, in [32P]Pi-labelled platelets both Tg and tBuBHQ induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain, a 27 kDa protein and the 45 kDa protein pleckstrin, but Tg showed a greater ability than tBuBHQ to cause phosphorylation of pleckstrin. These studies indicate that Tg and tBuBHQ are effective in releasing the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ pool in platelets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:In this paper we have used streptolysin O (SLO)-permeabilized human platelets to examine the G-protein(s) that control Ca2+-independent secretion from alpha and dense-core granules. As shown for electropermeabilized platelets, Ca2+ alone stimulated a concentration-dependent increase in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (dense-core-granule marker) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (alpha-granule marker) release from the SLO-permeabilized cells. The EC50 values of Ca2+-dependent 5-HT and PDGF release were 5 microM and 10 microM respectively. Guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) (100 microM) stimulated Ca2+-independent release from both alpha and dense-core granules. In contrast, AlF4- had no effect on Ca2+-independent release from either alpha or dense-core granules. Neither GTP[S] nor AlF4- appeared to have a significant effect on Ca2+-dependent release from alpha and dense-core granules. GTP[S] can activate both heterotrimeric and low-molecular-mass G-proteins, whereas AlF4- activates only heterotrimeric G-proteins. Our results, therefore suggest that secretion in the human platelet is regulated by a small G-protein. Both GTP[S]- and Ca2+-dependent secretion were effected by extending the time between permeabilization with SLO and stimulation of secretion. GTP[S]-stimulated secretion from alpha and dense-core granules decreased rapidly after permeabilization. In contrast, Ca2+-dependent 5-HT and PDGF release ran down at a much lower rate. These observations indicate that GTP[S] and Ca2+ act through parallel pathways to stimulate secretion from SLO-permeabilized platelets.
Project description:The effect of the guanine nucleotide GTP on Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum of digitonin-permeabilized islets was investigated. maximal and half-maximal Ca2+ release were observed at 5 microM- and 2.5 microM-GTP respectively. GTP caused a rapid release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum, which was complete within 1 min. GTP-induced Ca2+ release was structurally specific and required the hydrolysis of GTP. The combination of maximal concentrations of GTP (10 microM) and myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) (10 microM) resulted in an additive effect on Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. GDP (100 microM), which inhibits GTP-induced Ca2+ release, did not affect IP3-induced Ca2+ release. Furthermore, GTP-induced Ca2+ release was not independent on submicromolar free Ca2+ concentrations, unlike IP3-induced Ca2+ release. These observations suggest that mechanistically GTP-induced Ca2+ release is different from IP3-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum.