Photoaffinity labelling of the active site of the rat glutathione transferases 3-3 and 1-1 and human glutathione transferase A1-1.
ABSTRACT: The glutathione transferases (GSTs) form a group of enzymes responsible for a wide range of molecular detoxications. The photoaffinity label S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione was used to study the hydrophobic region of the active site of the rat liver GST 1-1 and 2-2 isoenzymes (class Alpha) as well as the rat class-Mu GST 3-3. Photoaffinity labelling was carried out using a version of S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione tritiated in the arylazido ring. The labelling occurred with higher levels of radioisotope incorporation for the Mu than the Alpha families. Taking rat GST 3-3, 1.18 (+/- 0.05) mol of radiolabel from S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione was incorporated per mol of dimeric enzyme, which could be blocked by the presence of the strong competitive inhibitor, S-tritylglutathione (Ki = 1.4 x 10(-7) M). Radiolabelling of the protein paralleled the loss of enzyme activity. Photoaffinity labelling by tritiated S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione on a preparative scale (in the presence and absence of S-tritylglutathione) followed by tryptic digestion and purification of the labelled peptides indicated that GST 3-3 was specifically photolabelled; the labelled peptides were sequenced. Similarly, preparative photoaffinity labelling by S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione of the rat liver 1-1 isoenzyme, the human GST A1-1 and the human-rat chimaeric GST, H1R1/1, was carried out with subsequent sequencing of radiolabelled h.p.l.c.-purified tryptic peptides. The results were interpreted by means of molecular-graphics analysis to locate photoaffinity-labelled peptides using the X-ray-crystallographic co-ordinates of rat GST 3-3 and human GST A1-1. The molecular-graphical analysis indicated that the labelled peptides are located within the immediate vicinity of the region occupied by S-substituted glutathione derivatives bound in the active-site cavity of the GSTs investigated.
Project description:The identification and characterization of steroid-hormone-binding glutathione S-transferases (GST) were undertaken using photoaffinity-labelling techniques. Irradiation of mouse liver cytosol, in the presence of 50 nM-[3H]methyltrienolone, resulted in the specific affinity labelling of five proteins. One of these proteins, designated MBP27, had an approximate molecular mass of 27 kDa under denaturing conditions and was induced by treatment of mice with either 2(3)-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) or phenobarbital (PB). An additional affinity-labelled protein, MBP25, which was not detected in untreated mouse cytosol, was induced in the liver cytosols from BHA- and PB-treated mice. The molecular masses of these proteins and their induction by BHA and PB suggested that they may be steroid-hormone-binding GST subunits. Irradiation of mouse liver cytosol in the presence of [3H]methyltrienolone, followed by immunoprecipitation using GST-specific antibodies established that both GST mu and GST alpha bind [3H]methyltrienolone and both contribute to the affinity-labelled protein designated MBP27. GST Ya1 Ya1, an alpha class GST that is not expressed in untreated mouse liver but is induced by BHA and PB, was also found to bind [3H]methyltrienolone and is identical with the affinity-labelled protein designated MBP25. Experiments were undertaken next to assess the effects of the anticarcinogenic plant compound indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on GST-mediated steroid hormone-binding using the photoaffinity labelling techniques. Treatment of mice with I3C resulted in the induction of immunoreactive GST mu and GST Ya1 Ya1. However, the steroid-binding activity of these proteins in vitro was severely inhibited by the acid-condensation products of I3C that are generated in the stomach after ingestion. These results suggest that I3C may inhibit GST-mediated steroid-binding activity which could contribute to the anticarcinogenic activity of this compound.
Project description:A tritiated photoaffinity labelling analogue of tamoxifen, [(2-azido-4-benzyl)-phenoxy]-N-ethylmorpholine (azido-MBPE), was used to identify the anti-oestrogen-binding site (AEBS) in rat liver tissue [Poirot, Chailleux, Fargin, Bayard and Faye (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 17039-17043]. UV irradiation of rat liver microsomal proteins incubated with tritiated azido-MBPE led to the characterization of two photolabelled proteins of molecular masses 40 and 50 kDa. The amino acid sequences of proteolytic products from the 50 kDa protein were identical with those from rat microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). Treatment of hepatocytes with anti-sense mRNA directed against mEH abolished AEBS in these cells. In addition we found that tamoxifen and N-morpholino-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy]ethanamine, a selective ligand of AEBS, were potent inhibitors of the catalytic hydration of styrene oxide by mEH. However, functional overexpression of the human mEH did not significantly modify the binding capacity of [3H]tamoxifen. Taken together, these results suggest that the 50 kDa protein, mEH, is necessary but not sufficient to reconstitute AEBS.
Project description:The glucose-6-phosphatase system catalyses the terminal step of hepatic glucose production from both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and is thus a key regulatory factor of blood glucose homoeostasis. To identify the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, we have performed photoaffinity labelling of human and rat liver microsomes by using the specific photoreactive glucose-6-phosphate translocase inhibitors S 0957 and S 1743. Membrane proteins of molecular mass 70, 55, 33 and 31 kDa were labelled in human microsomes by [3H]S 0957, whereas in rat liver microsomes bands at 95, 70, 57, 54, 50, 41, 33 and 31 kDa were detectable. The photoprobe [3H]S 1743 led to the predominant labelling of a 57 kDa and a 50 kDa protein in the rat. Stripping of microsomes with 0.3% CHAPS retains the specific binding of T1 inhibitors; photoaffinity labelling of such CHAPS-treated microsomes resulted in the labelling of membrane proteins of molecular mass 55, 33 and 31 kDa in human liver and 50, 33 and 31 kDa in rat liver. Photoaffinity labelling of human liver tissue samples from a healthy individual and from liver samples of patients with a diagnosed glycogen-storage disease type 1b (GSD type 1b; von Gierke's disease) revealed the absence of the 55 kDa protein from one of the patients with GSD type 1. These findings support the identity of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, with endoplasmic reticulum protein of molecular mass 50 kDa in rat liver and 55 kDa in human liver.
Project description:We isolated membrane vesicles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles and identified in these vesicles a 58 kDa (pm58) and a 60 kDa (pm60) protein by photoaffinity labelling with 5-azido-[7-3H]indole-3-acetic acid ([3H]N3IAA). Photoaffinity labelling was effectively competed for by auxins as well as by flavonoids. The labelled proteins were solubilized by Triton X-114 from the vesicles and partially purified. Microsequence analysis revealed that pm60 is a beta-glucosidase. This was confirmed by biochemical and immunological analysis. We show that pm60 has a beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolase (EC 18.104.22.168) activity. It uses p-nitro-phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as a substrate, with a pH optimum of 5.0. The Km for PNPG is 0.652 mM and the Vmax. 6.24 mumol.min-1.mg-1. The beta-glucosidase activity of pm60 was competitively inhibited by IAA and 1-naphthylacetic acid as well as by gluconolactam and glucose. N-terminal amino-acid-sequence analysis of pm58 revealed similarity to pm60, suggesting that both proteins are encoded by different members of a gene family.
Project description:Photoaffinity labelling of rat adrenal mitochondrial preparations with [3H]PK 14105 resulted in a single 3H-labelled band on SDS/PAGE gels with an apparent-molecular-mass peak of 18 kDa. This represents a polypeptide associated with the peripheral-type benzodiazepine-binding site. Solubilization of photoaffinity-labelled membranes with 6 M-guanidine hydrochloride, followed by gel filtration and reversed-phase h.p.l.c. of the solubilized material, resulted in the purification to homogeneity of the [3H]PK 14105-labelled polypeptide. This purified polypeptide was used to raise a rabbit polyclonal antiserum which recognized the immunogen in pure form and exclusively recognized it in a crude preparation of rat adrenal mitochondria as judged by immunoblotting. By the same analysis the antiserum identified the corresponding polypeptide from rat kidney and salivary gland, demonstrating its cross-reactivity. Subsequent immunocytochemical studies localized the polypeptide to the cortex of the adrenal gland, the distal tubules of kidney, the interstitial cells of testis, the biliary epithelium of liver and the choroid plexus and ependyma cells within the brain. This selective localization within organs may provide an insight into the physiological role of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine acceptor.
Project description:Glucose transport into rat brown adipocytes has been shown to be stimulated directly by the sympathetic neurotransmitter, noradrenaline, without a significant increase in the protein content of either GLUT1 or GLUT4 glucose transporter in the plasma membrane [Shimizu, Kielar, Minokoshi and Shimazu (1996) Biochem. J. 314, 485-490]. In the present study, we labelled the exofacial glucose-binding sites of GLUT1 and GLUT4 with a membrane-impermeant photoaffinity reagent, 2-N-[4-(1-azitrifluoroethyl)benzoyl]-[2-3H]1,3-bis- (D-mannos-4-yloxy)-2-propylamine (ATB-[3H]BMPA), to determine which isoform is responsible for the noradrenaline-induced increase in glucose transport into intact brown adipocytes in culture. Insulin stimulated the rate of hexose transport by increasing ATB-[3H]BMPA-labelled cell-surface GLUT4. In contrast, the noradrenaline-induced increase in glucose transport was not accompanied by an increased ATB-[3H]BMPA labelling of GLUT4, nor with an increased amount of GLUT4 in the plasma membrane fraction as assessed by Western blotting, indicating that noradrenaline does not promote the translocation of GLUT4. However, noradrenaline induced an increase in photoaffinity labelling of cell-surface GLUT1 without an apparent increase in the immunoreactive GLUT1 protein in the plasma membrane. This is suggestive of an increased affinity of GLUT1 for the ligand. In fact, the Ki value of non-radioactive ATB-BMPA for 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake was significantly decreased after treatment of the cells with noradrenaline. The increased photoaffinity labelling of GLUT1 and increased glucose transport caused by noradrenaline were inhibited by a cAMP antagonist, cAMP-S Rp-isomer. These results demonstrate that noradrenaline stimulates glucose transport in brown adipocytes by enhancing the functional activity of GLUT1 through a cAMP-dependent mechanism.
Project description:Pharmacological studies have suggested that the somatostatin (SS) receptor is heterogeneous and exhibits SS-14-and SS-28-selective subtypes. Whether such subtypes arise from molecular heterogeneity of the receptor protein has not been definitively established. Previous reports characterizing the molecular properties of the SS receptor by the cross-linking approach have yielded divergent size estimates ranging from 27 kDa to 200 kDa. In order to resolve this discrepancy, as well as to determine whether SS-14 and SS-28 interact with specific receptor proteins, we have cross-linked radioiodinated derivatives of [125I-Tyr11]SS-14 (T*-SS-14) and [Leu8,D-Trp22,125I-Tyr25]SS-28 (LTT*-SS-28) to membrane SS receptors in rat brain, pituitary, exocrine pancreas and adrenal cortex using a number of chemical and photoaffinity cross-linking agents. The labelled cross-linked receptor proteins were analysed by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions followed by autoradiography. Our findings indicate that the pattern of specifically labelled cross-linked SS receptor proteins is sensitive to the concentration of chemical cross-linking agents such as disuccinimidyl suberate and dithiobis-(succinimidyl propionate). Labelled high-molecular-mass complexes of cross-linked receptor-ligand proteins were observed only when high concentrations of these cross-linkers were employed. Using optimized low concentrations of cross-linkers, however, two major labelled bands of 58 +/- 3 kDa and 27 +/- 2 kDa were detected. These two bands were identified as specifically labelled SS receptor proteins subsequent to cross-linking with a number of photoaffinity cross-linking agents as well. We demonstrate here that the 58 kDa protein is the major SS receptor protein in the rat pituitary, adrenal and exocrine pancreas, whereas the 27 kDa moiety represents the principal form in the brain. Additionally, the presence of a minor specifically labelled band of 32 kDa was detected uniquely in the brain, and a minor labelled protein of 42 kDa was observed in the pancreas. The labelling pattern obtained with LTT*-SS-28 was identical to that observed with T*-SS-14. Labelling of the 27 kDa band by either ligand was inhibited by SS-14 and SS-28 in a dose-dependent manner. Densitometric quantification showed that SS-14 exhibited greater than 2-fold greater potency than SS-28 for inhibiting the labelling of the 27 kDa species. These findings emphasize the need for careful interpretation of cross-linking data obtained for SS receptors, and provide evidence for molecular heterogeneity and for a tissue-specific distribution of the two principal SS receptor proteins.
Project description:Comparison of Hirosaki hairless rat (HHR) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat liver glutathione transferase (GST) subunits by HPLC revealed differences in subunit 3; a new peak was detected in HHR GSTs and this was tentatively named X. By chromatofocusing, the HHR GST form composed of peak X and SD rat GST 3-3 were eluted at pH 8.8 and 9.1 respectively. The former was more sensitive to the SH reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) than the latter. GSSG treatment of peak X resulted in a shift of retention time (peak Y) by HPLC analysis. However, such conversion was not observed for the SD rat GST 3-3 following GSSG or dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment. Peak Y exhibited m/z values of 26091.9 and 26125.4 by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, higher than those of peak X by 304-307, equivalent to the molecular-mass value of GSH. On treatment with DTT, peak Y was converted into peak X, with release of a substance with HPLC-characteristics of GSH. This substance was confirmed to be GSH by liquid chromatography/MS. These results thus indicated peak Y to be a glutathionylated form of peak X. Quantification revealed the release of 4 nmol of GSH from 0.12 mg of the peak Y protein, corresponding to 4.8 nmol (M(r) 25000). The nucleotide sequence of HHR GST subunit 3 cDNA proved identical to that reported for pGTA/C44, possessing asparagine and cysteine as the 198th and 199th amino acid residues, respectively, corresponding to lysine and serine in subunit 3 of the SD rat. Thus peak X appeared to be the product of HHR GST subunit 3 cDNA. Treatment with N-(4-dimethylamino-3,5-dinitrophenyl)maleimide, a coloured analogue of NEM, followed by trypsin-treatment and sequencing of labelled peptides, identified the reactive cysteine residue of HHR GST subunit 3 to be located at position 199. Unlike SD rat GST 3-3, HHR GST 3-3 was not activated by treatment with xanthine and xanthine oxidase. These results suggest polymorphism of the rat GST subunit 3 gene with individual gene product variation in sensitivity to oxidative stress.
Project description:In this study, we clarify the structural aspects of the oligosaccharides associated with the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor in two muscle cell lines. Photoaffinity labelling of intact BC3H1 or DDT1 muscle cells with 2-[4-(4-azido-3-[125I]iodobenzoyl)piperazin-1-yl]-4-amino-6, 7-dimethoxyquinazoline ([125I]azidoprazosin) followed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and autoradiography revealed specifically labelled proteins of molecular mass = 87,000 and 81,000, respectively. Treatment of photoaffinity-labelled receptors in DDT1 cells with 33 u. of endoglycosidase F/ml for 24 h resulted in the loss of the 81 kDa receptor and the appearance of a 52.5 kDa protein. When lower concentrations of glycosidase or shorter incubation times were used, the 81 kDa receptor was converted to a 66 kDa protein. Treatment of the photoaffinity-labelled BC3H1 receptor with endoglycosidase F resulted in the appearance of a 50.5 kDa protein. Neither alpha-mannosidase nor endoglycosidase H had an effect on the photoaffinity labelling patterns of the receptor from the two cell types. alpha 1-Adrenergic receptors, solubilized from membranes prepared from BC3H1 and DDT1 cells, bound to wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose and were displaced by N-acetylglucosamine. Taken together, these results indicate that alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in BC3H1 and DDT1 cells contain complex, but not high, mannose oligosaccharide chains; differences in the composition or number of chains partially accounts for the different molecular mass of the receptor in the two cell lines. The results further indicate that the oligosaccharide chains contribute substantially to the apparent molecular mass of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, as detected by SDS/PAGE, and that the protein backbone of these receptors is likely to be approximately 50 kDa.
Project description:Much of the enzymic machinery required for the assembly of cell surface carbohydrates is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells. Structural information on these proteins is limited and the identity of the active polypeptide(s) is generally unknown. This paper describes the synthesis and characteristics of a photoaffinity reagent that can be used to identify and analyse members of the ER glycan assembly apparatus, specifically those glycosyltransferases, nucleotide phosphatases and nucleotide-sugar transporters that recognize uridine nucleotides or UDP-sugars. The photoaffinity reagent, P3-(4-azidoanilido)uridine 5'-triphosphate (AAUTP), was synthesized easily from commercially available precursors. AAUTP inhibited the activity of ER glycosyltransferases that utilize UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-Glc, indicating that it is recognized by UDP-sugar-binding proteins. In preliminary tests AAUTP[alpha-32P] labelled bovine milk galactosyltransferase, a model UDP-sugar-utilizing enzyme, in a UV-light-dependent, competitive and saturable manner. When incubated with rat liver ER vesicles, AAUTP[alpha-32P] labelled a discrete subset of ER proteins; labelling was light-dependent and metal ion-specific. Photolabelling of intact ER vesicles with AAUTP[alpha-32P] caused selective incorporation of radioactivity into proteins with cytoplasmically disposed binding sites; UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, a lumenal protein, was labelled only when the vesicle membrane was disrupted. These data indicate that AAUTP is a membrane topological probe of catalytic sites in target proteins. Strategies for using AAUTP to identify and study novel ER proteins involved in glycan assembly are discussed.