Interleukin 10 up-regulates elastin gene expression in vivo and in vitro at the transcriptional level.
ABSTRACT: In immune cells, such as T cells and monocytes, interleukin 10 (IL-10) has regulatory functions on a number of cytokines, including IL-1, IL-2, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha expression. However, the effects of IL-10 have not previously been studied in detail in connective-tissue cells. In the present study, we show that recombinant human IL-10 at physiological concentrations has direct effects on the expression of the human elastin gene both in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic mice expressing a human elastin promoter/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene construct were injected subcutaneously with IL-10 (1-100 ng) and the site of injection was biopsied after 24 h. CAT assay revealed an increase of up to 3.5-fold in the promoter activity with 10 ng of IL-10. Transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) is known to up-regulate elastin gene expression in cultured fibroblasts. When IL-10 was added to such cultures, the effects of TGF-beta 2 on elastin mRNA levels were synergistically potentiated. These results suggest that IL-10 has an up-regulatory effect on elastin gene expression.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and STAT3 gene during the differentiation of cluster of differentiation (CD)4 T cells into T helper (Th)17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells.First, CD4 T cells were isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice. Then, stable CD4 T cells expressing STAT3 shRNA were constructed. CD4 T cells were assigned to one of the following treatments: Th17 group: antibodies against CD3 and CD28, 2.5 ng/mL transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)1, 30 ng/mL interleukin (IL)-6, and 30 ng/mL IL-23; 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) group: antibodies against CD3 and CD28, 2.5 ng/mL TGF-β1, 30 ng/mL IL-6, 30 ng/mL IL-23, and 100 nM FICZ; FICZ + STAT3 RNAi group (shSTAT3 group): antibodies against CD3 and CD28, 2.5 ng/mL TGF-β1, 30 ng/mL IL-6, 30 ng/mL IL-23, 100 nM FICZ, and STAT3 RNAi; naphthoflavone group: antibodies against CD3 and CD28, 2.5 ng/mL TGF-β1, 30 ng/mL IL-6, 30 ng/mL IL-23, and 3 μM naphthoflavone; 5) no antibodies were added in the control group. Later, the proportions of Th17 and Treg cells in each group were measured by flow cytometry; phospho-STAT3 and -STAT5 levels were measured by western blotting; and AhR, STAT3, STAT5, receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γt (RORγt), FOXP3, T-cell receptor (TCR), CD25, IL-6R, IL-10, and IL-17 mRNA levels were also measured by real-time PCR.Th17 cells showed a rise and Treg cells showed a decrease in the FICZ group, but revised in the shSTAT3 group and the naphthoflavone group. Significant differences were observed in CD25, IL-6R, IL-10, and IL-17 mRNA levels among different groups.STAT3 may cooperate with AhR to regulate the differentiation of both Th17 and Treg cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a multi-factorial biological mechanism involved in renal and hepatic fibrosis and the IL-1 beta has been assumed as a mediator of this process although data are not exhaustive. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the role of this cytokine in the EMT of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) and stellate cells (LX-2) and the protective/anti-fibrotic effect of its inhibition by Canakinumab (a specific human monoclonal antibody targeted against IL-1beta). METHODS:Both cell types were treated with IL-1 beta (10 ng/ml) for 6 and 24 h with and without Canakinumab (5 ?g/ml). As control we used TGF-beta (10 ng/ml). Expression of EMT markers (vimentin, alpha-SMA, fibronectin) were evaluated through western blotting and immunofluorescence. Genes expression for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 was measured by Real-Time PCR and enzymatic activity by zymography. Cellular motility was assessed by scratch assay. RESULTS:IL-1 beta induced a significant up-regulation of EMT markers in both cell types and increased the MMP-2 protein expression and enzymatic activity, similarly to TGF-beta. Moreover, IL-1 beta induced a higher rate of motility in HK-2. Canakinumab prevented all these modifications in both cell types. CONCLUSIONS:Our results clearly demonstrate the role of IL-1 beta in the EMT of renal/stellate cells and it underlines, for the first time, the therapeutic potential of its specific inhibition on the prevention/minimization of organ fibrosis.
Project description:Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease in which cytokines are thought to play an important role in beta-cell destruction and immune regulation. A major target of beta-cell autoimmunity in IDDM is the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). We hypothesized that cytokines in the insulitis lesion modulate the synthesis of GAD. This may, in turn, modify the rate of beta-cell destruction. Accordingly we cultured rat islets in the presence and absence of cytokines, and measured synthesis of both isoforms of GAD, GAD65 and GAD67, by [35S]methionine incorporation and immunoprecipitation with a rabbit antiserum that recognizes both GAD65 and GAD67. Incubation of islets with interleukin (IL)-1 beta (1 ng/ml, 24 h), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha; 200 units/ml, 24 h) or interferon gamma (IFN-gamma; 500 units/ml, 72 h) significantly decreased the synthesis of both GAD65 and GAD67, but reduced neither total protein synthesis nor insulin accumulation in the medium or content. Incubation of islets for 24 h in IFN-alpha (1000 units/ml), TNF-beta (50 ng/ml), IL 2 (1000 units/ml), IL-4 (100 ng/ml), IL-6 (10 ng/ml), IL-10 (20 ng/ml), IL-12 (10 ng/ml) or transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-beta 2; 5 ng/ml) did not significantly alter GAD65 or GAD67 synthesis. Inhibition of GAD65 and GAD67 protein synthesis by IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma was reversed by co-incubation with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl arginine (NMMA). Expression of both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA, measured by RNase protection assay, was also decreased by IL-1 beta and completely restored to baseline levels by NMMA. Thus the synthesis of both isoforms of islet GAD is selectively decreased in the presence of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma by a NO-mediated mechanism, probably at the level of cytokine gene transcription. As GAD autoimmunity has been previously shown to have a pathogenic role in an animal model of IDDM, its inhibition by cytokines might limit the immune response, thereby regulating the rate of beta-cell destruction in IDDM.
Project description:In osteoarthritis (OA), the subchondral bone undergoes a remodelling process involving several factors synthesized by osteoblasts. In this study, we investigated the expression, production, modulation, and role of PAR-2 in human OA subchondral bone osteoblasts.PAR-2 expression and production were determined by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. PAR-2 modulation was investigated in OA subchondral bone osteoblasts treated with IL-1 beta (100 pg/ml), TNF-alpha (5 ng/ml), TGF-beta1 (10 ng/ml), PGE(2) (500 nM), IL-6 (10 ng/ml) and IL-17 (10 ng/ml). Membranous RANKL protein was assessed by flow cytometry, and OPG, MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-13, IL-6 and intracellular signalling pathways by specific ELISAs. Bone resorptive activity was measured by using a co-culture model of human PBMC and OA subchondral bone osteoblasts.PAR-2 expression and production (p<0.05) were markedly increased when human OA subchondral bone osteoblasts were compared to normal. On OA osteoblasts, PAR-2 production was significantly increased by IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and PGE(2). Activation of PAR-2 with a specific agonist, SLIGKV-NH(2), induced a significant up-regulation of MMP-1, MMP-9, IL-6, and membranous RANKL, but had no effect on MMP-13 or OPG production. Interestingly, bone resorptive activity was also significantly enhanced following PAR-2 activation. The PAR-2 effect was mediated by activation of the MAP kinases Erk1/2 and JNK.This study is the first to demonstrate that PAR-2 activation plays a role in OA subchondral bone resorption via an up-regulation of major bone remodelling factors. These results shed new light on the potential of PAR-2 as a therapeutic target in OA.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) help control the development and maintenance of protective immunity and can lead to aberrant immune responses to some pathogens. Several lines of evidence suggest that T(regs) are induced by exposure to superantigens (SAgs) in vitro or in vivo. In this study, bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were exposed in vitro to a relatively low dose (5 ng/ml) of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 (SEC1) for up to 10 days. Upon stimulation, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells initially proliferated at similar rates. Subsequently, from days 6 through 10, most CD4+ and CD8+ T cells proliferated regardless of Vbeta specificity, but the proliferation of CD8+ T cells occurred more vigorously. The transcription of CD25 and CD152 genes increased, whereas that of interleukin-2 (IL-2) decreased. gammadelta T cells appeared to be unresponsive. An increase in the transcription of IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) genes in SEC1-stimulated cultures was attributed to the CD4+ CD25+ T-cell subpopulation. The expression of Foxp3 mRNA also increased and was accompanied by the upregulation of CD152 and the downregulation of IL-2 transcription, suggesting that cells in this subpopulation are T(regs). Functionally, SEC1-stimulated CD4+ T cells suppressed the proliferation of naive PBMC in response to heat-killed-fixed Staphylococcus aureus. The suppression was partially mediated by IL-10 and TGF-beta, another characteristic of certain types of T(regs.) The CD8+ T-cell population also suppressed naive PBMC through another mechanism not mediated by IL-10 or TGF-beta. These results provide further insight into the potential mechanisms by which SAgs could contribute to evasion of the immune response, affecting the outcome of infection or colonization.
Project description:Recombinant human interleukin-1 (IL-1) alpha and beta were found to activate a latent cytosolic form of the transcription factor NF kappa B in rat C6 glioma. IL-1 beta was 10 times more potent than IL-1 alpha for this activity and both were inhibited by the IL-1 receptor antagonist. The activation was detectable from 20 min and remained sustained for up to 24 h. The electrophoretic mobility of the activated complex was shown to be different from that of the corresponding complexes in another IL-1-responsive cell line, the murine thymoma line EL4.NOB-1. C6 cells, when transiently transfected with five NF kappa B consensus sequence repeats linked to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), demonstrated increased CAT activity in response to IL-1 beta treatment. The activation of NF kappa B in glial cells may thus represent an early step in IL-1 signalling in brain and is likely to have consequences for IL-1-induced gene expression in these cells.
Project description:Immune factors influencing progression to active tuberculosis (TB) remain poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and receptors by using lung bronchoalveolar lavage cells obtained from patients with pulmonary TB, patients with other lung diseases (OLD patients), and healthy volunteers (VOL) by using reverse transcriptase PCR, a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) bioactivity assay, and an enzyme immunoassay. TB patients were significantly more likely than OLD patients to coexpress TGF-beta receptor I (RI) and RII mRNA, as well as interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA (thereby indicating the state of active gene transcription in the alveolar cells at harvest). In contrast, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and IL-2 mRNA was seen in both TB and OLD patients. Likewise, significantly elevated pulmonary steady-state protein levels of IL-10, IFN-gamma, and bioactive TGF-beta were found in TB patients versus those in OLD patients and VOL. These data suggest that the combined production of the immunosuppressants IL-10 and TGF-beta, as well as coexpression of TGF-beta RI and RII (required for cellular response to TGF-beta), may act to down-modulate host anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunity and thereby allow uncontrolled bacterial replication and overt disease. Delineating the underlying mechanisms of M. tuberculosis-triggered expression of these immune elements may provide a molecular-level understanding of TB immunopathogenesis.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone marrow (hBM-MSCs) are utilized in tendon tissue-engineering protocols while extra-embryonic cord-derived, including from Wharton's Jelly (hWJ-MSCs), are emerging as useful alternatives. To explore the tenogenic responsiveness of hBM-MSCs and hWJ-MSCs to human Growth Differentiation Factor 5 (hGDF-5) we supplemented each at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL of hGDF-5 and determined proliferation, morphology and time-dependent expression of tenogenic markers. We evaluated the expression of collagen types 1 (COL1A1) and 3 (COL3A1), Decorin (DCN), Scleraxis-A (SCX-A), Tenascin-C (TNC) and Tenomodulin (TNMD) noting the earliest and largest increase with 100 ng/mL. With 100 ng/mL, hBM-MSCs showed up-regulation of SCX-A (1.7-fold) at Day 1, TNC (1.3-fold) and TNMD (12-fold) at Day 8. hWJ-MSCs, at the same dose, showed up-regulation of COL1A1 (3-fold), DCN (2.7-fold), SCX-A (3.8-fold) and TNC (2.3-fold) after three days of culture. hWJ-MSCs also showed larger proliferation rate and marked aggregation into a tubular-shaped system at Day 7 (with 100 ng/mL of hGDF-5). Simultaneous to this, we explored the expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, TNF, IL-12A, IL-1?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TGF-?1) cytokines across for both cell types. hBM-MSCs exhibited a better balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines up-regulating IL-1? (11-fold) and IL-10 (10-fold) at Day 8; hWJ-MSCs, had a slight expression of IL-12A (1.5-fold), but a greater up-regulation of IL-10 (2.5-fold). Type 1 collagen and tenomodulin proteins, detected by immunofluorescence, confirming the greater protein expression when 100 ng/mL were supplemented. In the same conditions, both cell types showed specific alignment and shape modification with a length/width ratio increase, suggesting their response in activating tenogenic commitment events, and they both potential use in 3D in vitro tissue-engineering protocols.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that CD4CD25Foxp3Treg cells suppress NKG2D expression on NK cells via a cell contact-dependent mechanism and increased TGF-β and IL-10 production in some cancer models. We herein aimed to explore whether CD4CD25Foxp3Tregs suppress NKG2D-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity in peripheral blood and elucidate the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon. METHODS:To explore the function of NKG2D, NK cell cultures were treated with an NKG2D-blocking antibody to block these receptors. Additionally, TGF-β- and IL-10-blocking antibodies were added to NK and CD4CD25Foxp3Treg cell cocultures to evaluate whether the latter cells suppress NKG2D expression of NK cells via increasing the production of TGF-β and IL-10. The expression of NKG2D on NK cells was detected by 3-color flow cytometry, and NK cell activity was assessed by 3 assays: a nonradioactive cytotoxicity assay, an ELISA measuring IFN-γ production and a flow cytometry assay to evaluate CD107a expression. RESULTS:Blocking NKG2D decreased NK cell cytotoxicity, IFN-γ production and CD107a expression. Moreover, blocking TGF-β and IL-10 substantially increased the NKG2D expression in NK and CD4CD25Foxp3Treg cell cocultures. Similarly, blocking TGF-β and IL-10 enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity, IFN-γ production and CD107a expression; Transwell insert assays also revealed increased IFN-γ production and CD107a and NKG2D expression. CONCLUSION:CD4CD25Foxp3Tregs suppress NKG2D-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity in peripheral blood via a cell contact-dependent mechanism and increased TGF-β and IL-10 production.
Project description:Dysregulated CD4(+) T cell responses and alterations in T regulatory cells (T(reg) cells) play a critical role in autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The current study demonstrates that removal of Bcl11b at the double-positive stage of T cell development or only in T(reg) cells causes IBD because of proinflammatory cytokine-producing CD4(+) T cells infiltrating the colon. Provision of WT T(reg) cells prevented IBD, demonstrating that alterations in T(reg) cells are responsible for the disease. Furthermore, Bcl11b-deficient T(reg) cells had reduced suppressor activity with altered gene expression profiles, including reduced expression of the genes encoding Foxp3 and IL-10, and up-regulation of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, the absence of Bcl11b altered the induction of Foxp3 expression and reduced the generation of induced T(reg) cells (iT(reg) cells) after Tgf-β treatment of conventional CD4(+) T cells. Bcl11b bound to Foxp3 and IL-10 promoters, as well as to critical conserved noncoding sequences within the Foxp3 and IL-10 loci, and mutating the Bcl11b binding site in the Foxp3 promoter reduced expression of a luciferase reporter gene. These experiments demonstrate that Bcl11b is indispensable for T(reg) suppressor function and for maintenance of optimal Foxp3 and IL-10 gene expression, as well as for the induction of Foxp3 expression in conventional CD4(+) T cells in response to Tgf-β and generation of iT(reg) cells.