Inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in turnover by nitric oxide: mechanism and implications for control of respiration.
ABSTRACT: Binding of nitric oxide (NO) to isolated cytochrome c oxidase in turnover was investigated by static and kinetic spectroscopic methods. These studies indicate that cytochrome c oxidase rapidly binds NO when the enzyme enters turnover. Our results show that NO binds to ferrocytochrome a3, competing with oxygen for this binding site. However, the main features of the binding process, in particular the rapid onset of inhibition, cannot be fully explained on this basis. We suggest, therefore, that there is a second binding site for NO, which has lower affinity but nevertheless plays an important role in the inhibitory process. A likely possibility is that CuB+ constitutes this second binding site. The fast onset of inhibition observed in the presence of NO, along with the dependence on the oxygen concentration, suggests that under physiological conditions, where the oxygen concentration is low, nanomolar concentrations of NO can effectively act as a regulator of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Project description:The inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by cyanide, starting either with the resting or the pulsed enzyme, was studied by rapid-freeze quenching followed by quantitative e.p.r. It is found that a partial reduction of cytochrome oxidase by transfer of 2 electron equivalents from ferrocytochrome c to cytochrome a and CuA will induce a transition from a closed to an open enzyme conformation, rendering the cytochrome a3-CuB site accessible for cyanide binding, possibly as a bridging ligand. A heterogeneity in the enzyme is observed in that an e.p.r. signal from the cytochrome a3 3+-HCN complex is only found in 20% of the molecules, whereas the remaining cyanide-bound a3-CuB sites are e.p.r.-silent.
Project description:Experiments were performed to examine the cyanide-binding properties of resting and pulsed cytochrome c oxidase in both their stable and transient turnover states. Inhibition of the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c was monitored as a function of cyanide concentration. Cyanide binding to partially reduced forms produced by mixing cytochrome c oxidase with sodium dithionite was also examined. A model is presented that accounts fully for cyanide inhibition of the enzyme, the essential feature of which is the rapid, tight, binding of cyanide to transient, partially reduced, forms of the enzyme populated during turnover. Computer fitting of the experimentally obtained data to the kinetic predictions given by this model indicate that the cyanide-sensitive form of the enzyme binds the ligand with combination constants in excess of 10(6) M-1 X s-1 and with KD values of 50 nM or less. Kinetic difference spectra indicate that cyanide binds to oxidized cytochrome a33+ and that this occurs rapidly only when cytochrome a and CuA are reduced.
Project description:Cytochrome oxidase (EC 220.127.116.11; ferrocytochrome c:oxygen oxidoreductase) was studied during steady-state by optical and e.p.r. methods. Starting with either the 'resting' or the 'pulsed' enzyme, oxidase, cytochrome c, ascorbate and O2 were mixed and the reaction monitored optically. Tetramethylphenylenediamine was used as mediator to poise the steady-state to the desired reduction level. After mixing, the reaction was quenched by the used of rapid-freeze techniques. The e.p.r. spectra of samples captured at increasing tetramethylphenylenediamine concentrations (i.e. higher electron flux) show decreasing g = 2 (Cu A) and g = 3 (cytochrome a) signals. No Cu B or g = 6 signals (high-spin cytochrome a3) could be found during the reaction. Also, the signal with peaks at g = 1.69, 1.78 and 5 as well as the g = 12 signal was hardly detectable at higher turnover rates. The only new signal appearing during turnover is a radical signal, which is discussed in terms of a protein radical. Finally, a scheme is presented, proposing a catalytic cycle for cytochrome oxidase with respect to the O2 binding Cu B-cytochrome a3 unit.
Project description:In stopped-flow experiments in which oxidized cytochrome c oxidase was mixed with ferrocytochrome c in the presence of a range of oxygen concentrations and in the absence and presence of cyanide, a fast phase, reflecting a rapid approach to an equilibrium, was observed. Within this phase, one or two molecules of ferrocytochrome were oxidized per haem group of cytochrome a, depending on the concentration of ferrocytochrome c used. The reasons for this are discussed in terms of a mechanism in which all electrons enter through cytochrome a, which, in turn, is in rapid equilibrium with a second site, identified with 'visible' copper (830 nm-absorbing) Cud (Beinert et al., 1971). The value of the bimolecular rate constant for the reaction between cytochromes c2+ and a3+ was between 10(6) and 10(7) M(-1)-S(-1); some variability from preparation to preparation was observed. At high ferrocytochrome c concentrations, the initial reaction of cytochrome c2+ with cytochrome a3+ could be isolated from the reaction involving the 'visible' copper and the stoicheiometry was found to approach one molecule of cytochrome c2+ oxidized for each molecule of cytochrome a3+ reduced. At low ferrocytochrome c concentrations, however, both sites (i.e. cytochrome a and Cud) were reduced simultaneously and the stoicheiometry of the initial reaction was closer to two molecules of cytochrome c2+ oxidized per molecule of cytochrome a reduced. The bleaching of the 830 nm band lagged behind or was simultaneous with the formation of the 605 nm band and does not depend on the cytochrome c concentration, whereas the extinction at the steady-state does. The time-course of the return of the 830 nm-absorbing species is much faster than the bleaching of the 605 nm-absorbing component, and parallels that of the turnover phase of cytochrome c2+ oxidation. Additions of cyanide to the oxidase preparations had no effect on the observed stoicheiometry or kinetics of the reduction of cytochrome a and 'visible' copper, but inhibited electron transfer to the other two sites, cytochrome a3 and the undetectable copper, Cuu.
Project description:A number of methods were used to prepare a species of mammalian cytochrome oxidase (EC 18.104.22.168, ferrocytochrome c-oxygen oxidoreductase) in which only cytochrome a(3) is reduced and in combination with CO. The kinetics of CO binding by cytochrome a(3) (2+) in this species is significantly different from that exhibited by cytochrome a(3) (2+) in the fully reduced enzyme. The second-order rate constant for combination was 5x10(4)m(-1).s(-1) and the ;off' constant was 3x10(-2)s(-1). The kinetic difference spectra cytochrome a(3) (2+)-cytochrome a(3) (2+)-CO reveal further differences between the mixed-valence and the fully reduced enzyme. The reaction between cytochrome a(3) (2+) and oxygen in the mixed-valence species was followed in flow-flash experiments and reveals a fast, oxygen-dependent (8x10(7)m(-1).s(-1) at low oxygen) rate followed by a slow process, whose rate is independent of oxygen but whose amplitude is dependent on [O(2)]. The fast oxygen-dependent reaction yields as the first product the so-called ;oxygenated' enzyme. We conclude from these experiments that the ligand-binding behaviour of cytochrome a(3) depends on the redox state of its partners, a fact which represents clear evidence for site-site interaction in this enzyme. The fact that oxygen reacts rapidly with this enzyme species in which only one component, namely cytochrome a(3), is reduced represents clear and unequivocal evidence that this is indeed the O(2)-binding site in cytochrome oxidase and may indicate that reduction of oxygen can proceed via single electron steps.
Project description:1. The kinetics of ferrocytochrome c peroxidation by yeast peroxidase are described. Kinetic differences between the older and more recent preparations of the enzyme most probably arise from differences in intrinsic turnover rates. 2. The time-courses of cytochrome c peroxidation by the enzyme follow essentially first-order kinetics in phosphate buffer. Deviations from first-order kinetics occur in acetate buffer, and are due to a higher enzymic turnover rate in this medium accompanied by a greater tendency to autocatalytic peroxidation of cytochrome c. 3. The kinetics of ferrocytochrome c peroxidation by yeast peroxidase are interpreted in terms of a mechanism postulating formation of reversible complexes between the peroxidase and both reduced and oxidized cytochrome c. Formation of these complexes is inhibited at high ionic strengths and by polycations. 4. Oxidized cytochrome c can act as a competitive inhibitor of ferrocytochrome c peroxidation by peroxidase. The K(i) for ferricytochrome c is approximately equal to the K(m) for ferrocytochrome c and thus probably accounts for the observed apparent first-order kinetics even at saturating concentrations of ferrocytochrome c. 5. The results are discussed in terms of a possible analogy between the oxidations of cytochrome c catalysed by yeast peroxidase and by mammalian cytochrome oxidase.
Project description:Cytochrome oxidase, in its fully reduced state, forms a complex with CN having a Kd of 230 microM with a stoicheiometry of 1 CN molecule per cytochrome oxidase. We do not detect a second CN-binding site as seen by i.r. spectroscopy [Yoshikawa & Caughey (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 7945-7958]. The ferrocytochrome a3-CN complex, like the analogous ferrocytochrome a3-CO complex, is photosensitive but with a 15-fold lower quantum yield for photolysis. Analysis of the recombination kinetics after CN photolysis establishes a simple bimolecular binding constant of 235 M-1.s-1, in agreement with the value obtained from stopped-flow studies [Antonini, Brunori, Greenwood, Malmström & Rotillo (1971) Eur. J. Biochem. 23, 396-400]. A rate of 0.07 s-1 for the first-order dissociation of CN from cytochrome a3 is found by the rate of exchange of CO with ferrocytochrome a3-CN, and is consistent with the value calculated from the equilibrium binding constant and the CN on rate. However, O2 is able to oxidize the fully reduced CN compound at a rate well in excess of the CN off rate. The product of this oxidation reaction is a partially reduced CN complex. This implies that O2 either promotes CN dissociation or is able to oxidize the CN-bound enzyme directly. These results are discussed in the context of the structure and dynamics of the ligand-binding site of cytochrome oxidase.
Project description:1. Oxidation of ferrocytochrome c by cytochrome c oxidase incorporated into proteoliposomes induces a transient acidification of the external medium. This change is dependent on the presence of valinomycin and can be abolished by carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone or by nigericin. The H+/e- ratio for the initial acidification varies with the internal buffering capacity of the vesicles, and under suitable conditions approaches + 1, the pulse slowly decaying to give a net alkalinity change with H+/e- value approaching -1. 2. Inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase turnover by ferricytochrome c or by azide addition results in ferrocytochrome c-dependent H+ pulses with decreasing H+/e- ratios. The rate of the initial H+ production remains higher than the rate of equilibration of the pH gradient, indicating an intrinsic dependence of the H+/e- ratio on enzyme turnover. The final net alkalinity changes are relatively unaffected by turnover inhibition.
Project description:Optical-absorption-, e.p.r.- and m.c.d. (magnetic-circular-dichroism)-spectroscopic measurements were made on liganded derivatives of oxidized and partially reduced cytochrome c oxidase. When NO was added to oxidized cyanide-bound cytochrome c oxidase, no changes occurred in the optical-absorption difference spectrum. In contrast, NO induced reduction of cytochrome a3 and formation of the nitrosylferrohaem species when the oxidized resting enzyme was the starting material. E.p.r. spectroscopy of the NO-treated oxidized cyanide-bound enzyme revealed the presence of a low-spin haem signal at g = 3.40, whereas the g = 3.02 and g = 2.0 signals of the oxidized enzyme remained unchanged. Both haem groups in this species are e.p.r.-detectable simultaneously. Examination of an identical sample by m.c.d. spectroscopy in the near-i.r. region identified two distinct low-spin species at 1565 and 1785 nm. Irradiation with white light of the NO-treated cyanide-bound sample at 10K resulted in the disappearance of the g = 3.40 e.p.r. signal and the m.c.d. signal at 1785 nm, whereas a band at 1950nm increased in intensity. When the photolysed sample was warmed to 50K and held in the dark for 15 min, the original spectrum returned. Magnetization studies of the 1785nm m.c.d. band support the assignment of this signal to the same metal centre that gives rise to the g = 3.40 e.p.r. signal. The effect of NO on the oxidized cyanide-bound enzyme was compared with that obtained when the oxidized cyanide-bound species was taken to the partially reduced state. Cytochrome a3 is e.p.r.-detectable with a g-value of 3.58 [Johnson, Eglinton, Gooding, Greenwood & Thomson (1981) Biochem. J. 193, 699-708]. Its near-i.r. m.c.d. spectrum shifts from 1950nm in the oxidized cyanide-bound enzyme to 1545nm on addition of reductant. A scheme is advanced for the structure of the cytochrome a3-CuB site that allows for cyanide binding to Fea3 and NO binding to CuB. Cyanide is the bridging ligand in the ferromagnetically coupled cytochrome a3-CuB pair of oxidized cyanide-bound cytochrome c oxidase. The bridged structure and the magnetic interaction are broken when the enzyme is partially reduced. However, when NO binds to CuB the cyanide bridge remains intact, but now the odd spins of NO and CuB are magnetically coupled.
Project description:Cytochrome c oxidase from bovine heart binds Ca(2+) reversibly at a specific Cation Binding Site located near the outer face of the mitochondrial membrane. Ca(2+) shifts the absorption spectrum of heme a, which allowed previously to determine the kinetics and equilibrium characteristics of the binding. However, no effect of Ca(2+) on the functional characteristics of cytochrome oxidase was revealed earlier. Here we report that Ca(2+) inhibits cytochrome oxidase activity of isolated bovine heart enzyme by 50-60% with Ki of ?1 µM, close to Kd of calcium binding with the oxidase determined spectrophotometrically. The inhibition is observed only at low, but physiologically relevant, turnover rates of the enzyme (?10 s(-1) or less). No inhibitory effect of Ca(2+) is observed under conventional conditions of cytochrome c oxidase activity assays (turnover number >100 s(-1) at pH 8), which may explain why the effect was not noticed earlier. The inhibition is specific for Ca(2+) and is reversed by EGTA. Na(+) ions that compete with Ca(2+) for binding with the Cation Binding Site, do not affect significantly activity of the enzyme but counteract the inhibitory effect of Ca(2+). The Ca(2+)-induced inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase is observed also with the uncoupled mitochondria from several rat tissues. At the same time, calcium ions do not inhibit activity of the homologous bacterial cytochrome oxidases. Possible mechanisms of the inhibition are discussed as well as potential physiological role of Ca(2+) binding with cytochrome oxidase. Ca(2+)- binding at the Cation Binding Site is proposed to inhibit proton-transfer through the exit part of the proton conducting pathway H in the mammalian oxidases.