Guanine for DNA synthesis. A compulsory route through ribonucleotide reductase.
ABSTRACT: Two alternative pathways for the synthesis of dGTP and its incorporation into DNA were studied: guanine (Gua)----GMP----GDP----dGDP----dGTP----DNA and dG----dGMP----dGDP----dGTP----DNA. To determine the contribution of each pathway to DNA synthesis independently of each other, [14C]Gua and [3H]dG tracer experiments were performed in a double-mutant S-49 mouse T-lymphoma cell line, dGuo-L, with purine nucleoside phosphorylase (EC 188.8.131.52)-deficiency and dGTP-feedback-resistant ribonucleotide reductase (RR, EC 184.108.40.206). In this cell line, dGTP pools can be selectively elevated by exogenous dG without affect RR and DNA synthesis. Although [3H]dG, but not [14C]Gua (up to 200 microM), readily expanded the cellular dGTP pool in a dose-dependent fashion in asynchronous cells, only a small fraction of the Gua flux into DNA was derived from [3H]dG, with the major fraction coming from [14C]Gua. H.p.l.c. analysis of G1- and partially enriched S-phase cells revealed that [3H]dGTP only accumulates in G1- but not in S-phase cells because of a rapid turnover of the dGTP pool during DNA synthesis. These results fail to provide evidence for cellular dGTP compartmentation and suggest that the pathway dG----dGMP----dGDP----dGTP alone has insufficient capacity to maintain DNA synthesis.
Project description:We have studied the kinetics of guanine incorporation into DNA in mouse T-lymphoma (S-49) mutant cells [PNPase (purine-nucleoside phosphorylase)- and HGPRTase (hypoxanthine: guanine phosphoribosyltransferase)-deficient] that are incapable of converting dGuo (deoxyguanosine) to Gua (guanine) ribonucleotides. Of the two possible pathways for an exogenous guanine source to reach DNA, firstly: dGuo----dGMP----dGDP----dGTP and secondly: Gua----GMP----GDP----dGDP----dGTP only the second pathway was found to be functional in providing guanine for DNA replication, although deoxyguanosine readily produced toxic cellular dGTP levels via the first pathway. The functional guanine-nucleotide-precursor pools for DNA are rather small; further, the depletion of the small GMP pool, but not that of GDP, GTP and dGTP, correlated well with the inhibition of DNA synthesis by mycophenolic acid, an IMP dehydrogenase inhibitor. These results support the hypothesis that guanine-nucleotide incorporation into DNA is highly compartmentalized and that a small functional guanine-nucleotide pool, e.g., the GMP pool, may serve a crucial role in limiting the availability of DNA precursor substrate.
Project description:Human telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats (GGTTAG)n onto chromosome ends using a short template from its integral telomerase RNA (hTR). However, telomerase is markedly slow for processive DNA synthesis among DNA polymerases. We report here that the unique template-embedded pause signal restricts the first nucleotide incorporation for each repeat synthesized, imparting a significantly greater KM This slow nucleotide incorporation step drastically limits repeat addition processivity and rate under physiological conditions, which is alleviated with augmented concentrations of dGTP or dGDP, and not with dGMP nor other nucleotides. The activity stimulation by dGDP is due to nucleoside diphosphates functioning as substrates for telomerase. Converting the first nucleotide of the repeat synthesized from dG to dA through the telomerase template mutation, hTR-51U, correspondingly shifts telomerase repeat addition activity stimulation to dATP-dependent. In accordance, telomerase without the pause signal synthesizes DNA repeats with extremely high efficiency under low dGTP concentrations and lacks dGTP stimulation. Thus, the first nucleotide incorporation step of the telomerase catalytic cycle is a potential target for therapeutic enhancement of telomerase activity.
Project description:Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP; EC 220.127.116.11) deficiency is thought to cause T-lymphocyte depletion by accumulation of dG and dGTP, resulting in feedback inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RR; EC 18.104.22.168) and hence DNA synthesis. To test for additional toxic mechanisms of dG, we selected a double mutant of the mouse T-lymphoma S-49 cell line, dGuo-L, which is deficient in PNP and partially resistant to dGTP feedback inhibition of RR. The effects of dG on dGuo-L cells (concn. causing 50% inhibition, IC50 = 150 microM) were compared with those on the wild-type cells (IC50 = 30 microM) and the NSU-1 mutant with PNP deficiency only (IC50 = 15 microM). Fluorescence flow cytometry showed that equitoxic dG concentrations arrested wild-type and NSU-1 cells at the G1-S interface while allowing continued DNA synthesis in the S-phase, whereas the double mutant dGuo-L cells progressed through the cell cycle normally. dGuo-L cells accumulated high levels of dGTP in G1-phase, but not in S-phase cells, because of the utilization of dGTP for DNA synthesis and limited capacity to synthesize dGTP from dG. These results support the hypothesis that dG/dGTP toxicity occurs in the G1-phase or at the G1-S interface. Failure of dG to arrest the double mutant dGuo-L cells at the G1-S interface allows these cells to escape into S-phase, with an accompanying drop in dGTP levels. Thus the partial resistance of dGuo-L cells to dG toxicity may result from their shorter residence time in G1, allowing them to sustain higher dGTP levels. Hence RR inhibition by dGuo may not be the primary toxic mechanism in S-49 cells; rather, it may serve as an accessory event in dG toxicity by keeping the cells in the sensitive phase of the cell cycle. Among the possible targets of dG toxicity is RNA synthesis, which was inhibited at an early stage in dGuo-L cells.
Project description:The chemical integrity of the nucleotide pool and its homeostasis are crucial for genome stability. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) is a crucial enzyme that carries out reversible conversions from nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) to nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) and deoxynucleoside diphosphate (dNDP) to deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). Guanosine nucleotides (GDP, GTP, dGDP, and dGTP) are highly susceptible to oxidative damage to 8-oxo-GDP (8-O-GDP), 8-O-dGTP, 8-O-GTP, and 8-O-dGTP. MutT proteins in cells hydrolyze 8-O-GTP to 8-O-GMP or 8-O-dGTP to 8-O-dGMP to avoid its incorporation in nucleic acids. In <i>Escherichia coli</i>, 8-O-dGTP is also known to be hydrolyzed by RibA (GTP cyclohydrolase II). In this study, we show that <i>E. coli</i> NDK catalyzes the conversion of 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP or vice versa. However, the rate of NDK-mediated phosphorylation of 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP is about thrice as efficient as the rate of dephosphorylation of 8-O-dGTP to 8-O-dGDP, suggesting an additive role of NDK in net production of 8-O-dGTP in cells. Consistent with this observation, the depletion of NDK (?<i>ndk</i>) in <i>E. coli</i> ?<i>mutT</i> or ?<i>mutT</i> ?<i>ribA</i> strains results in a decrease of A-to-C mutations. These observations suggest that NDK contributes to the physiological load of MutT in <i>E. coli</i> <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), a ubiquitous enzyme, is known for its critical role in homeostasis of cellular nucleotide pools. However, NDK has now emerged as a molecule with pleiotropic effects in DNA repair, protein phosphorylation, gene expression, tumor metastasis, development, and pathogen virulence and persistence inside the host. In this study, we reveal an unexpected role of NDK in genome instability because of its activity in converting 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP. This observation has important consequences in escalating A-to-C mutations in <i>Escherichia coli</i> The severity of NDK in enhancing these mutations may be higher in the organisms challenged with high oxidative stress, which promotes 8-O-dGDP/8-O-dGTP production.
Project description:Most of the proteins carrying the 23-residue MutT-related sequence are capable of hydrolyzing compounds with a general structure of nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X and are called the Nudix hydrolases. Among the 22 human Nudix proteins (identified by the sequence signature), some remain uncharacterized as enzymes without a defined substrate. Here, we reveal that the NUDT18 protein, whose substrate was unknown, can degrade 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-Gua)-containing nucleoside diphosphates to the monophosphates. Because this enzyme is closely related to MTH1 (NUDT1) and MTH2 (NUDT15), we propose that it should be named MTH3. Although these three human proteins resemble each other in their sequences, their substrate specificities differ considerably. MTH1 cleaves 8-oxo-dGTP but not 8-oxo-dGDP, whereas MTH2 can degrade both 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-dGDP, although the intrinsic enzyme activity of MTH2 is considerably lower than that of MTH1. On the other hand, MTH3 is specifically active against 8-oxo-dGDP and hardly cleaves 8-oxo-dGTP. Other types of oxidized nucleoside diphosphates, 2-hydroxy-dADP and 8-hydroxy-dADP, were also hydrolyzed by MTH3. Another notable feature of the MTH3 enzyme is its action toward the ribonucleotide counterpart. MTH3 can degrade 8-oxo-GDP as efficiently as 8-oxo-dGDP, which is in contrast to the finding that MTH1 and MTH2 show a limited activity against the ribonucleotide counterpart, 8-oxo-GTP. These three enzymes may function together to help maintain the high fidelity of DNA replication and transcription under oxidative stress.
Project description:Approximately one third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. A better understanding of the pathogen biology is crucial to develop new tools/strategies to tackle its spread and treatment. In the host macrophages, the pathogen is exposed to reactive oxygen species, known to damage dGTP and GTP to 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-GTP, respectively. Incorporation of the damaged nucleotides in nucleic acids is detrimental to organisms. MutT proteins, belonging to a class of Nudix hydrolases, hydrolyze 8-oxo-G nucleoside triphosphates/diphosphates to the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates and sanitize the nucleotide pool. Mycobacteria possess several MutT proteins. However, a functional homolog of Escherichia coli MutT has not been identified. Here, we characterized MtuMutT1 and Rv1700 proteins of M. tuberculosis. Unlike other MutT proteins, MtuMutT1 converts 8-oxo-dGTP to 8-oxo-dGDP, and 8-oxo-GTP to 8-oxo-GDP. Rv1700 then converts them to the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates. This observation suggests the presence of a two-stage mechanism of 8-oxo-dGTP/8-oxo-GTP detoxification in mycobacteria. MtuMutT1 converts 8-oxo-dGTP to 8-oxo-dGDP with a Km of ?50 ?M and Vmax of ?0.9 pmol/min per ng of protein, and Rv1700 converts 8-oxo-dGDP to 8-oxo-dGMP with a Km of ?9.5 ?M and Vmax of ?0.04 pmol/min per ng of protein. Together, MtuMutT1 and Rv1700 offer maximal rescue to E. coli for its MutT deficiency by decreasing A to C mutations (a hallmark of MutT deficiency). We suggest that the concerted action of MtuMutT1 and Rv1700 plays a crucial role in survival of bacteria against oxidative stress.
Project description:MTH1 is an enzyme that hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGTP, which is an oxidatively damaged nucleobase, into 8-oxo-dGMP in nucleotide pools to prevent its mis-incorporation into genomic DNA. Selective and potent MTH1-binding molecules have potential as biological tools and drug candidates. We recently developed 8-halogenated 7-deaza-dGTP as an 8-oxo-dGTP mimic and found that it was not hydrolyzed, but inhibited enzyme activity. To further increase MTH1 binding, we herein designed and synthesized 7,8-dihalogenated 7-deaza-dG derivatives. We successfully synthesized multiple derivatives, including substituted nucleosides and nucleotides, using 7-deaza-dG as a starting material. Evaluations of the inhibition of MTH1 activity revealed the strong inhibitory effects on enzyme activity of the 7,8-dihalogenated 7-deaza-dG derivatives, particularly 7,8-dibromo 7-daza-dGTP. Based on the results obtained on kinetic parameters and from computational docking simulating studies, these nucleotide analogs interacted with the active site of MTH1 and competitively inhibited the substrate 8-oxodGTP. Therefore, novel properties of repair enzymes in cells may be elucidated using new compounds.
Project description:8-Oxo-dGTP, an oxidised form of dGTP generated in the nucleotide pool, can be incorporated opposite adenine or cytosine in template DNA, which can in turn induce mutations. In this study, we identified a novel MutT homolog (NDX-2) of Caenorhabditis elegans that hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGDP to 8-oxo-dGMP. In addition, we found that NDX-1, NDX-2 and NDX-4 proteins have 8-oxo-GTPase or 8-oxo-GDPase activity. The sensitivity of ndx-2 knockdown C. elegans worms to methyl viologen and menadione bisulphite was increased compared with that of control worms. This sensitivity was rescued by depletion of chk-2 and clk-2, suggesting that growth of the worms is regulated by the checkpoint pathway in response to the accumulation of oxidised nucleotides. Moreover, we found that the sensitivity to menadione bisulphite of ndx-1 and ndx-2-double knockdown worms was enhanced by elimination of XPA-1, a factor involved in nucleotide excision repair. The rescue effect by depletion of chk-2 and clk-2 was limited in the xpa-1 mutant, suggesting that the chk-2 and clk-2 checkpoint pathway is partially linked to the function of XPA-1.
Project description:Nucleotides in the free pool are more susceptible to nonenzymatic methylation than those protected in the DNA double helix. Methylated nucleotides like O6-methyl-dGTP can be mutagenic and toxic if incorporated into DNA. Removal of methylated nucleotides from the nucleotide pool may therefore be important to maintain genome integrity. We show that MutT homologue 1 (MTH1) efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of O6-methyl-dGTP with a catalytic efficiency similar to that for 8-oxo-dGTP. O6-methyl-dGTP activity is exclusive to MTH1 among human NUDIX proteins and conserved through evolution but not found in bacterial MutT. We present a high resolution crystal structure of human and zebrafish MTH1 in complex with O6-methyl-dGMP. By microinjecting fertilized zebrafish eggs with O6-methyl-dGTP and inhibiting MTH1 we demonstrate that survival is dependent on active MTH1 in vivo. O6-methyl-dG levels are higher in DNA extracted from zebrafish embryos microinjected with O6-methyl-dGTP and inhibition of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyl transferase (MGMT) increases the toxicity of O6-methyl-dGTP demonstrating that O6-methyl-dGTP is incorporated into DNA. MTH1 deficiency sensitizes human cells to the alkylating agent Temozolomide, a sensitization that is more pronounced upon MGMT inhibition. These results expand the cellular MTH1 function and suggests MTH1 also is important for removal of methylated nucleotides from the nucleotide pool.
Project description:DNA polymerases play vital roles in the maintenance and replication of genomic DNA by synthesizing new nucleotide polymers using nucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are the canonical substrates for DNA polymerases; however, some bacterial polymerases have been demonstrated to insert deoxynucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs), which lack a third phosphate group, the γ-phosphate. Whether eukaryotic polymerases can efficiently incorporate dNDPs has not been investigated, and much about the chemical or structural role played by the γ-phosphate of dNTPs remains unknown. Using the model mammalian polymerase (Pol) β, we examine how Pol β incorporates a substrate lacking a γ-phosphate [deoxyguanosine diphosphate (dGDP)] utilizing kinetic and crystallographic approaches. Using single-turnover kinetics, we determined dGDP insertion across a templating dC by Pol β to be drastically impaired when compared to dGTP insertion. We found the most significant impairment in the apparent insertion rate (<i>k</i><sub>pol</sub>), which was reduced 32000-fold compared to that of dGTP insertion. X-ray crystal structures revealed similar enzyme-substrate contacts for both dGDP and dGTP. These findings suggest the insertion efficiency of dGDP is greatly decreased due to impairments in polymerase chemistry. This work is the first instance of a mammalian polymerase inserting a diphosphate nucleotide and provides insight into the nature of polymerase mechanisms by highlighting how these enzymes have evolved to use triphosphate nucleotide substrates.