Expression of human platelet-activating factor receptor gene in EoL-1 cells following butyrate-induced differentiation.
ABSTRACT: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent lipid mediator of allergic inflammation through its interaction with eosinophils. Expression of the PAF receptor is modulated by many agents, including those responsible for cell differentiation. We report here that differentiation of a human eosinophilic leukaemia cell line, EoL-1, by sodium n-butyrate is associated with induction of PAF receptor gene expression, as indicated by: PAF receptor mRNA accumulation; increases in the binding of [3H]WEB 2086, a PAF antagonist; analysis of cell-surface expression of PAF receptor protein using a monoclonal anti-(PAF receptor) antibody; and augmentation of PAF-induced increase in the intracellular concentration of calcium. Using cDNA cloning, the receptor expressed in EoL-1 cells was identified as 'Transcript 1', one of two transcripts which was previously reported from human genomic analysis (Mutoh, Bito, Minami, Nakamura, Honda, Izumi, Nakata, Kurachi, Terano and Shimizu (1993) FEBS Lett. 322, 129-134). The PAF-induced calcium response and phosphoinositide turnover were decreased by pertussis toxin (PTX) treatment, suggesting that these signals are coupled largely with PTX-sensitive G-protein(s) in EoL-1 cells. These systems may provide a useful experimental model with which to investigate the relationship between eosinophilic differentiation and PAF receptor induction, and the role of eosinophils in allergic responses.
Project description:Numerous reports have shown that cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) contribute to tissue accumulation of eosinophils in allergic airway inflammation. To date, only a few studies have reported that CysLTs promote chemotactic activity of human eosinophils in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CysLTs promote chemotaxis in the human eosinophilic cell line, EoL-1. EoL-1 cells were induced to differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells via incubation with butyric acid and cytokines (IL-3, IL-5 and GM-CSF). The chemotactic activity of the differentiated EoL-1 cells was assessed using the commercial cell migration assay kit. LTD4 elicited dose-related chemotactic activity in the differntiated EoL-1 cells in the range of 1-100 nM. A typical bell-shaped dose-response curve was observed with optimal activity at 10 nM. The chemotactic activity elicited by LTD4 (10 nM) was significantly inhibited by montelukast (control, 345 ± 19.2 × 103 RFU; LTD4 10 nM alone, 511 ± 39.2 × 103 RFU; LTD4 10 nM plus montelukast 100 nM, 387 ± 28.2 × 103 RFU). LTD4 induces migration in eosinophilic cells via activation of CysLT1 receptor. The present in vitro model may be useful for elucidation of the mechanism underlying CysLT-induced tissue eosinophilia.
Project description:Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.
Project description:Eosinophils are terminally differentiated granulocytes that have long been considered as destructive cells associated with Th2 type immune responses such as allergic inflammation and helminth infections. Recently, eosinophils have been actively studied as multifunctional leukocytes regulating an array of physiological responses through interaction with other immune cells. In this study, we examined the expression and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in eosinophilic EoL-1 cells and demonstrated the expression of a number of immune mediators in activated EoL-1 cells and their interaction with the macrophage cell line THP-1 upon TLR4 ligand stimulation. EoL-1 cells differentiated with butyrate increased expression of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 at mRNA and protein level with flow cytometry analysis. Mature eosinophils derived from human cord blood CD34+ cells were subjected to RNA-sequencing, and showed the expression of a panel of TLR transcripts and TLR4 was the most highly expressed TLR. Among the cognate ligands of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or palmitic acid significantly increased mRNA expression of immune mediators in differentiated EoL-1 cells. Notably, Western blot analysis of palmitic acid-treated differentiated EoL-1 cells showed significantly up-regulated expression of Th2 type cytokines and transcription factors driving eosinophil differentiation. To evaluate functional significance of TLR4 ligand-stimulated eosinophils, we added conditioned media (CM) from EoL-1 cells to differentiated THP-1 cells and assessed the expression of M1 macrophage or M2 macrophage-related markers. M1 and M2 macrophage markers were significantly upregulated by CM from LPS and palmitic acid stimulated EoL-1 cells, respectively. In addition, the adipose tissue of obese mice, where eosinophils are decreased due to obesity-induced inflammation, showed significantly decreased frequency of M2 macrophages, despite an increase in the total macrophage numbers. Based on these collective data, we proposed that eosinophils regulate both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory polarization of macrophages through functional changes induced by different TLR4 ligands.
Project description:Eosinophils are effector cells that have an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. Defective removal of these cells likely leads to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Thus, there is great interest in understanding the mechanisms responsible for the elimination of eosinophils from inflammatory sites. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for certain mediators and molecular pathways responsible for the survival and death of leukocytes at sites of inflammation. Reactive oxygen species have been described as proinflammatory mediators but their role in the resolution phase of inflammation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reactive oxygen species in the resolution of allergic inflammatory responses. An eosinophilic cell line (Eol-1) was treated with hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis was measured. Allergic inflammation was induced in ovalbumin sensitized and challenged mouse models and reactive oxygen species were administered at the peak of inflammatory cell infiltrate. Inflammatory cell numbers, cytokine and chemokine levels, mucus production, inflammatory cell apoptosis and peribronchiolar matrix deposition was quantified in the lungs. Resistance and elastance were measured at baseline and after aerosolized methacholine. Hydrogen peroxide accelerates resolution of airway inflammation by induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis of eosinophils and decrease remodeling, mucus deposition, inflammatory cytokine production and airway hyperreactivity. Moreover, the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by apocynin or in gp91(phox-/-) mice prolonged the inflammatory response. Hydrogen peroxide induces Eol-1 apoptosis in vitro and enhances the resolution of inflammation and improves lung function in vivo by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis of eosinophils.
Project description:S100A8 and S100A9 function as essential factors in inflammation and also exert antitumor or tumorigenic activity depending on the type of cancer. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a rare hematological malignancy having elevated levels of eosinophils and characterized by the presence of the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene. In this study, we examined the pro-apoptotic mechanisms of S100A8 and S100A9 in FIP1L1-PDGFR?+ eosinophilic cells and hypereosinophilic patient cells. S100A8 and S100A9 induce apoptosis of the FIP1L1-PDGFR?+ EoL-1 cells via TLR4. The surface TLR4 expression increased after exposure to S100A8 and S100A9 although total TLR4 expression decreased. S100A8 and S100A9 suppressed the FIP1L1-PDGFR?-mediated signaling pathway by downregulating FIP1L1-PDGFR? mRNA and protein expression and triggered cell apoptosis by regulating caspase 9/3 pathway and Bcl family proteins. S100A8 and S100A9 also induced apoptosis of imatinib-resistant EoL-1 cells (EoL-1-IR). S100A8 and S100A9 blocked tumor progression of xenografted EoL-1 and EoL-1-IR cells in NOD-SCID mice and evoked apoptosis of eosinophils derived from hypereosinophilic syndrome as well as chronic eosinophilic leukemia. These findings may contribute to a progressive understanding of S100A8 and S100A9 in the pathogenic and therapeutic mechanism of hematological malignancy.
Project description:Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a myeloproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Recently, it has been reported that imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), an inhibitor of Bcr-Abl kinase useful in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, is also effective in treating HES; however, the molecular target of imatinib in HES is unknown. This report identifies a genetic rearrangement in the eosinophilic cell line EOL-1 that results in the expression of a fusion protein comprising an N-terminal region encoded by a gene of unknown function with the GenBank accession number NM_030917 and a C-terminal region derived from the intracellular domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha). The fusion gene was also detected in blood cells from two patients with HES. We propose naming NM_030917 Rhe for Rearranged in hypereosinophilia. Rhe-PDGFRalpha fusions result from an apparent interstitial deletion that links Rhe to exon 12 of PDGFRalpha on chromosome 4q12. The fusion kinase Rhe-PDGFRalpha is constitutively phosphorylated and supports IL-3-independent growth when expressed in BaF3 cells. Proliferation and viability of EOL-1 and BaF3 cells expressing Rhe-PDGFRalpha are ablated by the PDGFRalpha inhibitors imatinib, vatalanib, and THRX-165724.
Project description:Eosinophils are granulated leukocytes that are involved in many inflammation-associated pathologies including airway inflammation in asthma. Resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and return to homeostasis is in part due to endogenous chemical mediators, for example, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins. Lipoxins are endogenous eicosanoids that demonstrate antiinflammatory activity and are synthesized locally at sites of inflammation. In view of the importance of lipoxins (LXs) in resolving inflammation, we investigated the molecular basis of LXA(4) action on eosinophilic granulocytes stimulated with GM-CSF employing the eosinophilic leukemia cell line EoL-1 as well as peripheral blood eosinophils. We report herein that LXA(4) (1-100 nM) decreased protein tyrosine phosphorylation in EoL-1 cells stimulated with GM-CSF. Additionally, the expression of a number of GM-CSF-induced cytokines was inhibited by LXA(4) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, using a proteomics approach involving mass spectrometry and immunoblot analysis we identified 11 proteins that were tyrosine phosphorylated after GM-CSF stimulation and whose phosphorylation was significantly inhibited by LXA(4) pretreatment. Included among these 11 proteins were alpha-fodrin (nonerythroid spectrin) and actin. Microscopic imaging showed that treatment of EoL-1 cells or blood eosinophils with GM-CSF resulted in the reorganization of actin and the translocation of alpha-fodrin from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. Importantly, alpha-fodrin translocation was prevented by LXA(4) but actin reorganization was not. Thus, the mechanism of LXA(4) action likely involves prevention of activation of eosinophilic granulocytes by GM-CSF through inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and modification of some cytoskeletal components.
Project description:Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) that plays a key role in airway inflammation is expressed on platelets and eosinophils. We investigated whether blocking of the P2Y12 receptor can suppress eosinophilic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma because platelets and eosinophils share this receptor to be activated. BALB/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA), followed by OVA nebulization. On each challenge day, clopidogrel, a P2Y12 antagonist was administered 30 min. before each challenge. Forty-eight hours after the last OVA challenge, mice were assessed for airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), cell composition and cytokine levels, including chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. EOL cells were treated with LTE4, with or without clopidogrel treatment, and intracellular and extracellular eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) expressions were measured to find the inhibiting function of P2Y12 antagonist on eosinophilic activation. The levels of P2Y12 expression were increased markedly in the lung homogenates of OVA-sensitized and -challenged mice after platelet depletion. Administration of clopidogrel decreased AHR and the number of airway inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, in BAL fluid following OVA challenge. These results were associated with decreased levels of Th2 cytokines and CCL5. Histological examination showed that inflammatory cells as well as mucus-containing goblet cells were reduced in clopidogrel-administered mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. Clopidogrel inhibited extracellular ECP secretion after LTE4 stimulation in EOL-1 cells. Clopidogrel could prevent development of AHR and airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. P2Y12 can be a novel therapeutic target to the suppression of eosinophils in asthma.
Project description:We explored the relation between vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), CRTH2, and eosinophil recruitment. It is shown that CRTH2 expression by eosinophils from allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and eosinophil cell line (Eol-1 cells) was up-regulated by VIP treatment. This was functional and resulted in exaggerated migratory response of cells against PGD2. Nasal challenge of AR patients resulted in a significant increase of VIP contents in nasal secretion (ELISA), and the immunohistochemical studies of allergic nasal tissues showed significant expression of VIP in association with intense eosinophil recruitment. Biochemical assays showed that VIP-induced eosinophil chemotaxis from AR patients and Eol-1 cells was mediated through the CRTH2 receptor. Cell migration against VIP was sensitive to protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition but not to tyrosine kinase or p38 MAPK inhibition or calcium chelation. Western blot demonstrated a novel CRTH2-mediated cytosol-to-membrane translocation of PKC-?, PKC-?, and PKA-?, -?, and -II?reg in Eol-1 cells upon stimulation with VIP. Confocal images and FACS demonstrated a strong association and co-localization between VIP peptide and CRTH2 molecules. Further, VIP induced PGD2 secretion from eosinophils. Our results demonstrate the first evidence of association between VIP and CRTH2 in recruiting eosinophils.
Project description:Memory helper T cells provide long-lasting host defeMemory helper T cells provide long-lasting host defense against microbial pathogens, while distinct subpopulations of memory T cells drive chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Asthma is a chronic allergic inflammatory disease with airway remodeling including fibrotic changes. The immunological mechanisms that induce airway fibrotic changes in allergic inflammation remain unknown. We found that Interleukin-33 (IL-33) enhanced Amphiregulin production by the IL-33 receptor, ST2hi memory T helper-2 (Th2) cells. Amphiregulin-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling directly reprogramed eosinophils to an inflammatory state with enhanced production of Osteopontin, a key profibrotic immunomodulatory protein. IL-5-producing memory Th2 cells and Amphiregulin-producing memory Th2 cells appeared to cooperate to establish lung fibrosis. The analysis of polyps from patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis revealed fibrosis with accumulation of Amphiregulin-producing CRTH2hiCD161hiCD45RO+CD4+ Th2 cells and Osteopontin-producing eosinophils. Thus, the IL-33-Amphiregulin-Osteopontin axis directs fibrotic responses in eosinophilic airway inflammation and is a potential target for the treatment of fibrosis induced by chronic allergic disorders. against microbial pathogens, while distinct subpopulations of memory T cells drive chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Asthma is a chronic allergic inflammatory disease with airway remodeling including fibrotic changes. The immunological mechanisms that induce airway fibrotic changes in allergic inflammation remain unknown. We found that Interleukin-33 (IL-33) enhanced Amphiregulin production by the IL-33 receptor, ST2 hi memory T helper-2 (Th2) cells. Amphiregulin-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling directly reprogramed eosinophils to an inflammatory state with enhanced production of Osteopontin, a key profibrotic immunomodulatory protein. IL-5-producing memory Th2 cells and Amphiregulin-producing memory Th2 cells appeared to cooperate to establish lung fibrosis. The analysis of polyps from patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis revealed fibrosis with accumulation of Amphiregulin-producing CRTH2hiCD161hiCD45RO+CD4+ Th2 cells and Osteopontin-producing eosinophils. Thus, the IL-33-Amphiregulin-Osteopontin axis directs fibrotic responses in eosinophilic airway inflammation and is a potential target for the treatment of fibrosis induced by chronic allergic disorders. Overall design: Amphiregulin producing cells, eosinophils and lung treated with HDM are assessed by RNA-seq.