Purification and N-terminal partial sequence of anti-epilepsy peptide from venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch.
ABSTRACT: An anti-epilepsy peptide (AEP) was isolated and purified from venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. The purification procedure included CM-Sephadex C-50 chromatography, gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and DEAE-Sephadex A-50 chromatography. Its homogeneity was demonstrated by pH 4.3 polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis, focusing electrophoresis and SDS/polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis. The Mr of this peptide, calculated from measurements in SDS/15%-polyacrylamide-disc-gel and SDS/20%-polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis, is 8300. The isoelectric point is 8.52 by pH 8-9.5-range isoelectric focusing. No haemorrhagic or toxic activities were found. No toxicity was found even after the dose reached 28 mg/kg. The pharmacological tests showed that the AEP had no effect on heart rate, blood pressure or electrocardiogram, but strongly inhibited epilepsy induced by coriaria lactone and cephaloridine. The fluorescence spectrum showed that the peptide has a strong emission peak at 337 nm. Amino acid analysis suggested that the AEP is composed of 66 residues from 18 amino acids and has an Mr of 8290. The sequence of the first 50 N-terminal residues is as follows: Asp-Gly-Tyr-Ile-Arg-Gly-Ser-Asp-Asn-Cys-Lys-Val-Ser-Cys-Leu-Leu-Gly-Asn- Glu-Gly - Cys-Asn-Lys-Glu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Ala-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Tyr-Cys-Trp-Thr-Val- Lys-Leu - Ala-Gln-Asp-Cys-Glu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Asp-Thr-.
Project description:The enzyme-substrate complex formed between pyridoxamine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 188.8.131.52) and pyridoxal was reduced with NaBH4. After carboxymethylation and tryptic digestion, pyridoxyl-lysine-containing peptides were isolated by a combination of Sephadex and Dowex 50 chromatography. Analysis of these peptides shows the structure around the pyridoxal-binding lysine residues to be Ala-Asp-Ile-Tyr-Val-Thr-Gly-Pro-Asx-Lys(Pxy)-Cys-Leu(Pro2, Gly2, Ala2, Met)(Thr, Leu2)Gly-Val-Ser-Glu-Arg. This structure differs from those found for the corresponding peptides from pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes.
Project description:Several mechanisms have been proposed for the way in which glucose and its metabolites cause cataract, retinopathy and other complications of diabetes, the most convincing being glycation. Glycation, the reaction of sugars with free amino groups of proteins, is one of a variety of non-enzymic post-translational modifications. The aim of the present study was to identify some of the most reactive proteins in the lens when incubated under physiological conditions. Fresh intact bovine lenses were incubated with [14C]glucose in a conventional tissue-culture medium with added antibiotics. After 3 and 6 days of incubation, the water-soluble proteins were separated by size-exclusion chromatography. Glycated proteins from the water-soluble fractions were separated by using a sugar affinity column (Affi-Gel 601). Then the radioactive fractions were identified on SDS/polyacrylamide gels. In addition, the whole bovine lenses were incubated with 10 mM fructose and glucose for 3 and 6 days. The glycated proteins from the water-soluble fractions in parallel with the radioactive fractions were separated by affinity chromatography, and were identified further by amino-acid sequencing. A progressive uptake of radioactive label showed that the majority of proteins incorporating both glucose and fructose were water-soluble fractions. Chromatography and SDS/polyacrylamide gel results showed that alpha- and gamma-crystallin and some proteins of a mean molecular mass of 36-37 kDa incorporated sugars early during incubation. After 6 days of incubation, more crystallins were glycated compared with 3 days, in particular beta-crystallin. Affinity-chromatography results indicated that proteins with subunit masses of 36 kDa and 20 kDa were possibly radiolabelled at an early stage. The purified glycated proteins following incubation with both glucose and fructose, which corresponded to 20 kDa and 36 kDa bands on SDS/polyacrylamide gels, were sequenced by Edman degradation. N-terminal sequences of both 20 kDa bands were Gly-Lys-Ile-Thr, characteristic of gamma-crystallins, but the N-termini of both 36 kDa bands were blocked. Further sequencing after digestion of 36 kDa bands with trypsin and running on HPLC revealed that the glucose sample gave the peptide sequences as Gly-Glu-Tyr-Pro-Asp-Tyr-Gln-Gln and Tyr-Glu-Leu-Pro-Asn-Tyr-Arg, which match with bovine gammaIIIb-crystallin. The peptide sequence Tyr-Glu-Leu-Pro-Asn-Tyr-Arg is only present in the published sequence of bovine gammaIIIb-crystallin and not in any other type of gamma-crystallin. The fructose sample gave the peptide sequences Ile-Thr-Phe-Tyr-Glu-Asp-Arg, Arg-Gly-Asp-Tyr-Pro-Asp-Tyr-Gln-Gln-Trp, Gln-Tyr-Leu-Leu-Arg and Val-Val-Asp-Leu-Tyr, which all matched with bovine gammaIIIa-crystallin. The sequence Val-Val-Asp-Leu-Tyr only appears in the sequence of bovine gammaIIIa-crystallin. gammaIII-Crystallin is the most susceptible lens protein to glycation. The primary target of glucose is gammaIIIb-crystallin, whereas that of fructose is gammaIIIa-crystallin. The early glycation of gammaIII-crystallin by glucose and fructose could result in structural alterations, leading to aggregation of crystallin and eventually cataract formation.
Project description:Insulin was isolated from an extract of the pancreas of a urodele, the three-toed amphiuma (Amphiuma tridactylum), and its primary structure established as Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-His10-Asn-Thr-Cys- Ser-Leu-Asn-Gln-Leu-Glu-Asn20-Tyr-Cys-Asn for the A-chain and Ile-Thr-Asn-Gln-Tyr-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His10-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala- Leu-Tyr-Leu-Val-Cys-Gly20-Asp-Arg-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Lys for the B-chain. The N-terminus of the A-chain is extended by two amino acids (Ala-Arg) relative to all other known insulins suggesting an anomalous pathway of post-translational processing in the region of the C-peptide/A-chain junction of proinsulin. In common with chicken and Xenopus insulins, which contain a HisA8, amphiuma insulin was more potent (approx. 5-fold) than porcine insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-TyrA14]insulin to the soluble human insulin receptor from transfected 293EBNA cells (an adenovirus-transformed human kidney cell line). This result is consistent with previous data showing that insulin analogues extended at GlyA1 by uncharged groups have reduced binding affinity whereas high affinity is preserved in analogues extended by basic amino acid residues.
Project description:The chemical and physical properties of the high-molecular-weight glycoprotein (SO20, w = 8S; Ve=Vo on Sephadex G-200) with gastric antisecretory activity extracted from the urine of pregnant women were studied. Gel filtration in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis indicated subunit mol.wts. of 16 000 +/- 1500 and 13 000 +/- 1000 respectively. Reaggregation of the subunits and partial recovery of the biological activity were observed on removal of the detergent. The partial C-terminal sequence was found to be Phe-Tyr-Leu-Val-OH, whereas glycine appears to be the N-terminal amino acid. The carbohydrate composition was examined; all galactosamine was found to be O-glycosidically linked to the polypeptide chain.
Project description:The holostean fishes are the extant representatives of the primitive ray-finned fishes from which the present-day teleosts may have evolved. The primary structure of insulin from a holostean fish, the bowfin (Amia calva), was established as: A-chain: Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-Leu-Lys-Pro-Cys-Thr-Ile-Tyr-Glu-Met-Glu- Lys-Tyr-Cys-Asn B-chain: Ala-Ala-Ser-Gln-His-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala-Leu-Phe-Leu- Val-Cys-Gly-Glu-Ser-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Asn-Pro-Asn-Lys-Ser This amino acid sequence contains several substitutions (methionine at A16, phenylalanine at B16 and serine at B22) at sites that have been strongly conserved in other vertebrate species and that may be expected to influence biological activity. Consistent with this prediction, bowfin insulin was approx. 14-fold less potent than pig insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-Tyr-A14](human insulin) to transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells expressing the human insulin receptor.
Project description:The water-soluble venom of Bothrops asper Garman (San Juan Evangelista, Veracruz, México) showed 15 polypeptide bands on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. This material exhibited phospholipase, hyaluronidase, N-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl hydrolase, N-benzoyl-l-tyrosine ethyl hydrolase and phosphodiesterase activity, but no alkaline phosphatase or acid phosphatase activity. Fractionation on Sephadex G-75 afforded seven protein fractions, which were apparently less toxic than the whole venom (LD(50)=4.3mug/g mouse wt.). Subsequent separation of the phospholipase-positive fraction (II) on DEAE-cellulose with potassium phosphate buffers (pH7.55) gave several fractions, two being phospholipase-positive (II.6 and II.8). These fractions were further purified on DEAE-cellulose columns with potassium phosphate buffers (pH8.6). Fraction II.8.4 was rechromatographed in the same DEAE-cellulose column, giving a pure protein designated phospholipase 1. The fraction II.6.3 was further separated by gel disc electrophoresis yielding two more pure proteins designated phospholipase 2 and phospholipase 3. Analysis of phospholipids hydrolysed by these enzymes have shown that all three phospholipases belong to type A(2). Amino acid analysis has shown that phospholipase A(2) (type 1) has 97 residues with a calculated mol.wt. of 10978+/-11. Phospholipase A(2) (type 2) has 96 residues with a mol.wt. of 10959+/-11. Phospholipase A(2) (type 3) has 266 residues with 16 half-cystine residues and a calculated mol.wt of 29042+/-31. Automated Edman degradation showed the N-terminal sequence to be: Asx-Leu-Trp-Glx-Phe-Gly-Glx-Met-Met-Ser-Asx-Val- Met-Arg-Lys-Asx-Val-Val-Phe-Lys-Tyr-Leu- for phospholipase A(2) (type 2).
Project description:1. A solution of Bombyx mori silk fibroin was digested with chymotrypsin. Amino acid analyses of the chymotryptic precipitate showed in addition to the main constituents Gly, Ala, Ser and Tyr, very small amounts of Lys, His, Arg, Asp, Thr, Glu, Pro, Cys, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Phe and Trp. 2. A stable solution of the chymotryptic precipitate in 6m-urea was obtained by dialysing a solution in 50% (w/v) lithium thiocyanate against 6m-urea. 3. The dinitrophenylated chymotryptic precipitate in 6m-urea was fractionated by gel filtration and by ion-exchange chromatography. On Dowex 1 (X2), a main fraction I(d) and three further fractions with different amino acid compositions and molecular weights were obtained. 4. Specific rearrangement and fission of the bonds involving the serine nitrogen atoms of fraction I(d) and fractionation of the resulting mixture by gel filtration yielded five fractions. Two of these fractions had the compositions DNP-Ser-(Gly(6),Ala(4),Ser) and DNP-Ser-(Gly(4),Ala(2) or Ala(3),Ser) and are presumably double repeating units according to the proposed formula of Lucas, Shaw & Smith (1957), namely [Ser-Gly-(Ala-Gly)(n)](2), for n values of 2 and 1 respectively.
Project description:Identifying DPP-IV inhibitory peptides from dietary protein has attracted increased attention. In the present study, bovine ?-lactalbumin hydrolysates were generated by alcalase for various hydrolysis times, and DPP-IV inhibitory activity of these hydrolysates was determined. The 4 h hydrolysates displayed the most potent DPP-IV inhibitory activity, with DPP-IV inhibition rate of 82.30 ± 1.39% at concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were isolated from the 4 h-hydrolysates with gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), two DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were identified, and their amino acid sequences were Glu-Leu-Lys-Asp-Leu-Lys-Gly-Tyr (ELKDLKGY) and Ile-Leu-Asp-Lys-Val-Gly-Ile-Asn-Tyr (ILDKVGINY), respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking analysis showed that peptides ELKDLKGY and ILDKVGINY could form hydrogen bonds, pi-cation interactions, and salt bridges with DPP-IV. These findings indicated that bovine ?-lactalbumin may be a potential source of natural DPP-IV inhibitor.
Project description:Malate dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) was purified to homogeneity from the marine diatom Nitzschia alba. The purification steps consisted of (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, Blue Sepharose affinity chromatography and gel filtration. A typical procedure provided 685-fold purification with 58% yield. The Mr of the holoenzyme was estimated to be 322,000 by gel filtration and 316,000 by ultracentrifugation. The enzyme migrated as a single polypeptide spot on two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an Mr of 38,500, suggesting that the holoenzyme consists of eight identical subunits. This is the first case where malate dehydrogenase has been shown to be a homo-octamer; malate dehydrogenases from other sources are predominantly homodimers, with two homotetramers reported so far. The amino acid composition of the enzyme was determined and the N-terminal sequence of the subunit polypeptide was found to be Arg-Lys-Val-Ala-Val-Met-Gly-Ala-Ala-Gly-Gly-Ile-Gly-Gln-Pro-Leu-Ser-Leu- Leu-Leu - Lys-Leu-Ser-Pro-Gln-Val-Thr-Glu-Leu-Ser-Lys-Tyr-. For the first 21 amino acid residues, near-identical sequences were reported for the enzymes isolated from pig heart, Escherichia coli, yeast and watermelon. Other physicochemical and catalytic properties, such as sedimentation coefficient, partial specific volume, Stokes radius, excitation and emission maxima, Michaelis constants, pH optima, pH stability range and activation energy, of this enzyme are also presented.
Project description:Asparaginyl endopeptidases (AEPs) are ideal for peptide and protein labeling. However, because of the reaction reversibility, a large excess of labels or backbone modified substrates are needed. In turn, simple and cheap reagents can be used to label N-terminal cysteine, but its availability inherently limits the potential applications. Aiming to address these issues, we have created a chemo-enzymatic labeling system that exploits the substrate promiscuity of AEP with the facile chemical reaction between N-terminal cysteine and 2-formyl phenylboronic acid (FPBA). In this approach, AEP is used to ligate polypeptides with a Asn-Cys-Leu recognition sequence with counterparts possessing an N-terminal Gly-Leu. Instead of being a labeling reagent, the commercially available FPBA serves as a scavenger converting the byproduct Cys-Leu into an inert thiazolidine derivative. This consequently drives the AEP labeling reaction forward to product formation with a lower ratio of label to protein substrate. By carefully screening the reaction conditions for optimal compatibility and minimal hydrolysis, conversion to the ligated product in the model reaction resulted in excellent yields. The versatility of this AEP-ligation/FPBA-coupling system was further demonstrated by site-specifically labeling the N- or C-termini of various proteins.