Streptomyces K15 active-site serine DD-transpeptidase: specificity profile for peptide, thiol ester and ester carbonyl donors and pathways of the transfer reactions.
ABSTRACT: The Streptomyces K15 transferase is a penicillin-binding protein presumed to be involved in bacterial wall peptidoglycan crosslinking. It catalyses cleavage of the peptide, thiol ester or ester bond of carbonyl donors Z-R1-CONH-CHR2-COX-CHR3-COO- (where X is NH, S or O) and transfers the electrophilic group Z-R1-CONH-CHR2-CO to amino acceptors via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. Kinetic data suggest that the amino acceptor behaves as a simple alternative nucleophile at the level of the acyl-enzyme in the case of thiol ester and ester donors, and that it binds to the enzyme.carbonyl donor Michaelis complex and influences the rate of enzyme acylation by the carbonyl donor in the case of amide donors. Depending on the nature of the scissile bond, the enzyme has different requirements for substituents at positions R1, R2 and R3.
Project description:The 49 kDa penicillin-binding protein (PBP) of Mycobacterium smegmatis catalyses the hydrolysis of the peptide or S-ester bond of carbonyl donors R1-CONH-CHR2-COX-CHR2-COO- (where X is NH or S). In the presence of a suitable amino acceptor, the reaction partitions between the transpeptidation and hydrolysis pathways, with the amino acceptor, behaving as a simple alternative nucleophile at the level of the acyl-enzyme. By virtue of its N-terminal sequence similarity, the 49 kDa PBP represents one of the class of monofunctional low-molecular-mass PBPs. An immunologically related protein of M(r) 52,000 is present in M. tuberculosis. The 49 kDa PBP is sensitive towards amoxycillin, imipenem, flomoxef and cefoxitin.
Project description:In water, the purified 26 000-Mr membrane-bound DD-peptidase of Streptomyces K15 hydrolyses the ester carbonyl donor Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-lactate (release of D-lactate) and the amide carbonyl donor Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (release of D-alanine) with accumulation of acyl- (Ac2-L-Lys-D-alanyl-)enzyme. Whereas hydrolysis of the ester substrate proceeds to completion, hydrolysis of the amide substrate is negligible because of the capacity of the K15 DD-peptidase for utilizing the released D-alanine in a transfer reaction (Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala + D-Ala----Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala + D-Ala) that maintains the concentration of the amide substrate at a constant level. In the presence of an amino acceptor X-NH2 (Gly-Gly or Gly-L-Ala) related to the Streptomyces peptidoglycan, both amide and ester carbonyl donors are processed without detectable accumulation of acyl-enzyme. Under proper conditions, the acceptor activity of water and, in the case of the amide substrate, the acceptor activity of the released D-alanine can be totally overcome so that the two substrates are quantitatively converted into transpeptidated product Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-NH-X (and hydrolysis is prevented). Experimental evidence suggests that the amino acceptor modifies both the binding of the carbonyl donor to the enzyme and the ensuing rate of enzyme acylation.
Project description:A partially purified preparation of an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase was obtained from Acetobacter turbidans A.T.C.C. 9325, which catalyses synthesis of 7-(d-alpha-amino-alpha-phenylacetamido)-3-cephem-3-methyl-4- carboxylic acid (cephalexin) from methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate and 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid. The enzyme preparation catalysed both cephalosprin synthesis from 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid and suitable amino acid esters (e.g. methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate, l-cysteine methyl ester, glycine ethyl ester, d-alanine methyl ester, methyl dl-alpha-aminoiso-butyrate, l-serine methyl ester, d-leucine methyl ester, l-methionine methyl ester) and the hydrolysis of such esters. The substrate specificity of the enzyme preparation for the hydrolysis closely paralleled the acyl-donor specificity for cephalosporin synthesis, even to the reaction rates. Only alpha-amino acid derivatives could act as acyl donors. The hydrogen atom on the alpha-carbon atom was not always required by acyl donors. The hydrolysis rate was markedly diminished by adding 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid to reaction mixtures, but no effect on the total reaction rate (the hydrolysis rate plus synthesis rate) was observed with various concentrations of 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid. Both the hydrolytic and the synthetic activities of the enzyme preparation were inhibited by high concentrations of some acyl donors (e.g. methyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate, ethyl d-alpha-aminophenylacetate). The enzyme preparation hydrolysed alpha-amino acid esters much more easily than alpha-amino acid derivatives with an acid-amide bond.
Project description:A strategy for rational enzyme design is reported and illustrated by the engineering of a protein catalyst for thiol-ester hydrolysis. Five mutants of human glutathione (GSH; gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly) transferase A1-1 were designed in the search for a catalyst and to provide a set of proteins from which the reaction mechanism could be elucidated. The single mutant A216H catalyzed the hydrolysis of the S-benzoyl ester of GSH under turnover conditions with a k(cat)/K(M) of 156 M(-1) x min(-1), and a catalytic proficiency of >10(7) M(-1) when compared with the first-order rate constant of the uncatalyzed reaction. The wild-type enzyme did not hydrolyze the substrate, and thus, the introduction of a single histidine residue transformed the wild-type enzyme into a turnover system for thiol-ester hydrolysis. By kinetic analysis of single, double, and triple mutants, as well as from studies of reaction products, it was established that the enzyme A216H catalyzes the hydrolysis of the thiol-ester substrate by a mechanism that includes an acyl intermediate at the side chain of Y9. Kinetic measurements and the crystal structure of the A216H GSH complex provided compelling evidence that H216 acts as a general-base catalyst. The introduction of a single His residue into human GSH transferase A1-1 created an unprecedented enzymatic function, suggesting a strategy that may be of broad applicability in the design of new enzymes. The protein catalyst has the hallmarks of a native enzyme and is expected to catalyze various hydrolytic, as well as transesterification, reactions.
Project description:Optimization by energy minimization of stable complexes occurring along the pathway of hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin and cephalosporin C by the Streptomyces albus G beta-lactamase has highlighted a proton shuttle that may explain the catalytic mechanism of the beta-lactamases of class A. Five residues, S70, S130, N132, T235 and A237, are involved in ligand binding. The gamma-OH group of T235 and, in the case of benzylpenicillin, the gamma-OH group of S130 interact with the carboxylate group, on one side of the ligand molecule. The side-chain NH2 group of N132 and the carbonyl backbone of A237 interact with the exocyclic CONH amide bond, on the other side of the ligand. The backbone NH groups of S70 and A237 polarize the carbonyl group of the scissile beta-lactam amide bond. Four residues, S70, K73, S130 and E166, and two water molecules, W1 and W2, perform hydrolysis of the bound beta-lactam compound. E166, via W1, abstracts the proton from the gamma-OH group of S70. While losing its proton, the O-gamma atom of S70 attacks the carbonyl carbon atom of the beta-lactam ring and, concomitantly, the proton is delivered back to the adjacent nitrogen atom via W2, K73 and S130, thus achieving formation of the acyl-enzyme. Subsequently, E166 abstracts a proton from W1. While losing its proton, W1 attacks the carbonyl carbon atom of the S70 ester-linked acyl-enzyme and, concomitantly, re-entry of a water molecule W'1 replacing W1 allows E166 to deliver the proton back to the same carbonyl carbon atom, thus achieving hydrolysis of the beta-lactam compound and enzyme recovery. The model well explains the differences found in the kcat. values for hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin and cephalosporin C by the Streptomyces albus G beta-lactamase. It also explains the effects caused by site-directed mutagenesis of the Bacillus cereus beta-lactamase I [Gibson, Christensen & Waley (1990) Biochem J. 272, 613-619].
Project description:I.r. difference spectra are presented for 3-(indol-3-yl)acryloyl-, cinnamoyl-, 3-(5-methylthien-2-yl)acryloyl-, dehydrocinnamoyl- and dihydrocinnamoyl-chymotrypsins at low pH, where the acyl-enzymes are catalytically inactive. At least two absorption bands are seen in each case in the ester carbonyl stretching region of the spectrum. Cinnamoyl-chymotrypsin substituted at the carbonyl carbon atom with 13C was prepared. A difference spectrum in which 13C-substituted acyl-enzyme was subtracted from [12C]acyl-enzyme shows two bands in the ester carbonyl region and thus confirms the assignment of the features to the single ester carbonyl group. The frequencies of the ester carbonyl bands are interpreted in terms of differential hydrogen-bonding. In each case a lower-frequency relatively narrow band is assigned to a productive potentially reactive binding mode in which the carbonyl oxygen atom is inserted in the oxyanion hole of the enzyme active centre. The higher-frequency band, which is broader, is assigned to a non-productive binding mode in each case, where a water molecule bridges from the carbonyl oxygen atom to His-57; this mode is equivalent to the crystallographically determined structure of 3-(indol-3-yl)acryloyl-chymotrypsin, i.e. the Henderson structure. A difference spectrum of dihydrocinnamoyl-chymotrypsin taken at higher pH shows resolution of a feature centred upon 1731 cm-1, which is assigned to a non-bonded conformer in which the carbonyl oxygen atom is not hydrogen-bonded. Perturbation of the protein spectrum in the presence of acyl groups is interpreted in terms of enhanced structural rigidity. It is reported that the ester carbonyl region of the difference spectrum of cinnamoyl-subtilisin is complicated by overlap of features that arise from protein perturbation. Measurements of carbonyl absorption frequencies in a number of solvents of the methyl esters of the acyl groups used to make acyl-enzymes have permitted determination of the apparent dielectric constants experienced by carbonyl groups in the enzyme active centre as well as a discussion of the effects of polarity. The ester carbonyl bond strengths of the various conformations were estimated by using simple harmonic oscillator theory and an empirical relation between the force constants and bond strengths. The fractional bond breaking induced by hydrogen-bonding was used to calculate rate enhancement factors by using absolute reaction rate theory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:Cyanobacteria are unicellular prokaryotic algae that perform oxygenic photosynthesis, similar to plants. The cells harbor thylakoid membranes composed of lipids related to those of chloroplasts in plants to accommodate the complexes of photosynthesis. The occurrence of storage lipids, including triacylglycerol or wax esters, which are found in plants, animals, and some bacteria, nevertheless remained unclear in cyanobacteria. We show here that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 accumulates both triacylglycerol and wax esters (fatty acid phytyl esters). Phytyl esters accumulate in higher levels under abiotic stress conditions. The analysis of an insertional mutant revealed that the acyltransferase slr2103, with sequence similarity to plant esterase/lipase/thioesterase (ELT) proteins, is essential for triacylglycerol and phytyl ester synthesis in Synechocystis The recombinant slr2103 enzyme showed acyltransferase activity with phytol and diacylglycerol, thus producing phytyl esters and triacylglycerol. Acyl-CoA thioesters were the preferred acyl donors, while acyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein), free fatty acids, or galactolipid-bound fatty acids were poor substrates. The slr2103 protein sequence is unrelated to acyltransferases from bacteria (AtfA) or plants (DGAT1, DGAT2, PDAT), and therefore establishes an independent group of bacterial acyltransferases involved in triacylglycerol and wax ester synthesis. The identification of the gene slr2103 responsible for triacylglycerol synthesis in cyanobacteria opens the possibility of using prokaryotic photosynthetic cells in biotechnological applications.
Project description:A soluble form of Streptococcus pneumoniae PBP2x, a molecular target of penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics, has been expressed and purified. IR difference spectra of PBP2x acylated with benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, cephalothin and ceftriaxone have been measured. The difference spectra show two main features. The ester carbonyl vibration of the acyl-enzyme is ascribed to a small band between 1710 and 1720 cm-1, whereas a much larger band at approx. 1640 cm-1 is ascribed to a perturbation in the structure of the enzyme, which occurs on acylation. The protein perturbation has been interpreted as occurring in beta-sheet. The acyl-enzyme formed with benzylpenicillin shows the lowest ester carbonyl vibration frequency, which is interpreted to mean that the carbonyl oxygen is the most strongly hydrogen-bonded in the oxyanion hole of the antibiotics studied. The semi-synthetic penicillin cloxacillin is apparently less well organized in the active site and shows two partially overlapping ester carbonyl bands. The penicillin acyl-enzyme has been shown to deacylate more slowly than that formed with cloxacillin. This demonstrates that the natural benzylpenicillin forms a more optimized and better-bonded acyl-enzyme and that this in turn leads to the stabilization of the acyl-enzyme required for effective action in the inhibition of PBP2x. The energetics of hydrogen bonding in the several acyl-enzymes is discussed and comparison is made with carbonyl absorption frequencies of model ethyl esters in a range of organic solvents. A comparison of hydrolytic deacylation with hydroxaminolysis for both chymotryspin and PBP2x leads to the conclusion that deacylation is uncatalysed.
Project description:I.r. spectroscopy has been applied to the study of hydrogen-bonding of the unique ester carbonyl group of acylchymotrypsins in the oxyanion hole of the enzyme. This catalytic device provides electrophilic stabilization of negative charge in the transition states and tetrahedral intermediates along the reaction pathway. The use of 13C isotope substitution of the ester carbonyl group reinforces the previous observation [White & Wharton (1990) Biochem. J. 270, 627-637] that the ester carbonyl group is significantly polarized in the ground state by hydrogen bonding in the oxyanion hole. I.r. difference spectra of [carbonyl-12C]-minus [carbonyl-13C]-cinnamoyl-chymotrypsin as well as each of these acylenzymes minus free enzyme are reported. These spectra show that the contribution of protein perturbation (i.e. spectral features that arise from the enzyme which is distorted on acylation) in [carbonyl-12C]cinnamoyl-chymotrypsin minus free enzyme spectra is significant. The contribution of the perturbation components of the spectra is pH-dependent and can represent up to 50% of the total absorbance in the spectral region from 1690 to 1740 cm-1. Use of the isotopic difference method has allowed problems associated with protein perturbation to be eliminated. Similar difference spectra are presented for dihydrocinnamoyl-chymotrypsin. In this case the effect of perturbation is very marked and leads to the cancellation of the band assigned to the non-bonded conformation of the acyl group which has previously only been observed at higher pH. The isotopic difference method again proves reliable and shows that the frequency difference previously used to calculate the ground-state electronic strain induced by the oxyanion-hole catalytic device is not affected by the perturbation, although the amplitudes of the spectral features are different. A study of the deacylation of cinnamoyl-chymotrypsin in water and deuterium oxide using both u.v. and i.r. spectroscopies has confirmed that the use of deuterium oxide as solvent has no serious effect on the deacylation behaviour of the enzyme. I.r. bands assigned to nonproductive and productive conformers decline identically during deacylation, which shows that the conformers are in dynamic exchange on the reaction time-scale.
Project description:The 26,000-Mr DD-peptidase of Streptomyces K15 binds one equivalent of thiol reagents as 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) or p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB). Derivatization of the DD-peptidase by pCMB decreases the efficacy of the initial binding of the ester carbonyl donor Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-lactate to the enzyme (K), the rate of enzyme acylation by the donor (K+2) and the rate of enzyme deacylation (k+3). However, the value of the k+2/k+3 ratio, and therefore the percentage of total enzyme which, at saturating concentrations of the donor, is present as acyl-enzyme at the steady state of the reaction, are not modified. The enzyme's binding sites for pCMB and benzylpenicillin are not mutually exclusive. But, when compared with the native enzyme, the pCMB-derivatized enzyme undergoes acylation by benzylpenicillin with a decreased second-order-rate constant (k+2/K) value and gives rise to a penicilloyl adduct of increased stability. Since the acyl-enzyme mechanism is not annihilated by pCMB derivatization, it is proposed that basically, and like all the other DD-peptidases/penicillin-binding proteins so far characterized, the Streptomyces K15 DD-peptidase is an active-site-serine enzyme.