Conversion of a phosphoseryl/threonyl phosphatase into a phosphotyrosyl phosphatase.
ABSTRACT: By use of the autophosphorylated epidermal-growth-factor receptor and the synthetic peptide RRLIE-DAEY(P)AARG, representing an autophosphorylation site of the transforming protein of Rous-sarcoma virus, it is demonstrated that the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity of the polycation-stimulated phosphatases is substantially increased by an enzyme-directed effect of ATP or PPi. Concomitant with this increase in phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity, the phosphorylase phosphatase activity is decreased, thus dramatically changing the substrate specificity of these enzymes. The dephosphorylation of four different phosphotyrosyl sites of the epidermal-growth-factor receptor is neither consecutive nor at random, but a preferred dephosphorylation of the P1 site over the P3 greater than P2 greater than P4 sites is observed. This phosphatase activity represents a substantial fraction of the total phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity in the post-mitochondrial supernatant of Xenopus laevis oocytes.
Project description:Calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase has been proposed to be an important phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase. The ability of the enzyme to attack autophosphorylated insulin receptor was examined and compared with the known ability of the enzyme to act on autophosphorylated epidermal-growth-factor (EGF) receptor. Purified calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase was shown to catalyse the complete dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosyl-(insulin receptor). When compared at similar concentrations, 32P-labelled EGF receptor was dephosphorylated at greater than 3 times the rate of 32P-labelled insulin receptor; both dephosphorylations exhibited similar dependence on metal ions and calmodulin. Native phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatases in cell extracts were also characterized. With rat liver, heart or brain, most (75%) of the native phosphatase activity against both 32P-labelled insulin and EGF receptors was recovered in the particulate fraction of the cell, with only 25% in the soluble fraction. This subcellular distribution contrasts with results of previous studies using artificial substrates, which found most of the phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity in the soluble fraction of the cell. Properties of particulate and soluble phosphatase activity against 32P-labelled insulin and EGF receptors are reported. The contribution of calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase activity to phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity in cell fractions was determined by utilizing the unique metal-ion dependence of calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase. Whereas Ni2+ (1 mM) markedly activated the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, it was found to inhibit potently both particulate and soluble phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity. In fractions from rat liver, brain and heart, total phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity against both 32P-labelled receptors was inhibited by 99.5 +/- 6% (mean +/- S.E.M., 30 observations) by Ni2+. Results of Ni2+ inhibition studies were confirmed by other methods. It is concluded that in cell extracts phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatases other than calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase are the major phosphotyrosyl-(insulin receptor) and -(EGF receptor) phosphatases.
Project description:The major secreted isoenzyme of human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) (EC 188.8.131.52), which catalyses p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) hydrolysis at acid pH values, was found to have phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase activity since it dephosphorylated three different phosphotyrosine-containing protein substrates. Several lines of evidence are presented to show that the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase and PAcP are the same enzyme. A highly purified PAcP enzyme preparation which contains a single N-terminal peptide sequence was used to test for the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity. Both activities comigrated during gel filtration by high performance liquid chromatography. Phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity and PNPP acid phosphatase activity exhibited similar sensitivities to different effectors. Both phosphatase activities showed the same thermal stability. Specific anti-PAcP antibody reacted to the same extent with both phosphatase activities. PNPP acid phosphatase activity was competitively inhibited by the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase substrate. To characterize further the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity, the Km values using different phosphoprotein substrates were determined. The apparent Km values for phosphorylated angiotensin II, anti-pp60src immunoglobulin G and casein were in the nM range for phosphotyrosine residues, which was about 50-fold lower than the Km for phosphoserine residues in casein.
Project description:A novel acid phosphatase containing phosphotyrosyl phosphatase (PTPase) activity, designated PiACP, from Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611, an anaerobe implicated in progressive periodontal disease, has been purified and characterized. PiACP, a monomer with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa, did not require divalent metal cations for activity and was sensitive to orthovanadate but highly resistant to okadaic acid. The enzyme exhibited substantial activity against tyrosine phosphate-containing peptides derived from the epidermal growth factor receptor. On the basis of N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of purified PiACP, the gene coding for PiACP was isolated and sequenced. The PiACP gene consisted of 792 bp and coded for a basic protein with an M(r) of 29,164. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited striking similarity (25 to 64%) to those of members of class A bacterial acid phosphatases, including PhoC of Morganella morganii, and involved a conserved phosphatase sequence motif that is shared among several lipid phosphatases and the mammalian glucose-6-phosphatases. The highly conservative motif HCXAGXXR in the active domain of PTPase was not found in PiACP. Mutagenesis of recombinant PiACP showed that His-170 and His-209 were essential for activity. Thus, the class A bacterial acid phosphatases including PiACP may function as atypical PTPases, the biological functions of which remain to be determined.
Project description:Insulin stimulates autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor on multiple tyrosines in three domains: tyrosines 1316 and 1322 in the C-terminal tail, 1146, 1150 and 1151 in the tyrosine-1150 domain, and possibly 953, 960 or 972 in the juxtamembrane domain. In the present work the sequence of dephosphorylation of the various autophosphorylation sites by particulate and cytosolic preparations of phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase from rat liver was studied with autophosphorylated human placental insulin receptor as substrate. Both phosphatase preparations elicited a broadly similar pattern of dephosphorylation. The tyrosine-1150 domain in triphosphorylated form was found to be exquisitely sensitive to dephosphorylation, and was dephosphorylated 3-10-fold faster than the di- and monophosphorylated forms of the tyrosine-1150 domain or phosphorylation sites in other domains. The major route for dephosphorylation of the triphosphorylated tyrosine-1150 domain involved dephosphorylation of one of the phosphotyrosyl pair, 1150/1151, followed by phosphotyrosyl 1146 to generate a species monophosphorylated mainly (greater than 80%) at tyrosine 1150 or 1151. Insulin receptors monophosphorylated in the tyrosine-1150 domain disappeared slowly, and overall the other domains were completely dephosphorylated faster than the tyrosine-1150 domain. Dephosphorylation of the diphosphorylated C-terminal domain yielded insulin receptor in which the domain was singly phosphorylated at tyrosine 1322. Triphosphorylation of the insulin receptor in the tyrosine-1150 domain appears important in activating the receptor tyrosine kinase to phosphorylate other proteins. The extreme sensitivity of the triphosphorylated form of the tyrosine-1150 domain to dephosphorylation may thus be important in terminating or regulating insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase action and insulin signalling.
Project description:We have described recently the purification and cloning of PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A) leucine carboxylmethyltransferase. We studied the purification of a PP2A-specific methylesterase that co-purifies with PP2A and found that it is tightly associated with an inactive dimeric or trimeric form of PP2A. These inactive enzyme forms could be reactivated as Ser/Thr phosphatase by PTPA (phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator of PP2A). PTPA was described previously by our group as a protein that stimulates the in vitro phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity of PP2A; however, PP2A-specific methyltransferase could not bring about the activation. The PTPA activation could be distinguished from the Mn2+ stimulation observed with some inactive forms of PP2A, also found associated with PME-1 (phosphatase methylesterase 1). We discuss a potential new function for PME-1 as an enzyme that stabilizes an inactivated pool of PP2A.
Project description:Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activation, induced by insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation, was measured using a synthetic peptide containing residues 1142-1153 of the insulin receptor and shown to be reversed by both particulate and soluble phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatases from rat liver. Deactivation of the tyrosine kinase was highly sensitive to phosphatase action and was correlated best with disappearance of insulin receptors triphosphorylated in the tyrosine-1150 domain. Dephosphorylation of the di- and mono-phosphorylated forms of the tyrosine-1150 domain generated during dephosphorylation or of phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal or putative juxta-membrane domains occurred 3- greater than 10-fold more slowly than deactivation of the tyrosine kinase, and these phosphorylated species did not appear to appreciably (less than 20%) contribute to tyrosine kinase activation. These results indicate that the transition from the triply to the doubly phosphorylated form of the tyrosine-1150 domain acts as an important switch for deactivation of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase during dephosphorylation. The exquisite sensitivity of this dephosphorylation/deactivation event to phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase action, combined with the high affinities of this phosphatases for substrates and the high activities of the phosphatases in cells, suggests that the tyrosine kinase activity expressed by insulin-stimulated insulin receptors is likely to be stringently regulated.
Project description:During the purification of annexin VI from pig lung, we previously reported the isolation of another 67 kDa protein (protein 67E) differing from the former by immunological reactivity, amino acid composition, inability to interact with anionic phospholipids in the presence of Ca2+ and inability to inhibit phospholipase A2 [Fauvel, Vicendo, Roques, Ragab-Thomas, Granier, Vilgrain, Chambaz, Rochat, Chap & Douste-Blazy (1987) FEBS Lett. 221, 397-402]. Attempts to phosphorylate protein 67E by the protein tyrosine kinase of epidermal-growth-factor receptor revealed a dramatic inhibition of receptor autophosphorylation, which was also observed with insulin receptor. This inhibitory effect was found to be supported by a phosphatase active towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate, phosphotyrosine, [32P]phosphotyrosyl histones and [32P]phosphotyrosyl poly(Glu,Tyr), but inactive towards phosphoserine, phosphothreonine and [32P]phosphoseryl histones. Although not purified to complete homogeneity, the enzyme was purified 273-fold over EGTA extracts from pig lung and corresponded to a monomeric protein displaying an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. With [32P]phosphotyrosyl poly(Glu,Tyr) as substrate, the purified enzyme displayed Km and Vmax. values of 10 microM and 1.93 mumol/min per mg respectively, which compare reasonably well with other recently described phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatases. From these data and from its sensitivity to various inhibitors, it is concluded that protein fraction 67E contains a novel phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase, the association of which with annexin extract might offer a clue to the understanding of its possible targeting to membrane substrates.
Project description:The inactivation of growth suppressor genes appears to play a major role in the malignant process. To assess whether protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatases (protein-tyrosine-phosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 184.108.40.206) function as growth suppressors, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding human protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B for structural and functional characterization. The translation product deduced from the 1305-nucleotide open reading frame predicts a protein containing 435 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 49,966 Da. The amino-terminal 321 amino acids deduced from the cDNA sequence are identical to the empirically determined sequence of protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B. [Charbonneau, H., Tonks, N. K., Kumar, S., Diltz, C. D., Harrylock, M., Cool, D. E., Krebs, E. G., Fischer, E. H. & Walsh, K. A. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 5252-5256]. A genomic clone has been isolated and used in an in situ hybridization to banded metaphase chromosomes to determine that the gene encoding protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B maps as a single-copy gene to the long arm of chromosome 20 in the region q13.1-q13.2.
Project description:Tyrosyl phosphorylation plays an important regulatory role in osteoclast formation and activity. Phosphotyrosyl phosphatases (PTPs), in addition to tyrosyl kinases, are key determinants of intracellular tyrosyl phosphorylation levels. To identify the PTP that might play an important regulatory role in osteoclasts, we sought to clone an osteoclast-specific PTP. A putative full-length clone encoding a unique PTP (referred to as PTP-oc) was isolated from a 10-day-old rabbit osteoclastic cDNA library and sequenced. A single open reading frame predicts a protein with 405 amino acid residues containing a putative extracellular domain, a single transmembrane region, and an intracellular portion. PTP-oc is structurally unique in that, unlike most known transmembrane PTPs, it has a short extracellular region (eight residues), lacks a signal peptide proximal to the N-terminus, and contains only a single 'PTP catalytic domain'. The PTP catalytic domain shows 45-50% sequence identity with the catalytic domain of human HPTP beta and with the first catalytic domain of LCA. The PTP-oc gene exists as a single copy in the rabbit genome. The corresponding mRNA (3.8 kb) is expressed in osteoclasts but not in other bone-derived cells (e.g. osteoblasts and stromal cells). The 3.8 kb PTP-oc mRNA transcript was also expressed in the rabbit brain, kidney and spleen. However, the brain and kidney, but not osteoclasts or spleen, also expressed a larger transcript (6.5 kb). The PTP catalytic domain of PTP-oc was expressed as a GST-cPTP-oc fusion protein. In vitro phosphatase assays indicated that the purified fusion protein exhibited phosphatase activities at neutral pH values toward p-nitrophenyl phosphate, phosphotyrosyl Raytide, and phosphotyrosyl histone, whereas it had no appreciable activity toward phosphoseryl casein. In summary, we have: (a) cloned and sequenced the putative full-length cDNA of a unique PTP (PTP-oc) from rabbit osteoclasts; (b) shown that the mature 3.8 kb PTP-oc mRNA was expressed primarily in osteoclasts and the spleen; and (c) shown that the PTP-oc fusion protein exhibited a phosphotyrosine-specific phosphatase activity. In conclusion, PTP-oc represents a structurally unique subfamily of transmembrane PTPs.
Project description:In Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, a tight regulation of phosphatase activity is crucial for the development of the parasite. In this study, we have identified and characterized PfPTPA homologous to PhosphoTyrosyl Phosphatase Activator, an activator of protein phosphatase 2A which is a major phosphatase involved in many biological processes in eukaryotic cells. The PfPTPA sequence analysis revealed that five out of six amino acids involved in interaction with PP2A in human are conserved in P. falciparum. Localization studies showed that PfPTPA and PfPP2A are present in the same compartment of blood stage parasites, suggesting a possible interaction of both proteins. In vitro binding and functional studies revealed that PfPTPA binds to and activates PP2A. Mutation studies showed that three residues (V(283), G(292) and M(296)) of PfPTPA are indispensable for the interaction and that the G(292) residue is essential for its activity. In P. falciparum, genetic studies suggested the essentiality of PfPTPA for the completion of intraerythrocytic parasite lifecycle. Using Xenopus oocytes, we showed that PfPTPA blocked the G2/M transition. Taken together, our data suggest that PfPTPA could play a role in the regulation of the P. falciparum cell cycle through its PfPP2A regulatory activity.